Constitutional Court of Ukraine

The Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Конституційний Суд України) is the sole body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. The Constitutional Court of Ukraine interprets the Constitution of Ukraine in terms of laws and other legal acts.

The Court initiated its activity on October 18, 1996. The first Court ruling was made on May 13, 1997.

On urgent matters the Constitutional Court rules within weeks, but on matters deemed less urgent it can take months.[3]

Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Конституційний Суд України)
Emblem of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine
Established1992; acts since 1996
Country Ukraine
Location14, Zhylianska st, Kiev [1]
Composition methodPresidential, Parliamentary and Congress of Judges nomination
Authorized byUkrainian Constitution
Judge term length9; prohibited if aged 65
No. of positions18 (assigned by President, Parliament, Congress of Judges; 6 each)
WebsiteOfficial website
Chairman of the Constitutional Court
CurrentlyStanislav Shevchuk[2]
Since21 February 2018[2]

Mission and authority

In 2016 access to the Constitutional Court was significantly broadened.[4] Since then all individuals and companies where there are grounds to claim that a final court judgment contradicts the Constitution can file a complaint at the court.[4] (Prior only the President and a member of parliament had the right to appeal to the Constitutional Court.[5]) A complaint may only be filed after all other remedies have been exhausted in the regular Ukrainian courts.[4]

The amended Constitution of Ukraine now provides for access to the Constitutional Court of Ukraine to all individuals and companies where there are grounds to claim that a final court judgment contradicts the Constitution. A complaint may only be filed after all other remedies have been exhausted in the regular Ukrainian courts.

The authority of the Constitutional Court is derived from Ukraine's Constitution - Chapter XII

The Court:

  • on the appeal of the President, no less than 45 members of the parliament, the Supreme Court of Ukraine, the Ombudsman, or the Crimean parliament, assesses the constitutionality of:
  • officially interprets the Constitution and laws of Ukraine
  • on the appeal of the President or the Cabinet, provides opinions on the conformity with the Constitution of international treaties
  • on the appeal of the parliament, provides an opinion on the observance of the procedure of impeachment of the President
  • provides an opinion on the compliance of a bill on introducing amendments to the Constitution with the restrictions imposed by the Constitution.

The Court's rulings are mandatory for execution in Ukraine, are final and cannot be appealed. Laws and other legal acts, or their separate provisions, that are deemed unconstitutional, lose legal force.

Structure

The Court is composed of 18 judges, appointed in equal shares by the President, the parliament, and the Congress of Judges.

A judge must be a citizen of Ukraine and must have:

  • attained the age of forty;
  • a higher legal education and professional experience of no less than 10 years;
  • resided in Ukraine for the last twenty years;
  • command of the state language

Judges are appointed for 9 years without the right of reappointment; moreover each judge is obligated to retire at the age of 65 if this age comes before the end of the 9-year period. The President and parliament are required to fill a vacant position within one month and the Congress of judges has three months to do so. But the appointment comes into effect only after oath of the new judge in the parliament; therefore sometimes it is a problem to become a judge of the Constitutional Court if many members of parliament do not want this (for example, they can physically disturb to hold a meeting of the parliament, that is usual in Ukraine).

The Chairman of the Court is elected by secret ballot for a single three-year term from and by the members of the Court. The current Chairman, Anatoliy Holovin.

List of judges

Ústavní soud Ukrajiny
Constitutional Court in Kiev
  • President's quota:
    • Volodymyr Kampo (Володимир Михайлович Кампо) since August 4, 2006
    • Dmytro Lylak (Дмитро Дмитрович Лилак) since August 4, 2006
    • Viktor Shyshkin (Віктор Іванович Шишкін) since August 4, 2006
    • Yurij Baulin (Юрій Васильович Баулін) since June 3, 2007
    • Sergij Vdovichenko (Вдовіченко Сергій Леонідович) since June 3, 2007
    • Yurij Nikitin (Юрій Іванович Нікітін) since June 3, 2007
  • Parliament's quota:

Dismissed in 2014[6]

  • Congress of judges' quota:
    • Vasyl Bryntsev (Василь Дмитрович Бринцев) since August 4, 2006
    • Vyacheslav Dzhun' (В’ячеслав Васильович Джунь) since August 4, 2006
    • Anatoliy Didkivskyy (Анатолій Олександрович Дідківський) since August 4, 2006
    • Ivan Dombrovskyy (Іван Петрович Домбровський) since August 4, 2006;
    • Yaroslava Machuzhak (Ярослава Василівна Мачужак) since August 4, 2006
    • Andriy Stryzhak (Андрій Андрійович Стрижак) since August 4, 2006 (appointed to the court in 2004, but not sworn in until 2006[7])

