Constantinian dynasty

The Constantinian dynasty is an informal name for the ruling family of the Roman Empire from Constantius Chlorus (died 306) to the death of Julian in 363. It is named after its most famous member, Constantine the Great who became the sole ruler of the empire in 324. The dynasty is also called Neo-Flavian because every Constantinian emperor bore the name Flavius, similarly to the rulers of the first Flavian dynasty in the 1st century.

Roman imperial dynasties
Constantinian dynasty
Chronology
Constantine I as Caesar 307–311
-with Maximinus II as Caesar 307–311
-with Galerius and Severus as Augusti 307–308
-with Galerius and Licinius as Augusti 308–311
-with Maxentius as usurper in Rome (and Asia Minor 311–312) 308–312
Constantine I as Caesar (self proclaimed Augustus) 311–312
-with Maximinus II and Licinius as Augusti of East and West 311–312
Constantine I as Augustus of the West 312–324
Licinius as Augustus of the East 312–324
-with Constantine II, Crispus and Licinianus as Caesares 317–324
Constantine I as sole Emperor 324–337
Constantine II as Augustus of Gaul, Britannia and Hispania 337–340
Constans as Augustus of Italy and Africa (and Gaul, Britannia and Hispania 340–350) 337–350
Constantius II as Augustus of Asia and Egypt 337–350
Constantius II as sole Emperor 350–361
Succession
Preceded by
Tetrarchy
Followed by
Jovian and Valentinian dynasty

Stemmata

In italics the Augusti and the Augustae.

 
 
 
 
 
 
Theodora
 
 
 
Constantius Chlorus
250-305-306
 
 
 
Helena of Constantinople
250–330
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Julius Constantius
d. 337
 
Licinius
250-308-324-325
 
Constantia
293–330
 
Fausta
289–326
 
Constantine The Great
272-306-337
 
Minervina
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Julian
331-360-363
 
Helena
d. 360
 
Constantine II
316-337-340
 
Constantius II
317-337-361
 
Constans
320-337-350
 
Crispus
d. 326
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jovian
331-363-364
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Constantia
361–383
 
Gratian
359-367-383
 
 

Relationship to other tetrarchs

Other rulers of the tetrarchy were related to the Constantinian dynasty:

  • Maximian: adoptive father and stepfather-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, father-in-law of Constantine, stepgrandfather-in-law of Licinius
  • Maxentius: adoptive brother and half-brother-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, brother-in-law of Constantine
  • Licinius: son-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, half-brother-in-law of Constantine

Notes

  1. ^ Julian, Epistula ad SPQ Atheniarum 270 D, Roman-emperors.org

References

Bassianus (senator)

Bassianus (died 316 AD) was a Roman senator and a member of the Constantinian dynasty.

Constans

Constans (Latin: Flavius Julius Constans Augustus; Greek: Κῶνστας Αʹ; c. 323 – 350) or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. He defeated his brother Constantine II in 340, but anger in the army over his personal life (homosexuality) and favouritism towards his barbarian bodyguards led the general Magnentius to rebel, resulting in the assassination of Constans in 350.

Constantine II (emperor)

Constantine II (Latin: Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus; January/February 316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. Son of Constantine the Great and co-emperor alongside his brothers, his attempt to exert his perceived rights of primogeniture led to his death in a failed invasion of Italy in 340.

Constantius Chlorus

Constantius I (Latin: Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus; 31 March c. 250 – 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Greek: Κωνστάντιος Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was a Caesar from 293 to 305 and a Roman Emperor from 305 to 306. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty.

As Caesar, a junior emperor, he defeated the usurper Allectus in Britain and campaigned extensively along the Rhine frontier, defeating the Alamanni and Franks. Upon becoming Augustus in 305, Constantius launched a successful punitive campaign against the Picts beyond the Antonine Wall. However, Constantius died suddenly in Eboracum (York) the following year. His death sparked the collapse of the tetrarchic system of government inaugurated by the Emperor Diocletian.

