Constitution of Russia

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Russian: Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii; pronounced [kənsʲtʲɪˈtutsɨjə rɐˈsʲijskəj fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨɪ]) was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. Russia's constitution came into force on December 25, 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government. The current Constitution is the second most long-lived in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution of 1936.

Constitition of Russia (m book) 1
In miniature book version.

The 1993 Constitutional Conference was attended by over 800 participants. Sergei Alexeyev, Sergey Shakhray, and sometimes Anatoly Sobchak are considered as co-authors of the constitution. The text of the constitution was inspired by Mikhail Speransky's constitutional project and current French constitution.[1]

US Agency for International Development, also known as USAID (banned in Russia since 2012) drafted main concepts of the Constitution. Misleading wordings of certain sentences introduced concepts that very few countries have, including priority of international laws over domestic laws (15.4), right of overseas ownership of natural resources (9.2), ban for the government to be guided by a national ideology (13.2) and other concepts that hurt national sovereignty.

A constitutional referendum was held in Russia on 12 December 1993. Of all registered voters, 58,187,755 people (or 54.8%) participated in the referendum. Of those, 32,937,630 (54.5%) voted for adoption of the Constitution.[2] It replaced the previous Soviet-era Constitution of April 12, 1978 of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (which had already been amended in April 1992 to reflect the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the sovereignty of the Russian Federation), following the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis.

Constitution of the
Russian Federation
Red copy of the Russian constitution
Presidential copy of the Constitution
Original titleКонституция
Российской Федерации
JurisdictionRussian Federation
RatifiedDecember 12, 1993
Date effectiveDecember 25, 1993
SystemFederal semi-presidential
constitutional republic
BranchesThree
Head of statePresident
ChambersBicameral
(Federal Assembly: Federation Council, State Duma)
ExecutivePrime Minister led Government
JudiciaryJudiciary (Constitutional Court, Supreme Court)
FederalismFederation
Electoral collegeNo
Entrenchments9
First legislatureDecember 12, 1993
First executiveAugust 9, 1996
Amendments4 (plus 11 alternations on Federal subjects)
Last amendedJuly 22, 2014
LocationKremlin, Moscow
Commissioned byConstitutional Assembly
SignatoriesConstitutional referendum by the citizens of Russia
SupersedesConstitution of the RSFSR

History

Constitution of Russia after USSR

Structure

The constitution is divided into two sections.

Section One

  1. Fundamentals of the Constitutional System
  2. Rights and Liberties of Man and Citizen
  3. Federative system
  4. President of the Russian Federation
  5. Federal Assembly
  6. Government of the Russian Federation
  7. Judiciary
  8. Local Self-Government
  9. Constitutional Amendments and Revisions

Section Two

  1. Concluding and Transitional Provisions

Provisions

Especially on human rights and fundamental freedoms, the Constitution provides for human rights and freedom of citizen according to the universally recognised principles and norm of international law as well as the Constitution[3] and affirms that the listing in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of the fundamental rights and freedom shall not be interpreted as a rejection and derogation of other universally recognised human rights and freedom.[4]

Presidency

Inauguration of Dmitry Medvedev, 7 May 2008-15
Dmitry Medvedev takes the presidential oath with his hand resting on the Constitution, May 7, 2008.

The Constitution of the Russian Federation specifies that the President is the Russian head of state, setting domestic and foreign policy and representing Russian both within the country and internationally [Article 80][5]. While the original constitution stipulated a four-year term and a maximum of two terms in succession, the current constitution decrees a six-year term. The four-year term was in effect while Vladimir Putin served his first and second terms; with the two-term limit he was barred from the presidency in 2008. Instead, he served as Prime Minister while Dmitry Medvedev served as president for four years. Putin was re-elected to his third term in 2012; with the six-year term, he was elected to his fourth term in 2018. Article 81 specifies the method of election, including a secret ballot; Articles 82 - 93 detail powers, responsibilities, and limitations of the presidency. The constitution provides for a 'strong presidency'; not only is the president the "Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation"[6], the president also has the power to dissolve the State Duma.[7]

Legislative branch

The legislature is represented by the Federal Assembly of Russia, which consists of two chambers: the State Duma – the lower house, and the Federation Council – the upper house. The two chambers possess different powers and responsibilities, while the State Duma is of more significance, as the State Duma carries the main responsibility for passing federal laws. Although bills may originate in either legislative chamber (or submitted by the President, the government, local legislatures, the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, or the High Arbitration Court), they must be first considered by the State Duma and be adopted by a majority vote before it could be turned over to the Federation Council, which has 14 days to take a vote on it. If rejected, the bill will be returned to the State Duma, which then can only pass it with a two-thirds vote again in the same form. If a bill is adopted by the Federation Council, it must be signed by the President to become law. The President has a final veto, but the State Duma and Federation Council also have the overriding power by passing a two-thirds vote.