Chairpersons

Europe Council Parliamentary Assembly

Ukrainian Parliamentary Election, 2007

On April 19 the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe passed a resolution in consideration of a report titled Functioning of democratic institutions in Ukraine. (Items 13 and 14) [10] stated:

The Assembly deplores the fact that the judicial system of Ukraine has been systematically misused by other branches of power and that top officials do not execute the courts’ decisions, which is a sign of erosion of this crucial democratic institution. An independent and impartial judiciary is a precondition for the existence of a democratic society governed by the rule of law. Hence the urgent necessity to carry out comprehensive judicial reform, including through amendments to the constitution.

The Assembly reiterates that the authority of the sole body responsible for constitutional justice – the Constitutional Court of Ukraine – should be guaranteed and respected. Any form of pressure on the judges is intolerable and should be investigated and criminally prosecuted. On the other hand, it is regrettable that in the eight months of its new full composition, the Constitutional Court has failed to produce judgments, thus failing to fulfil its constitutional role and to contribute to resolving the crisis in its earlier stages, which undermines the credibility of the court. There is an urgent need for all pending judgments, and in particular the judgment concerning the constitutionality of the Presidential Decree of 2 April 2007, to be delivered. If delivered, the latter should be accepted as binding by all sides.

The associated explanatory report under the sub-heading of Pressure on the courts expressed concern that

"Several local courts have made decisions to suspend the Presidential Decree only to then withdraw them, allegedly under pressure from the presidential secretariat." (item 67)

In emphasis the report (item 68) stated

This is a worrying tendency of legal nihilism that should not be tolerated. It is as clear as day that in a state governed by the rule of law judicial mistakes should be corrected through appeal procedures and not through threats or disciplinary sanctions

On April 30, on the eve of the Constitutional Court's ruling on the legality of the president's decree dismissing Ukraine's parliament, President Yushchenko, in defiance of the PACE resolution of April 19 intervened in the operation of Ukraine's Constitutional Court by summarily dismissing two Constitutional Court Judges, Syuzanna Stanik and Valeriy Pshenychnyy, for allegations of "oath treason."[11] His move was later overturned by the Constitutional Court and the judges were returned by a temporary restraining order issued by the court.[12]

On May 16,Viktor Yushchenko, for a second time, issued another decree dismissing the two Constitutional Court Judges Syuzanna Stanik and Valeriy Pshenychnyy.[13]

On May 17, the Constitutional Court Chairman Ivan Dombrovskyy resigns and is replaced by Valeriy Pshenychnyy.

On May 23, The Constitutional Court of Ukraine acted to prevent the president's undue influence on the court system.[14] The court's ruling was made after Viktor Yushchenko unduly sought to influence the court by illegally firing two Constitutional Court judges Valeriy Pshenychnyy and Syuzanna Stanik for allegations of "oath treason.".[11]

On July 20 Susanna Stanik won an appeal against the President in the Shevchenko district court of Kiev. The Court ruled the President's actions illegal and reinstated Ms Stanik's entitlement as a member of Ukraine's Constitutional Court. According to the ruling, the President is obliged to cancel his decree on discharge of Mrs. Stanik.."[15] The other two judges who were also illegally dismissed had previously tendered their resignations and as such were not subject to the courts order.

Following the president's intervention the Constitutional Court still has not ruled on the question of legality of the president's actions.

Stepan Havrsh, the President's appointee to the Constitutional Court, in prejudgment of the courts decision and without authorization from the Court itself, commented in an interview published on July 24 {{Cquote|I cannot imagine myself as the Constitutional Court in condition in which three political leaders signed a political/legal agreement on holding early elections, which also stipulates the constitutional basis for holding the elections... How the court can agree to consider such a petition under such conditions.

