Constitutio Antoniniana

The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin for: "Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edict issued in 212,[1] by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.

Before 212, for the most part only inhabitants of Italy held full Roman citizenship. Colonies of Romans established in other provinces, Romans (or their descendants) living in provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire, and small numbers of local nobles (such as kings of client countries) held full citizenship also. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some held the Latin Right.


The Digest of Roman jurist Ulpian (c. 170 – 223) states, "All persons throughout the Roman world were made Roman citizens by an edict of the Emperor Antoninus Caracas," (D. 1.5.17).

The context of the decree is still subject to discussion. According to historian and politician Cassius Dio (c. 155 AD – c. 235 AD), the main reason Caracalla passed the law was to increase the number of people available to tax. In the words of Cassius Dio: "This was the reason why he made all the people in his empire Roman citizens; nominally he was honoring them, but his real purpose was to increase his revenues by this means, inasmuch as aliens did not have to pay most of these taxes."[2] However, few of those that gained citizenship were wealthy, and while it is true that Rome was in a difficult financial situation, it is thought that this could not have been the sole purpose of the edict. It should also be noted that Cassius Dio generally saw Caracalla as a bad, contemptible emperor.

Another goal may have been to increase the number of men able to serve in the legions, as only full citizens could serve as legionaries in the Roman Army. In scholarly interpretations that agree with a model of moral degeneration as the reason for the fall of the Roman Empire, most famously the model followed by British historian Edward Gibbon, the edict came at the cost to the auxiliaries, which primarily consisted of non-citizen men, and led to barbarization of the Roman military.

Additionally, before the edict, one of the main ways to acquire Roman citizenship was to enlist in the Roman Army, the completion of service in which would give the citizenship to the discharged soldier. The edict may have made enlistment in the army less attractive to most, and perhaps the recruiting difficulties of the Roman army by the end of the 3rd century were related to this.

In the analyses of more recent scholars, the Constitutio Antoniniana marks a major milestone in the provincialisation of Roman law, meaning that the gap between private law in the provinces and private law in Italy narrowed. This is because, in granting citizenship to all men in the provinces, much private law had to be re-written to conform with the law that applied to Roman citizens in Rome. To these scholars, it therefore also marks the beginning of a process by which imperial constitutions became the primary source of Roman law.[3]

See also


  1. ^ "Late Antinquity" by Richard Lim in The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010, p. 114.
  2. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, book 78, chapter 9.
  3. ^ Caroline Humfress (2013). du Plessis, Paul, ed. Laws' Empire: Roman Universalism and Legal Practice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 87. ISBN 9780748668175.

External links


The 210s decade ran from January 1, 210, to December 31, 219.

== Events ==

=== 210 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Having suffered heavy losses since invading Scotland in 208, emperor Septimius Severus sends his son Caracalla to systematically wipe out and torture the Scots into submission.

=== 211 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

February 4 – Emperor Septimius Severus, having fallen ill, dies in Eboracum (modern-day York) while on campaign in Britain after an 18-year reign. He is later deified by the Senate. His sons Caracalla and Geta succeed him as joint Roman Emperors.

December 19 – Geta is lured to come without his bodyguards to meet Caracalla, to discuss a possible reconciliation. When he arrives the Praetorian Guard murders him and he dies in the arms of his mother Julia Domna.

Eboracum becomes the capital of Britannia Inferior, a northern province of the Roman Empire.

====== Asia ======

January – Cao Cao writes Ràng Xiàn Zì Míng Běn Zhì Lìng (讓縣自明本志令)

March – September: Cao Cao defeats Ma Chao at the Battle of Tong Pass.

Ardashir I becomes king of part of Persia.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

Baths of Caracalla construction begins (approximate date).

====== Religion ======

Mark is succeeded by Philadelphus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

=== 212 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The edict of emperor Caracalla (Constitutio Antoniniana) extends Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the Roman Empire with the exception of a limited group that may include Egyptians. The Jewish people are among those who receive citizenship. All free women in the Empire are given the same rights as Roman women.

Roman jurist Aemilius Papinianus, one of the famous jurists who flourished during the reign of the late emperor Septimius Severus, refuses to write a legal defence for the murder of Caracalla's brother, Publius Septimius Geta. He is beheaded in Rome, in Caracalla's presence.