Judiciary

While the Russian Federation Constitution enumerates a strong and independent judicial branch, the reality is a question of debate. The constitution provides for judicial immunity, lifetime appointments/"irremovable" justices, and the supremacy of the courts to administer justice, and affirms that judges need only submit to the constitution and the federal law[8]. Additionally, Article 123 provides for open and fair trials, as well as equal application of the law[9]. Three courts are delineated: Constitution Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the Higher Arbitration Court, each "Appointed by the Council of the Federation upon the proposals by the President"[8]. The Constitution requires 19 judges for the Constitution Court[8], but does not specify the number of justices for the other courts. As of 2002, the Supreme Court has 115 members[10]; due to expansion of duties in 2014 the number of seats was increased to 170[11]. In September of 2014, the Institute of Modern Russia reported that the Russian Federation's Supreme Arbitration Court had been dissolved, and judicial matters previously under its authority had been transferred to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court[11].

Local government

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sergey Shakhray - The Voice of Russia on YouTube
  2. ^ Constitution of Russia: nature, evolution, modernity 1.4.2 National character. (in Russian)
  3. ^ Article 17
  4. ^ Article 55. 1
  5. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.
  6. ^ "THE CONSTITUTION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION". www.mid.ru.
  7. ^ "Chapter 4. The President of the Russian Federation - The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru.
  8. ^ a b c "Chapter 7. Judicial Power - The Constitution of the Russian Federation". www.constitution.ru.
  9. ^ "Russian Constitution SECTION ONE Chapter 7". www.departments.bucknell.edu.
  10. ^ Judiciary_of_Russia#Supreme_Court
  11. ^ a b Mishina, Ekaterina (September 30, 2014). "Who Shall Judge?".

References

External links

2008 amendments to the Constitution of Russia

The amendments of 2008, which were proposed in November 2008 and came into force on 31 December 2008, are the first substantial amendments to the Constitution of Russia of 1993 and extended the terms of the President of Russia and the State Duma from four to six and five years, respectively. Earlier only minor adjustments concerning the naming of the federal subjects or their merging were made, which require a much simpler procedure.

Acting President of Russia

The Acting President of the Russian Federation (Russian: Исполняющий обязанности Президента Российской Федерации) is a temporary post provided by the Constitution of Russia. The Acting President is a person who fulfills the duties of President of the Russian Federation when cases of incapacity and vacancy occur. This post is held by the Prime Minister of Russia.

Administrative divisions of Moscow Oblast

This is a list of the administrative and municipal divisions of Moscow Oblast, a federal subject of Russia.

Moscow Oblast is located in the Central Federal District of Russia, and completely surrounds Moscow, the capital of Russia. While Moscow hosts the majority of the government bodies of the oblast, it does not officially serve as the oblast's administrative center and is not otherwise associated with the oblast either administratively or municipally.

The oblast is, as are other Russian federal subjects, subdivided for the purposes of the state administration and for the purposes of the local self-government, the rights to which are guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. While the administrative and municipal divisions are not required by law to be identical, the system of municipal divisions in Moscow Oblast, having been created on the basis of existing administrative divisions, has only minor differences from the system of administrative divisions.

Constitutional Court of Russia

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia. Its objective is only to protect the Constitution (in Russian constitutional law this function is known as "constitutional control" or "constitutional supervision") and deal with a few kinds of disputes where it has original jurisdiction, whereas the highest court of appeal is the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.

Decree of the President of Russia

A Decree of the President of the Russian Federation (Russian: Указ Президента Российской Федерации; Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or Executive Order (Decree) of the President of Russia is a legal act (ukase) with the status of a by-law made by the Russian president.

As normative legal acts, such ukazes have the status of by-laws in the hierarchy of legal acts (along with Decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation and instructions and directions of other officials). Presidential decrees may not alter existing laws of higher precedence - Russia's international agreements, the Constitution of Russia, Federal Constitutional Laws, Federal Laws and laws of Russian regions - and may be superseded by any of these laws. For example, because of Article 15 of the Constitution of Russia, the European Convention on Human Rights, as an international document, has higher status than any Russian law or presidential executive order.

Federal districts of Russia

The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not provisioned by the Constitution of Russia and are not the constituent units of the country, but exist purely for the convenience of governing and operation by federal government agencies. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy titled a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District.

The federal districts and positions of Plenipotentiary Representatives were originally created in 2000 by Presidential Decree "to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers". Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.

Federal subjects of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.

Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and didn't change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992 during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor), establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR. The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on December 25, 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice it was never allowed), which conflicts with country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and didn't grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policy of Vladimir Putin and of the United Russia party (dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

There are several groupings of Russian regions:

Federal subjects should not be confused with the eight federal districts which are not subdivisions of Russia — the federal districts are much larger and each encompasses many federal subjects. Federal districts were created by Executive Order of the President of Russia especially for presidential envoys.

Time zones are defined by the Order of the federal government.

The composition of judicial districts is defined by the federal law "On arbitration courts".

Economic regions are administered by the Ministry of Economic Development.

The Ministry of Defense uses the terminology of Military districts.

Freedom of assembly

Freedom of peaceful assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas. The right to freedom of association is recognized as a human right, a political right and a civil liberty.

The terms freedom of assembly and freedom of association may be used to distinguish between the freedom to assemble in public places and the freedom to join an association. Freedom of assembly is often used in the context of the right to protest, while freedom of association is used in the context of labor rights and in the Constitution of the United States is interpreted to mean both the freedom to assemble and the freedom to join an association.The United States Constitution explicitly provides for 'the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances' in the First Amendment.

Government of Russia

The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government the Russian Federation".According to the 1991 amendment to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was the head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. But, the President does appoint the Prime Minister. The Chapter 6 of the Constitution of Russia says, that "The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Prime Minister), Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministries".

Governor (Russia)

The highest official of the subject of the Russian Federation or the holder of the highest office of subject of the Russian Federation (Russian: высшее должностное лицо субъекта Российской Федерации) or the head of the highest executive body of state power of the subject of the Russian Federation (Russian: руководитель высшего исполнительного органа государственной власти субъекта Российской Федерации), colloquially and collectively referred to as the title governor (Russian: губернатор - gubernator) or head of region (Russian: глава региона - glava regiona), is the head and the chief executive of each the federal subjects of Russia, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the federal subject, all of which are equal constituent entities of Russia.

The office is defined by the Constitution of Russia and Chapters 1, 3 and 4 of Russia's Federal Law No. 184-FZ "On the General Principles of the Organization Of the Legislative (Representative) and Executive Organs Of State Power of the Subjects of the Russian Federation" which came into force in 1999. According to the current revision of the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of 85 federal subjects therefore there are 85 offices of head of region in Russia (see List of current heads of federal subjects of Russia).

The certain title of office is defined by the federal subject's Constitution or Charter. The names include: governor, president (Russian: президент - president), head of administration (Russian: глава администрации - glava administratsii), head of republic (Russian: глава республики - glava respubliki), mayor (Russian: мэр - mer), non-officially and collectively referred to as governors for short. The official title governor is most used in Russia and traditionally it is used in Oblasts of Russia. Presidents of Russia's republics, mayor of Moscow and mayor of St. Petersburg are also governors in this sense.

A head of the subject in Russia is said to serve a administration or executive office, colloquially referred to as gubernatorial administration.

Lists of rural localities in Russia

This page contains lists of rural localities in Russia, organized by federal subject. The federal subjects of Russia are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Under the classification system for inhabited locations in Russia, a rural locality is one of a number of types of rural settlements, including villages, selos, stanitsas, slobodas, khutors, pochinoks, and other local variations.

Moscow metropolitan area

Moscow metropolitan area (Russian: Московская агломерация) or Moscow capital region (Russian: Московский столичный регион) is the largest metropolitan area in Russia and Europe, with population of about 20 million. It consists of the city of Moscow and parts of the surrounding Moscow Oblast.

The related terms Moscow region (Russian: Московский регион - Moskovsky region) or Moscow and the Oblast (Russian: Москва и область) describe of the combined territories of the city of Moscow and the whole of Moscow Oblast. These are used in meteorology, geography, aviation, transport, broadcasting, telecommunications, business, etc. In politics, government, organizations and small business, according to the Constitution of Russia, there are two separated federal subjects of Russia with their governments, parliaments and own law. De jure there is no united Moscow region.

President of Russia

The President of Russia, officially the President of the Russian Federation (Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation.

The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. In May 2012, Vladimir Putin became the fourth president; he was re-elected in March 2018 and inaugurated in May to a six-year term.

Russian Constitution of 1906

The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament. It was enacted on 6 May [O.S. 23 April] 1906, on the eve of the opening of the first State Duma. This first-ever Russian Constitution was a revision of the earlier Fundamental Laws, which had been published as the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire (Russian: Свод законов Российской империи, pre-1917 Russian orthography: Сводъ законовъ Россійской имперіи) in 1832. It was granted during the Russian Revolution of 1905, in a last-ditch effort by the imperial government to preserve its own existence and keep the nation from sliding into all-out anarchy.