Olexander Lavrynovych, Ukrainian Minister for Justice, in an interview published on August 3 is quoted as saying

According to the standards of the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine, these elections should have been recognized invalid already today. But we understand that we speak about the State and about what will happen further in this country. As we've understood, political agreements substitute for the law, ... The situation has been led to the limit, where there are no possibilities to follow all legal norms.[16]
  • On March 25, 2008 Ukraine's Supreme Administrative Court ruled the President's dismissal of Suzanna Stanik as a Constitutional Court judge illegal. Ms Stanik's position has been reinstated. The decision is final and not subject to further appeal [17]
  • On April 3, 2008 Stanik was dismissed from the Court by the order of the President.[18]
  • On April 28, 2010 President Viktor Yanukovych reinstated Stanik as Constitutional Court judge.[19] She resigned the next day.[20]

Famous and notorious rulings

  • December 29, 1999: The Court interpreted the Constitution as unconditionally ruling out capital punishment; this is the date when Ukraine de jure abolished capital punishment after a long period of a de facto moratorium.[21]
  • November 14, 2001: The Court outlawed the institution of propiska.[22]
  • December 25, 2003: The Court allowed Leonid Kuchma to run for presidency for the third time; Kuchma chose not to run for re-election.[23]
  • October 1, 2010: The Court determined the 2004 amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine unconstitutional, repealing them.[24] On February 21, 2014 parliament passed a law that reinstated these December 2004 amendments (of the constitution).[25]

Attempts to bribe and blackmail Constitutional Court judges in order to get a favourable ruling were reported.[26][27][28][29]

Court Contacts

Citizens of Ukraine, noncitizens, people without citizenship and legal entities can only ask the Court for interpretation of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine. A written request can be submitted in person or by mail. Court's address is 01033, Ukraine, Kiev, Zhylyanska st, 14. Contact phone is (+380-44)238-1317.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Official website of the authority". 2017.
  2. ^ a b (Головою Конституційного Суду України обрано Станіслава Шевчука), Constitutional Court of Ukraine (21 February 2018)
  3. ^ Yanukovych to call vote if coalition ruled illegal, Kyiv Post (March 1, 2010)
  4. ^ a b c Amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine passed: Ukraine takes a major step towards a European System of Justice, Lexology (9 June, 2016)
  5. ^ Ukraine launches new Supreme Court to deepen judicial reform, Xinhuanet (15 December 2017)
  6. ^ http://www.kyivpost.com/article/content/ukraine/rada-dismisses-constitutional-court-judges-appointed-from-its-quota-337523.html
  7. ^ Fate of nation in hands of Constitutional Court, Kyiv Post (August 17, 2006)
  8. ^ Passed away Pavlo Borysovych Yevhrafov (ушел из жизни Павел Борисович Евграфов). Simferopol City College of Attorneys. 9 November 2015
  9. ^ [https://www.unian.ua/society/12861-obovyazki-golovi-ks-zamist-ivaschenka-vikonue-dombrovskiy.html
  10. ^ PACE (2007-04-19). "Functioning of democratic institutions in Ukraine". PACE. Archived from the original on 2007-11-16.
  11. ^ a b "Yushchenko dismissed CCU judges". for-ua. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-17.
  12. ^ "Stanik and Pshenychnyy returned to CC". Korrespondent. 2007-05-17.
  13. ^ "Stanik and Pshenychnyy again became ex-judges of Constitutional Court". Korrespondent. May 16, 2007. Retrieved 2006-05-17.
  14. ^ "Constitutional Court of Ukraine restricts president's influence on courts". Ukrainian National Radio. 2007-05-23. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28.
  15. ^ "Stanik Back Into the CC". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2006-07-20.
  16. ^ "Lavrynovych: Early elections should have been already recognized invalid today". Inter-Media, ForUm. 2007-08-03. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.
  17. ^ "Supreme Court Restores Stanik As Constitutional Court Judge". Ukrainian News agency. 2008-03-27. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09.
  18. ^ Order of the President of Ukraine № 297/2008 Archived 2008-04-06 at the Wayback Machine. (in Ukrainian)
  19. ^ Yanukovych reinstates Stanik as Constitutional Court judge, Kyiv Post (April 28, 2010)
  20. ^ Yanukovych dismisses Stanik as Constitutional Court judge, Kyiv Post (April 29, 2010)
  21. ^ "Рішення Конституційного Суду України у справі за конституційним поданням 51 народного депутата України щодо відповідності Конституції України (конституційнос) положень статей 24, 58, 59, 60, 93, 190-1 Кримінального кодексу України в частині, що передбачає смертну кару як вид покарання (справа про смертну кару)". zakon.rada.gov.ua. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  22. ^ "Рішення Конституційного Суду України у справі за конституційним поданням 48 народних депутатів України щодо відповідності Конституції України (конституційності) положення підпункту 1 пункту 4 Положення про паспортну службу органів внутрішніх справ, затвердженого постановою Кабінету Міністрів України (справа щодо прописки)". zakon.rada.gov.ua. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  23. ^ "Рішення Конституційного Суду України у справі за конституційними поданнями 53 і 47 народних депутатів України про офіційне тлумачення положення частини треть..." zakon.rada.gov.ua. Retrieved 2018-12-25.
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2014-03-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ Ukrainian parliament reinstates 2004 Constitution, Interfax-Ukraine (21 February 2014)
  26. ^ Tymoshenko: Yanukovych entourage aims at recognizing legitimacy of coalition before president's trip to U.S., Kyiv Post (March 29, 2010)
  27. ^ How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy by Anders Åslund, Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2009, ISBN 978-0-88132-427-3 (page 219)
  28. ^ Yanukovych allies: Tymoshenko trying to pressure court, Kyiv Post (March 30, 2010)
  29. ^ Yulia Tymoshenko: pressure from the authorities won’t force me to change my position Archived 2012-09-15 at Archive.today, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko (April 7, 2010)