Caracalla quiets the objections of the Roman army to Geta's murder by huge donations.

Construction begins on the Baths of Caracalla in Rome.

Edessa in Mesopotamia becomes a Roman province.

=== 213 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Caracalla) and Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus become Roman Consuls.

Emperor Caracalla leaves Rome and expels some German marauders from Gaul. He defends the northern Rhine frontier against the Alamanni and the Chatti. Caracalla wins a victory over the German tribes on the banks of the River Main, and gives himself the title "Germanicus". It is probably while campaigning in Germania that he takes a liking to the caracalla, a Celtic or German tunic from which he acquires the name by which he is known.

====== Asia ======

Cao Cao, the prime minister of the Han dynasty, is titled Wei Gong (Duke of Wei) and given a fief of ten cities under his domain. This later becomes the Kingdom of Wei.

=== 214 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The kingdom of Osroene becomes a province of the Roman Empire.

Caracalla's victories in Germany ensure his popularity within the Roman army.

The defences of Rhaetia are reinforced, in the form of an uninterrupted stone wall.

====== Asia ======

The Korean kingdom of Baekje attacks the Mohe tribes.

Battle of Xiaoyao Ford: Zhang Liao under the command of Cao Cao beats back Sun Quan at Hefei.

Liu Bei takes Yi Province from his clansman Liu Zhang, forming the later basis for Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period.

Pang Tong dies in the hands of the enemy in an ambush at the Valley of the Fallen Phoenix.

=== 215 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Caracalla's troops massacre the population of Alexandria, Egypt, beginning with the leading citizens. The emperor is angry about a satire, produced in Alexandria, mocking his claim that he killed Geta in self-defense.

Caracalla introduces a new coin, the Antoninianus. The weight of this coin is a mere 1/50 of a pound. Copper disappears gradually, and by the middle of the third century, with Rome's economy in crisis, the Antonianus will be the only official currency.

====== Asia ======

Zhang Liao holds off Sun Quan's invasion force at the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford in Hefei, China.

Vachagan I becomes king of Caucasian Albania.

=== 216 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are completed with public baths (Thermae), reading rooms, auditoriums, running tracks, and public gardens that cover 20 acres.

Emperor Caracalla tricks the Parthians by accepting a marriage proposal. He slaughters his bride and the wedding guests after the celebrations.

Caracalla provokes a war with Artabanus V (of Parthia) to imitate his idol Alexander the Great. He crosses the Tigris, destroys towns and spoils the tombs of Arbela. The Roman army annexes Armenia.

The basilica of Leptis Magna, ordered by Septimius Severus, is completed.

====== Asia ======

Chinese warlord Cao Cao is made a vassal king (King of Wei) by Emperor Xian, the last ruler of the Han dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Mithraism, which had begun in Persia, is on course to be adopted by many Roman soldiers serving in Asia.

=== 217 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

April 8 – Caracalla is assassinated by his soldiers near Edessa. Marcus Opellius Macrinus, head of the Praetorian Guard, declares himself Roman emperor.

Summer – Battle of Nisibis: A Roman army, under the command of Macrinus, is defeated in a three days' battle by the Parthians at Nisibis, in the province of Mesopotamia.

King Artabanus V signs a peace treaty with Rome after he received 200 million sesterces, for the rebuilding of towns destroyed during the war in Parthia.

Macrinus, of Mauritania, becomes the first equestrian Roman emperor.

Empress Julia, wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta, commits suicide.

The Colosseum is badly damaged by fire (lightning) which destroys the wooden upper levels of the amphitheater.

====== Asia ======

Battle of Ruxu: Cao Cao once again clashes against Sun Quan in Yang Province.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

December 20 – The papacy of Zephyrinus ends. Callixtus I is elected as the sixteenth pope, but is opposed by the theologian Hippolytus who accuses him of laxity and of being a Modalist, one who denies any distinction between the three persons of the Trinity.

Hippolytus begins his "pontificate" as antipope and sets up a breakaway church for Christian followers.