Constantius Gallus

Flavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (ca. 325/326–354), commonly known as Constantius Gallus, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Roman Empire (351–354). Gallus was consul three years, from 352 to 354.

Dalmatius

This article deals with the Caesar (335-337). For the censor Flavius Dalmatius, father of the caesar, see Flavius Dalmatius. For saints with this name, see Saint Dalmatius (disambiguation).Flavius Dalmatius (died 337), also known as Dalmatius Caesar (his name is often spelled Delmatius on contemporary coins), was a Caesar (335–337) of the Roman Empire, and member of the Constantinian dynasty.

Dalmatius was the nephew of Constantine I. His father, also named Flavius Dalmatius, was the half-brother of Constantine and served as censor. Dalmatius and his brother Hannibalianus were educated at Tolosa (Toulouse) by rhetor Exuperius.

On 18 September 335, he was raised to the rank of Caesar, with the control of Thracia, Achaea and Macedonia. Dalmatius died in late summer 337, killed by his own soldiers. It is possible that his death was related to the purge that hit the imperial family at the death of Constantine, and organized by Constantius II with the aim of removing any possible claimant to imperial power other than the sons of the late emperor.

Fausta

Flavia Maxima Fausta (289–326) was a Roman Empress, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, in 307 Maximianus married her to Constantine I, who set aside his wife Minervina in her favour. Constantine and Fausta had been betrothed since 293.

Flavia Julia Constantia

Flavia Julia Constantia (after 293 – c. 330) was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

In 313, Emperor Constantine the Great, who was the half-brother of Constantia, gave her in marriage to his co-emperor Licinius, on occasion of their meeting in Mediolanum. She bore a son, Valerius Licinianus Licinius, in 315, and when the struggle between Constantine and Licinius began in 316, she stayed on her husband's side. A second war started between the two emperors in 324; after Licinius' defeat, Constantia interceded with Constantine for her husband's life. Constantine spared Licinius' life, and obliged him to live in Thessalonica as a private citizen, but the following year (325), he ordered that Licinius be killed. A second blow for Constantia was the death, also by order of Constantine, of her son Valerius.

In the following years, Constantia lived at her brother's court, receiving honors (her title was nobilissima femina). Constantia was her brother's favourite sister and proof of such favour is that he minted coins with her image and with the title "Constantia Soror Constantini AVG," or, "Constantia, Sister of Constantine Augustus" ("AVG" is an abbreviation of "Augustus," the center consonant being a "manuscript U," not a "V"). She converted to Christianity, supporting the Arian party at the First Council of Nicaea (325).The city of Constanţa, Romania is named after her.

Flavius Dalmatius

This article deals with the censor. For the Caesar (335-337) Flavius Dalmatius, son of the censor, see Dalmatius.Flavius Dalmatius (died 337), also known as Dalmatius the Censor, was a censor (333), and a member of the Constantinian dynasty, which ruled over the Roman Empire at the beginning of the 4th century.

Dalmatius was the son of Constantius Chlorus and Flavia Maximiana Theodora, and thus half-brother of the Emperor Constantine I.

Dalmatius spent his youth in the Gallic Tolosa. It is probable that his two sons, Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, were born here. During the mid-320s, Flavius Dalmatius returned to Constantinople, to the court of his half-brother, and was appointed consul and censor in 333.

In Antioch, Flavius was responsible for the security of the eastern borders of the realm. During this period, he examined the case of bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, an important opponent of Arianism, who was accused of murder. In 334, Flavius suppressed the revolt of Calocaerus, who had proclaimed himself emperor in Cyprus. In the following year he sent some soldiers to the council of Tyros to save the life of Athanasius.

His two sons were appointed to important offices under Constantine's administration, but Flavius Dalmatius and his sons were killed in the purges that followed the Emperor's death in May 337.