External links

Coordinates: 50°26′03″N 30°30′51″E / 50.43417°N 30.51417°E

2000 Ukrainian constitutional referendum

A four-part referendum was held in Ukraine on 16 April 2000. The referendum was called by President Leonid Kuchma, and asked voters whether they approved of four amendments to the constitution that would increase the powers of the President and introduce an upper chamber.Although all four were approved by wide margins, the changes were never implemented by the Verkhovna Rada on the basis that the referendum was unconstitutional, as it had not passed the proposals before they went to a referendum. The Venice Commission that reviewed the case confirmed the questionable nature of the referendum that should be reviewed by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine.

2007 Ukrainian political crisis

The political crisis in Ukraine lasted from April to June 2007 was part of political stand off between coalition and opposition factions of Verkhovna Rada that led to the unscheduled Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2007. It started on 2 April 2007 as a culmination of long lasting crisis and degradation of the parliamentary coalition when the President of Ukraine (Viktor Yushchenko) attempted to dissolve the parliament. The following day, in light of impending political unrest, the United Nations Resident Coordinator, Francis Martin O'Donnell following an earlier call to deepen democracy and liberalize the economy, exceptionally issued an advisory statement of principles on behalf of the Country Team (followed by a visit by former Estonian President Arnold Rüütel on 23 April).The president signed a presidential decree based on several articles of the Constitution of Ukraine ordering early parliamentary elections in Ukraine to be held on 27 May 2007, though they were later postponed to 24 June 2007. He also ordered the government of Ukraine to finance the appointed elections. The Parliament and the government of Yanukovych called this decree unconstitutional and prevented fund allocation for elections. An appeal against the President's decree was lodged in Ukraine's Constitutional Court, which was considering the appeal. The Constitutional Court was expected to conclude its public hearing on Wednesday, 25 April 2007, following the presentation of the Government and Parliament's submission. The Court would then retire to consider their ruling.Viktor Yushchenko suspended the decree and postponed date of the election in order to have approved legislation on elections, the opposition, and the operation of Parliament.

Andriy Stryzhak

Andriy Stryzhak (Ukrainian: Андрій Андрійович Стрижак) is a Ukrainian lawyer, judge, investigator and former chairman of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine.

Stryzhak is from Zakarpattia Oblast. His working career he started at the Uzhhorod Autotransportation Company as a technician. After his obligatory military service, Stryzhak enrolled to the Kharkiv Law Institute. He graduated Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University (Kharkiv Law Institute) in 1971 and after half a year working as an investigator of the Ivanivka Raion persecution office (Odessa Oblast) until 1974 Stryzhak worked in the Uzhhorod city persecutor office. In 1974 to 1978 Stryzhak worked in the Zakarpattia Oblast persecutor office.In 1978-1988 and 1996-2006 he was a judge of the Zakarpattia Oblast court, heading the court in 1996-2006. In 1988 to 1996 Stryzhak was a judge of the Supreme Court of Ukraine, heading judicial college on criminal matters. In 2006-2010 he was a judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, chairing it since 2007. In 2010 at the presidential inauguration Stryzhak was administering an oath from the President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych. In 2010 he was relieved of his duties by reaching the age of retirement.During his term as a judge of the Constitutional Court, Stryzhak's son Andriy (junior) was a deputy at the Zakarpattia Oblast regional council. Andriy (junior) was also involved in a car crash in Uzhhorod when he destroyed the Kakha Kaladze's Lamborghini in 2009.