Ciriacus succeeds Philadelphus as Patriarch of Constantinople.

====== Sports ======

According to a tradition noted by 19th-century historian Stephen Glover, the earliest recorded game of association football (soccer) took place in Derby, England as a celebration on Shrove Tuesday, the day before commencement of the Lent season on Ash Wednesday, and 47 days before Easter Sunday

=== 218 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

May 16 – Julia Maesa, an aunt of the assassinated Caracalla, is banished to her home in Syria by the self-proclaimed emperor Macrinus and declares her grandson Elagabalus, age 14, emperor of Rome.

June 8 – Battle of Antioch: Elagabalus defeats with support of the Syrian legions the forces of Macrinus. Macrinus flees, but is captured near Chalcedon and later executed in Cappadocia.

Diadumenianus, son of Macrinus, escapes to the Parthian court, but is captured at Zeugma and also put to death.

==== By topic ====

====== Commerce ======

The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 43 percent under emperor Elagabalus, down from 50 percent under Septimius Severus, as he empties the treasury with his excesses while his grandmother, Julia Maesa, rules the Empire

=== 219 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Imperator Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Elagabalus) and Quintus Tineius Sacerdos become Roman Consuls.

Julia Maesa arranges for her grandson Elagabalus a marriage with Julia Paula. The wedding is a lavish ceremony and Paula is given the honorific title of Augusta.

Legions III Gallica and IV Scythica are disbanded by Elagabalus after their leaders, Verus and Gellius Maximus, rebel.

Emperor Elagabalus, age 15, is initiated into the worship of the Phrygian gods Cybele and Attis.

====== Asia ======

The reign of Pulona, Satavahana king of Andhra, begins in India.

The Battle of Mount Dingjun ends with Liu Bei emerging victorious. He declares himself king of Hanzhong afterwards.

Guan Yu floods the fortress at Fan (present-day Fancheng District, Xiangyang, Hubei) in the Battle of Fancheng, while Lü Meng captures his base in Jing Province. Guan Yu retreats to Maicheng, falls into an ambush, and gets captured by Sun Quan's forces.

Cao Cao controls the Yellow River basin and northern China. Sun Quan rules southern China. Liu Bei controls Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing).

Tuoba Liwei becomes the first chieftain of the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei people.


Year 212 (CCXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Asper and Camilius (or, less frequently, year 965 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 212 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

212 (CCXII)

was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 212th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 212th year of the 1st millennium, the 12th year of the 3rd century, and the 3rd year of the 210s decade. As of the start of 212, the Gregorian calendar was

in agreement with the Julian calendar, which was the dominant calendar of the time.

3rd century

The 3rd century was the period from 201 to 300 A.D. or C.E.

In this century, the Roman Empire saw a crisis, starting with the assassination of the Roman Emperor Severus Alexander in 235, plunging the empire into a period of economic troubles, barbarian incursions, political upheavals, civil wars, and the split of the Roman Empire through the Gallic Empire in the west and the Palmyrene Empire in the east, which all together threatened to destroy the Roman Empire in its entirety, but the reconquests of the seceded territories by Emperor Aurelian and the stabilization period under Emperor Diocletian due to the administrative strengthening of the empire caused an end to the crisis by 284. This crisis would also mark the beginning of Late Antiquity.

In Persia, the Parthian Empire was succeeded by the Sassanid Empire in 224 after Ardashir I defeated and killed Artabanus V during the Battle of Hormozdgan. The Sassanids then went on to subjugate many of the western portions of the declining Kushan Empire.

In China, the chaos that had been raging since 189 would ultimately continue to persist with the decisive defeat of Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208, which would increasingly end the hopes of unification and lead to the tripartite division of China into three main empires; Shu, Wu, and Wei, colloquially known as the Three Kingdoms period, which started in 220 with the formal abdication of Emperor Xian of Han to Cao Cao's son, Cao Pi, thereby founding Wei, which would go on to conquer Shu in 263, but would ultimately be united again under the Jin dynasty, headed by the Sima clan, who would usurp Wei in 266, and conquer Wu in 280.

In India, the Gupta Empire was on the rise towards the end of the century.