The new constitution provided for a bicameral Russian parliament, without whose approval no laws were to be enacted in Russia. This legislature was composed of an upper house, known as the State Council, and a lower house, known as the State Duma. Half of the members of the upper house were appointed by the Tsar, while the other half were elected by various governmental, clerical and commercial interests. Members of the lower house were to be chosen by different classes of the Russian people, through a complex scheme of indirect elections—with the system being weighted to ensure the ultimate preponderance of the propertied classes. While the Duma held the power of legislation and the right to question the Tsar's ministers, it did not have control over their appointment or dismissal, which was reserved to the monarch alone. Nor could it alter the constitution, save upon the emperor's initiative. The Tsar retained an absolute veto over legislation, as well as the right to dismiss the Duma at any time, for any reason he found suitable. The emperor also had the right to issue decrees during the Duma's absence—though these lost their validity if not approved by the new parliament within two months.

This charter had been granted under duress, and Nicholas abhorred its restrictions upon his power, which he had sworn at his coronation to pass on to his son. He dismissed the First and Second Dumas when they proved "unsatisfactory" to him, and unilaterally altered the election statutes (in violation of the constitution) to ensure that more landed persons would be elected to future Dumas. Although the resulting Third and Fourth Dumas proved more lasting, they still quarreled with the Tsar and his government over the general direction of state policy, and over the fundamental nature of the Russian state. Ultimately, with the outbreak of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Duma took a leading role in bringing about the Tsar's abdication, which led in turn to the abolition of the monarchy and the ascent to power of the Russian Provisional Government under Kerensky.

Russian Constitution of 1918

The constituion of Russia of 1918, also called the Basic Law (Основной закон, Osnovnoy zakon) which governed the Russian Soviet Republic, described the regime that assumed power in the October Revolution of 1917. This constitution, which was ratified soon after the Declaration Of Rights Of The Working And Exploited People, formally recognized the working class as the ruling class of Russia according to the principle of the dictatorship of the proletariat, therein making the Russian SFSR the world's first constitutionally socialist state.

The ultimate aims of the state were outlined as: "the abolition of the exploitation of men by men, the entire abolition of the division of the people into classes, the suppression of exploiters, [and] the establishment of a socialist society." The constitution stated that an historical alliance had been formed between the workers and peasants, who together would govern the state through the soviets. The constitution explicitly denied political power to higher classes of Russian society or to those who supported the White armies in the Civil War (1918–21). To prevent the higher classes from re-claiming state power, the first article called for all workers and peasants to be armed and organized into a Red Army while the higher classes be fully disarmed.

Supreme power rested with the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, made up of deputies from local soviets across Russia. The steering committee of the Congress of Soviets—known as the Central Executive Committee—acted as the "supreme organ of power" between sessions of the congress and as the collective presidency of the state.

The congress elected the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom, Sovet narodnykh kommissarov) as the administrative arm of the young government and defined its responsibilities as "general administration of the affairs of the state". (The Sovnarkom had exercised governmental authority from November 1917 until the adoption of the 1918 constitution July 10 by the Congress of Soviets.)

One of the first Soviet iterations of a perennial biblical phrase appeared in Article 18, which declares labour to be the duty of all citizens of the Republic, and sloganeers: 'He who does not work, neither shall he eat!'

Importantly, the 1918 Russian Constitution's main principles served as a precursor to the ensuing constitutions of both united and autonomous Soviet republics. They were recognized as fundamental to the 1924 Soviet Constitution, which was the formative document of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Russian constitution

Russian constitution and Constitution of the RSFSR may refer to:

Russian Constitution of 1906

1918 RSFSR Constitution

1925 RSFSR Constitution adopted because of the 1924 Soviet Constitution

1937 RSFSR Constitution adopted because of the 1936 Soviet Constitution

1978 RSFSR Constitution adopted because of the 1977 Soviet Constitution

Constitution of Russia, the current constitution of Russia, enacted in 1993

State Duma

The State Duma (Russian: Госуда́рственная ду́ма, tr. Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma (Russian: Госду́ма), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.

Ukase

A ukase, or ukaz (; Russian: указ [ʊˈkas], formally "imposition"), in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader (patriarch) that had the force of law. "Edict" and "decree" are adequate translations using the terminology and concepts of Roman law.

From the Russian term, the word ukase has entered the English language with the meaning of "any proclamation or decree; an order or regulation of a final or arbitrary nature".

Viktor Chernomyrdin's First Cabinet

Viktor Chernomyrdin's First Cabinet acted under President of Russia Boris Yeltsin from 14 December 1992 to August 9, 1996. Until December 25, 1993 the official name was Council of Ministers, and since that date, with the coming into law of the Constitution of Russia under the term "Government".

During the formation of the cabinet, a number of Gaidar loyalists resigned from their posts.

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