Constitution of Ukraine

The Constitution of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Конституція України) is the nation's fundamental law. The constitution was adopted and ratified at the 5th session of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine on 28 June 1996. The constitution was passed with 315 ayes out of 450 votes possible (300 ayes minimum).Other laws and other normative legal acts of Ukraine must conform to the constitution. The right to amend the constitution through a special legislative procedure is vested exclusively with the parliament. The only body that may interpret the constitution and determine whether legislation conforms to it is the Constitutional Court of Ukraine.

Since 1996 the public holiday Constitution Day is celebrated 28 June.In 2004 there were adopted amendments that significantly changed political system. Erroneously those changes are referred sometimes as the 2004 Constitution. In 2010 Viktor Yanukovych who served as President of Ukraine revert those changes relying on decision of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. Following the Euromaidan events, the 2004 amendments were reinstated.

Flag of the President of Ukraine

The Flag (Standard) of the President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Прапор (штандарт) Президента України) is the official flag of the President of Ukraine.

Government of Ukraine

The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Кабінет Міністрів України, Kabinet ministriv Ukrayiny; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Уряд України, Uryad Ukrayiny), is the highest body of state executive power in Ukraine. As Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR, it was formed on 18 April 1991 by the Law of Ukrainian SSR No.980-XII. Vitold Fokin was approved the first Prime Minister of Ukraine.

The Cabinet is a collegiate body consisting of the Cabinet's presidium composed of five individual and several ministries that are represented by their respective minister. Some ministries may be headed by members of the Cabinet presidium (Vice Prime Ministers). The presidium of Cabinet is composed of the Prime Minister of Ukraine presiding over the Cabinet and assisted by his First Vice Prime and other Vice Prime ministers. The Secretariat of Cabinet of Ministers ensures the operations of the cabinet.

The current Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is since 14 April 2016 the Groysman government.

Ivan Dombrovskyy

Ivan Petrovich Dombrovskyy (Ukrainian: Іван Петрович Домбровський; born March 7, 1947 in Tsekhanivka, Odessa Oblast) is Ukrainian jurist, notary, electro-welder, and a judge of Constitutional Court of Ukraine and Supreme Court of Ukraine.

He was a judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine since August 4, 2006 and its chairman since September 19, 2006. He was elected under the Congress of Judges' quota and is the oldest among the current judges of Constitutional Court. He resigned from the position of chairman of the Constitutional Court on May 17, 2007, and was replaced by Valeriy Pshenychnyy.After Pshenychnyy was dismissed along with his deputy chairman Stanik, Dombrovskyy seems to have become acting chairman and the oldest judge in the court. He has presided on a few sessions prior to July 10, 2007 when the new chairman was elected.

Judiciary of Ukraine

The judicial system of Ukraine is outlined in the 1996 Constitution of Ukraine. Before this there was no notion of judicial review nor any Supreme Court since 1991's Ukrainian independence. when it started being slowly restructured.Although judicial independence exist in principle, in practice there is little separation of juridical and political powers. Judges are subjected to pressure by political and business interests. Ukraine's court system is widely regarded as corrupt.Although there are still problems with the performance of the system, it is considered to have been much improved since the last judicial reform introduced in 2016. The Supreme Court is regarded as being an independent and impartial body, and has on several occasions ruled against the Ukrainian government.

Language policy in Ukraine

Language policy in Ukraine is based on its Constitution, international obligations, and from 2012 until February 2018 on the law "On the principles of the state language policy" (before 2012, the 1989 law "On the languages in the Ukrainian SSR" was in force).

The Ukrainian language is the state language of Ukraine. According to the article 10 of the Constitution of Ukraine, the State has to ensure the comprehensive development and functioning of the Ukrainian language in all spheres of social life throughout the entire territory of Ukraine.