Korea was ruled by the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Japan entered the Kofun period. The Xiongnu formed the Tiefu state under Liu Qubei. The Southeast Asian mainland was mostly dominated by Funan; the first kingdom of the Khmer people (Cambodians).

At about this time in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion reached Southern Africa.

In Pre-Columbian America, the Adena culture of the Ohio River valley declined in favor of the Hopewell culture. The Maya civilization entered its Classic Era.

Aurelia (gens)

The gens Aurelia was a plebeian family at Rome, which flourished from the third century BC to the latest period of the Empire. The first of the Aurelian gens to obtained the consulship was Gaius Aurelius Cotta in 252 BC. From then to the end of the Republic, the Aurelii supplied many distinguished statesmen, before entering a period of relative obscurity under the early emperors. In the latter part of the first century, a family of the Aurelii rose to prominence, obtaining patrician status, and eventually the throne itself. A series of emperors belonged to this family, through birth or adoption, including Marcus Aurelius and the members of the Severan dynasty.In the third century, the Constitutio Antoniniana of Caracalla granted Roman citizenship to all free residents of the Empire, resulting in vast numbers of new citizens who assumed the nomen Aurelius, in honour of their patron. So ubiquitous was the name in the latter centuries of the Empire that it suffered abbreviation, as Aur., and it becomes difficult to distinguish members of the Aurelian gens from other persons bearing the name.

Aurelius Heraclianus

Marcus(?) Aurelius Heraclianus (died 268) was a Roman soldier who rose to the rank of Praetorian Prefect in the latter part of the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. He was a member of the cabal of senior commanders of the Imperial field army that plotted and achieved the assassination of the Emperor Gallienus. His subsequent fate is uncertain. The only ancient reference has him committing suicide, but the circumstances are unclear.

Batavi (military unit)

The Batavi was an auxilia palatina (infantry) unit of the Late Roman army, active between the 4th and the 5th century. It was composed by 500 soldiers and was the heir of those ethnic groups that were initially used as auxiliary units of the Roman army and later integrated in the Roman Empire after the Constitutio Antoniniana. Their name was derived from the people of the Batavi.

In the sources they are usually recorded together with the Heruli, and it is probable the two units fought together.

At the beginning of the 5th century two related units are attested, the Batavi seniores and the Batavi iuniores.


Caracalla (; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD. He was a member of the Severan Dynasty, the elder son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Co-ruler with his father from 198, he continued to rule with his brother Geta, emperor from 209, after their father's death in 211. He had his brother killed later that year, and reigned afterwards as sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Caracalla's reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people.

Caracalla's reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution (Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome; for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus, a sort of double denarius; and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus after three days.

Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla's memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla's apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors.

Constitution (Roman law)

In Roman law, a constitution is a generic name for a legislative enactment by a Roman emperor. It includes edicts, decrees (judicial decisions) and rescripts (written answers to officials or petitioners). Mandata (instructions) given by the Emperor to officials were not Constitutions but created legal rules that could be relied upon by individuals.One of the most important constitutions issued by a Roman emperor was Caracalla's Constitutio Antoniniana of 212, also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution, which declared that all free men of the Roman Empire were to be given Roman citizenship and all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.


In the Roman Empire, the dediticii were one of the three classes of libertini. The dediticii existed as a class of persons who were neither slaves, nor Roman citizens (cives), nor Latini (that is, those holding Latin rights), at least as late as the time of Ulpian.

The civil status of dediticii was analogous to the condition of a conquered people who did not individually lose their freedom, but as a community lost all political existence as the result of a deditio, an unconditional surrender. A person who became a subject of the Empire through a deditio (that is, a person who was a dediticius) was excluded from the universal citizenship extended to all freeborn inhabitants of the empire under the Constitutio Antoniniana.The Lex Aelia Sentia provided that, if a slave was put in bonds by his master as a punishment, or branded, or put to the torture for an offence and convicted, or delivered up to fight with wild beasts, or sent into a gladiatorial school (ludus), or put in confinement (custodia), and then manumitted either by his then owner, or by another owner, he merely acquired the status of a peregrinus dediticius, and had not even the privileges of the ius Latinum. The peregrini dediticii were those who, in former times, had taken up arms against the Roman people, and being conquered, had surrendered themselves. They were, in fact, a people who were absolutely subdued, and yielded unconditionally to the conquerors, and, of course, had no other relation to Rome than that of subjects. The form of deditio occurs in Livy.