Hannibalianus

Flavius Hannibalianus (also Hanniballianus; died September 337) was a member of the Constantinian dynasty, which ruled over the Roman Empire in the 4th century.

Hannibalianus was the son of Flavius Dalmatius, and thus nephew of Constantine I. Hannibalianus and his brother Dalmatius were educated at Tolosa by rhetor Exuperius (who is probably not to be identified with St. Exuperius).

In 320s, Constantine called Flavius Dalmatius and his sons to Constantinople. Hannibalianus married Constantine's elder daughter, Constantina, in 335, and was made nobilissimus.In occasion of the campaign of Constantine against the Sassanids (337), Hannibalianus was made Rex Regum et Ponticarum Gentium, "King of the Kings and of the Pontic People". Probably it was Constantine's intention to put Hannibalianus on the Pontic throne, after the defeat of the Persians.

The Persian campaign did not take place, because Constantine died in May 337. Hannibalianus died, as did his brother, in the purge of the imperial family that followed.

Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus

In 351–352 the Jews of Roman Palaestina revolted against the rule of Constantius Gallus, brother-in-law of Emperor Constantius II and Caesar of the Eastern Roman Empire. The revolt was crushed by Gallus' general Ursicinus.

Julius Constantius

Julius Constantius (died September 337) was a politician of the Roman Empire and a member of the Constantinian dynasty, being a son of Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora, a younger half-brother of Emperor Constantine I and the father of Emperor Julian.

Julius Julianus

Julius Julianus (fl. 315–325) was a politician of the Roman Empire, related to the Constantinian dynasty.

Licinius II

Licinius II or Licinius the Younger (, Classical Latin pronunciation lɪˈkɪ.ni.ʊs; full name: Valerius Licinianus Licinius; c. 315 – c. 326) was the son of the Roman emperor Licinius. On the first of March 317, he was raised to the rank of Caesar at the age of 20 months, nominally serving as such in the eastern empire until 324 AD, while his father was Augustus. His mother was Licinius' wife Flavia Julia Constantia, who was also the half-sister of Constantine I.

After his defeat by Constantine at the Battle of Chrysopolis, Licinius the elder was initially spared and placed in captivity at Thessalonica. However, within a year Constantine seems to have regretted his leniency and the former Emperor was hanged.

The younger Licinius, who was Constantine's nephew, also fell victim to the emperor's suspicions and was killed, probably in the context of the execution of Crispus in 326.Other reports relate that Licinius the younger was forced into slavery in the imperial textile factories in Africa, where a "son of Licinianus" is noted in an imperial rescript dated 336. However, the rescript makes it clear that the "son of Licinianus" referred to was not likely to have been Licinius II, as the text contains a directive that the textile worker be reduced to the slave status of his birth. No son of Constantine's sister would have been referred to in this manner.

Maximinus II

Maximinus II (Latin: Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia Augustus; 20 November c. 270 – July or August 313), also known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313. He became embroiled in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy between rival claimants for control of the empire, in which he was defeated by Licinius. A committed pagan, he engaged in one of the last persecutions of Christians.

Nepotianus

Julius Nepotianus (died June 30, 350), sometimes known in English as Nepotian, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty who reigned as a short-lived usurper of the Roman Empire. He ruled the city of Rome for twenty-eight days, before being killed by his rival usurper Magnentius' general Marcellinus.

Procopius (usurper)

Procopius (c. 325/326 – 27 May 366) was a Roman usurper against Valens, and a member of the Constantinian dynasty.

Valerius Severus

Valerius Severus (Latin: Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus; died September 307), also Severus II, was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307. After failing to besiege Rome, he fled to Ravenna. It is thought that he was killed there or executed near Rome.

Virius Nepotianus

Virius Nepotianus was a Roman statesman who served as Consul of the Roman Empire in AD 336. He was a member of the Constantinian dynasty.

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