Other languages spoken in Ukraine are guaranteed constitutional protection. Russian is recognized as the language of a national minority.A 2012 law, called the law "On the principles of the state language policy" gave the status of regional language to Russian and other minority languages. It allowed the use of minority languages in courts, schools and other government institutions in areas of Ukraine where the national minorities exceed 10% of the population. The law was used mostly in Ukraine's southern and eastern regions, where predominant or significant parts of the population speak Russian as their first language. Three minor settlements did the same for Hungarian, Moldovan and Romanian. Ukrainian remained the only official country-wide language. Introduction of the law was supported by the governing Party of regions and opposed by the opposition parties. According to its opponents the law undermined and supplanted the role of the Ukrainian language, and violated Article 10 of the Ukrainian Constitution.The bill was adopted amid fistfights in the Ukrainian Parliament building on 3 July 2012, and the opposition said that the procedure of adopting the law was not respected. The law came into force on 10 August 2012. Since then various cities and regions of Ukraine declared Russian a regional language in their jurisdictions. Other cities and regions declared their opposition to this law. Immediately after the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, on 23 February 2014, the Ukrainian Parliament voted to repeal the law. This decision was vetoed by the acting President Oleksandr Turchynov, who instead ordered drafting of a new law to "accommodate the interests of both eastern and western Ukraine and of all ethnic groups and minorities." However, in October 2014 the Constitutional Court of Ukraine started reviewing the constitutionality of the law, and on 28 February 2018 it ruled the law unconstitutional.

List of Presidents of Ukraine

The modern Ukrainian presidency was formed when the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic passed a law on 5 July 1991 establishing the office of the "President of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic." Upon the proclamation of Ukrainian independence from the Soviet Union on 24 August 1991, the title was changed to the "President of Ukraine." The first election of the President of Ukraine was contested on 1 December 1991, which was won by Leonid Kravchuk.

All five presidents have been people's deputies of the Verkhovna Rada prior to their election. Kravchuk was the first president to have resigned from the office, following a power struggle between him and Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma. After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, Viktor Yanukovych abandoned his office and fled the country. He was subsequently impeached, and replaced with Oleksandr Turchynov as the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, who takes on as acting president when the office is vacant. Early presidential elections were contested on 25 May 2014, which were won by Petro Poroshenko; Poroshenko was inaugurated as the fifth president on 7 June 2014. On 18 June 2015 Yanukovych was officially deprived of the title of President of Ukraine.

Mykola Selivon

Mykola Selivon (Ukrainian: Микола Федосович Селівон) is a Ukrainian jurist, judge, diplomat and former chairman of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine.

Selivon is from Chernihiv Oblast. His working career he started as a techinicain at a military unit stationed in Chernihiv. During that time he also served his obligatory military duty. In 1968 Selivon enrolled at the Kiev University. In 1973 he graduated the Kiev University Law Faculty and after a brief internship-like training at the NANU Institute of State and Law, until 1979 worked as a junior researcher at the institute.

In 1979-1996 Selivan worked at the legal department of the Office of Minister of the Council of Ministers.

In 1996-2005 he was a judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. In 2005 at the presidential inauguration Selivon was administering an oath from the President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko.

In 2005-2006 as a professor he was lecturing at the National Academy for Public Administration. In 2006-2010 he served as the ambassador of Ukraine to Kazakhstan.

President of Ukraine

The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the Ukrainian head of state. The president represents the nation in international relations, administers the foreign political activity of the state, conducts negotiations and concludes international treaties. The president is directly elected by the citizens of Ukraine for a five-year term of office (whether the presidential election is early or scheduled), limited to two terms consecutively.The president's official residence is the Mariyinsky Palace, located in the Pechersk district of the capital Kiev. Other official residences include the House with Chimaeras and the House of the Weeping Widow, which are used for official visits by foreign representatives. The Presidential Administration of Ukraine, unofficially known as "Bankova" in reference to the street it is located on, serves as the presidential administration, advising the president in the domestic, foreign and legal matters.

Since the office's establishment on 5 July 1991, there have been five presidents of Ukraine. Leonid Kravchuk was the inaugural president, serving three years from 1991 until his resignation in 1994. Leonid Kuchma was the only president to have served two consecutive terms in office. Both Viktor Yushchenko and Viktor Yanukovych served one term, with the latter being replaced by acting president Oleksandr Turchynov, who then also served as Chairman of the Ukrainian Parliament, on 21 February 2014. Oleksandr Turchynov was the only acting president in Ukraine's modern history. Unlike in the US, where the vice president immediately receives all powers of the presidency upon assumption of the presidential office, in Ukraine the powers of an acting president are severely limited. On 18 June 2015, Yanukovych was officially deprived of the title of president of Ukraine. The current president is Petro Poroshenko who took the oath of office on 7 June 2014. The Government of Ukraine utilizes a Semi-presidential system in which the roles of the head of state and head of government are separate, thus the president of Ukraine is not the nation's head of government. The prime minister serves as the head of government, a role currently filled by Volodymyr Groysman who was appointed to the position in April 2016.