Dediticii who were former slaves were perceived as a threat to society, regardless of whether their master's punishments had been justified, and if they came within a hundred miles of Rome, they were subject to reenslavement.

Heruli (military unit)

The Heruli was an auxilia palatina unit of the Late Roman army, active between the 4th and the 5th century. It was composed of 500 soldiers and was the heir of those ethnic groups that were initially used as auxiliary units of the Roman army and later integrated in the Roman Empire after the Constitutio Antoniniana. Their name was derived from the people of the Heruli. In the sources they are usually recorded together with the Batavi, and it is probable the two units fought together. At the beginning of the 5th century two related units are attested, the Heruli seniores in the West and the Heruli iuniores in the East.

Little Peace of the Church

In the history of the Roman Empire, the "Little Peace of the Church" was a roughly 40-year period in the latter 3rd century when Christianity flourished without official suppression from the central government. It is particularly associated with the reign of Gallienus (253–268), who issued the first official declaration of tolerance regarding Christians. Among the series of imperial edicts that halted acts of persecution against Christians, one addressed to the bishops of Egypt has survived, recognizing places of worship and cemeteries as ecclesiastical property and restoring them to Christian ownership. The Church for the first time even asked a Roman emperor to arbitrate an internal dispute. In 272, after Paul of Samosata was accused of heresy but refused to be deposed as bishop of Antioch, Aurelian ruled in favor of his successor, who was in good standing with the church hierarchy.The "little" peace of the Church, described primarily by Eusebius, is preliminary to the final "peace of the Church" ushered in by the conversion of Constantine I.

Nomen (Roman name)

The nomen gentilicium was the part of a Roman citizen’s name that identified them as Roman. Originally, it had also identified their membership of a particular Roman family or clan (gens) according to their patrilineal descent. However, as Rome expanded its frontiers and non-Roman peoples were progressively granted Roman citizenship and along with it an existing Roman nomen, the nomen lost its value in indicating patrilineal ancestry.

Peregrinus (Roman)

Peregrinus was the term used during the early Roman empire, from 30 BC to AD 212, to denote a free provincial subject of the Empire who was not a Roman citizen. Peregrini constituted the vast majority of the Empire's inhabitants in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. In AD 212, all free inhabitants of the Empire were granted citizenship by the constitutio Antoniniana, abolishing the status of peregrinus.

The Latin peregrinus "foreigner, one from abroad" is a derivation from the adverb peregre "from abroad", composed of per- "abroad" and agri, the locative of ager "field, country".

During the Roman Republic, the term peregrinus simply denoted any person who did not hold Roman citizenship, full or partial, whether that person was under Roman rule or not. Technically, this remained the case during the Imperial era. But in practice the term became limited to subjects of the Empire, with inhabitants of regions outside the Empire's borders denoted barbari (barbarians).

Roman citizenship

Citizenship in ancient Rome (Latin: civitas) was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.

A male Roman citizen enjoyed a wide range of privileges and protections defined in detail by the Roman state. A citizen could, under certain exceptional circumstances, be deprived of his citizenship.

Roman women had a limited form of citizenship. Though held in high regard they were not allowed to vote or stand for civil or public office. The rich might participate in public life by funding building projects or sponsoring religious ceremonies and other events. Women had the right to own property, to engage in business, and to obtain a divorce, but their legal rights varied over time. Marriages were an important form of political alliance during the Republic.

Client state citizens and allies (socii) of Rome could receive a limited form of Roman citizenship such as the Latin Right. Such citizens could not vote or be elected in Roman elections.

Slaves were considered property and lacked legal personhood. Over time, they acquired a few protections under Roman law. Some slaves were freed by manumission for services rendered, or through a testamentary provision when their master died. Once free, they faced few barriers, beyond normal social snobbery, to participating in Roman society. The principle that a person could become a citizen by law rather than birth was enshrined in Roman mythology; when Romulus defeated the Sabines in battle, he promised the war captives that were in Rome they could become citizens.