Presidential Administration of Ukraine

The Presidential Administration (Ukrainian: Адміністрація Президента) or unofficially Bankova (Ukrainian: Банкова, literally "Bank Street", Bankova means "Bank" as adjective) is an administrative body set up to assist the President of Ukraine. The main purpose of the Administration is to provide administrative, advisory, analytical, and legal assistance to the President. The Administration arranges communication and official statements between the President and Ukrainian parliament, the Verkhovna Rada, the Cabinet of Ministers, the Constitutional Court, local government bodies, and other institutions.

Representatives of the President of Ukraine

Representatives of the President of Ukraine in Ukraine are five chief offices that are directed by a presidential representative. Given that the President of Ukraine is head of state, the President faces the need to represent his/her interests in different political and judicial bodies of power in the country.

Sevastopol City Council

The Sevastopol City Council (Russian: Севастопольский городской совет, Ukrainian: Севастопольська міська рада, Crimean Tatar: Aqyar şeer şurası) was the unicameral legislature of Sevastopol. The Council was composed by 76 members. Following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea the City council was dissolved and replaced by Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol.

Ukrainian presidential inauguration

The inauguration of the president of Ukraine is a ceremony that takes place to mark the start of a new term for a newly elected president of Ukraine.

Valeriy Pshenychnyy

Valeriy Hryhorovych Pshenychnyy (Ukrainian: Валерій Григорович Пшеничний; born 1951 in Tavriiske, Dnipropetrovsk Oblast) is a Ukrainian jurist and former judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. During the 2006–2007 political crises he and Syuzanna Stanik were one of key people which were involved in the crisis.After graduating the Kharkiv Law Institute in 1976, he was elected a people judge at the Pecherskyi District in Kiev. In 1981-1982 Pshenychnyi was an instructor of the Pecherskyi District Committee of the Communist Party. In 1982-1990 he worked in the Division of affairs of the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1993-1997 he was placed in charge of the department of law enforcement agencies within the Secretariat of the Cabinet of Ukraine. In 1997-2003 Pshenychnyi worked in the Secretariat of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine.

He was a President's quota-appointed judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine from February 4, 2003 to May 16, 2007, and its chairman since May 17, 2007. He was first appointed by the then President Leonid Kuchma, and named acting chairman after Ivan Dombrovskyy resigned on May 17, 2007.Pshenychnyy was fired on April 30, 2007 by the current President Viktor Yushchenko after allegations of oath treason. Pshenychnyy was yet again fired by President Yushchenko on May 16, 2007.

Viktor Skomorokha

Viktor Skomorokha (Ukrainian: Віктор Єгорович Скомороха) is a Ukrainian lawyer and former chairman of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. He better became known for chairing the Constitutional Court when it lifted a ban of the Communist Party of Ukraine.Skomorokha is from Dnipropetrovsk Oblast. His working career he started at the Zhovtneva Revolyutsiya (October Revolution) kolkhoz in village of Promin. After his obligatory military service Skomorokha enrolled to the Kharkiv Law Institute. He graduated Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University (Kharkiv Law Institute) in 1967 and after a brief internship-like training, until 1969 Skomorokha was a people's judge at the Krasnyi Luch city court.

In 1969 to 1976 Skomorokha worked as a judge at the Luhansk Oblast court. In 1976-1996 he was a judge of the Supreme Court of Ukraine (judicial college on criminal matters). In 1996-2005 he was a judge of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. In 1999 at the presidential inauguration Skomorokha was administering an oath from the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma.

Vladyslav Nosov

Vladyslav Vasylyovych Nosov (Ukrainian: Владислав Васильович Носов, born 19 April 1946, Sovetskaya Gavan, Primorsky Krai, Russian SFSR, USSR) is a Ukrainian politician, lawyer, civil servant and the co-author of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine, Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, Regulations of Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and Constitution of Ukraine. He was a Permanent Representative of the President of Ukraine to the Constitutional Court of Ukraine from May 25, 1998 to January 22, 2005.

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