Freedmen were former slaves who had gained their freedom. They were not automatically given citizenship and lacked some privileges such as running for executive magistracies. The children of freedmen and women were born as free citizens; for example, the father of the poet Horace was a freedman.

Roman military diploma

A Roman military diploma was a document inscribed in bronze certifying that the holder was honourably discharged from the Roman armed forces and/or had received the grant of Roman citizenship from the emperor as reward for service.The diploma was a notarised copy of an original constitutio (decree) issued by the emperor in Rome, listing by regiment (or unit) the eligible veterans. The constitutio, recorded on a large bronze plate, was lodged in the military archive at Rome (none such has been found; presumably they were melted down in later times).

Roman naming conventions

Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names. Although conventionally referred to as the tria nomina, the combination of praenomen, nomen, and cognomen that have come to be regarded as the basic elements of the Roman name in fact represent a continuous process of development, from at least the seventh century BC to the end of the seventh century AD. The names developed as part of this system became a defining characteristic of Roman civilization, and although the system itself vanished during the early Middle Ages, the names themselves exerted a profound influence on the development of European naming practices, and many continue to survive in modern languages.

Romano-British culture

Romano-British culture is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia. It arose as a fusion of the imported Roman culture with that of the indigenous Britons, a people of Celtic language and custom. It survived the 5th century Roman departure from Britain, eventually finding itself a stronghold in Wales where it was to form the basis of an emerging Welsh culture. Scholars such as Christopher Snyder believe that during the 5th and 6th centuries – approximately from 410 when the Roman legions withdrew, to 597 when St Augustine of Canterbury arrived – southern Britain preserved an active sub-Roman culture that survived the attacks from the Anglo-Saxons and even used a vernacular Latin when writing.


Thrace (; Modern Greek: Θράκη, Thráki; Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Turkish: Trakya) is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. It comprises southeastern Bulgaria (Northern Thrace), northeastern Greece (Western Thrace) and the European part of Turkey (East Thrace).

Tiberius Julius Balbillus

Tiberius Julius Balbillus also known as Julius Balbillus and Aurelius Julius Balbillus (flourished second half of the 2nd century & first half of the 3rd century) was an Emesene Aristocrat from the Royal family of Emesa in Roman Syria who served as a Priest of the cult of El-Gebal in Rome during the reigns of the Severan Roman emperors Lucius Septimius Severus reign 193-211 and Caracalla reign 211-217. El-Gebal is the Aramaic name for the Syrian Sun God.Although, little is known on the origins of Balbillus; he was a direct descendant of the King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene and a relation of the Roman Empress Julia Domna and her family. According to surviving inscriptions in Rome, Balbillus was a relation to Titus Julius Balbillus another Priest from the cult of El-Gebal in Rome.Balbillus is known from inscriptions as Priest of El-Gebal in Rome during the reigns of Lucius Septimius Severus and Caracalla, which are dated before 218. The temple based in Rome devoted to ancient Syrian deities, including El-Gebal was located in Trastevere. A priest in the cult of El-Gebal was called a sacerdos Solis, while El-Gebal’s cult was called the Sol Invictus Elagabal.The Priesthood of Balbillus, began at an unknown date before the end of the second century. From inscriptions at the temple reveals, that Balbillus enjoyed imperial favour and established good cordial relations with the Vestal Virgins. Prior to the reign of Elagabalus, Balbillus represented the cult of El-Gebal in Rome. He probably catered the ritual needs connected with the cult of El-Gebal for Lucius Septimius Severus, Caracalla which may have arisen among the Emesene members of the Severan household.From a surviving inscription in Rome dated April 4 215, under the consulate of Quintus Maecius Laetus and Munatius Sulla Cerialis, Balbillus dedicated an inscription in gratitude to the Vestal Virgin Terentia Flavola for the many services she had rendered him. Despite the fact, that Balbillus was a Roman citizen from the Constitutio Antoniniana in 212 Balbillus assumed the Roman nomen Aurelius as after 215, Balbillus was also known as Aurelius Julius Balbillius. After this moment, no more is known on Balbillus.

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