Constantine Ypsilantis

Constantine Ypsilantis (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Υψηλάντης Konstantinos Ypsilantis; Romanian: Constantin Ipsilanti; 1760–1816), was the son of Alexander Ypsilanti, a key member of an important Phanariote family, Grand Dragoman of the Porte (1796–99), hospodar[1] of Moldavia (1799–1802) and Walachia (1802–06), and a Prince[2] through marriage to the daughter of Alexandru Callimachi.

Constantine Ypsilantis
Konstantinos Ypsilantis
Prince Constantine Ypsilantis
Born
Constantine Ypsilantis

1760
Died24 June 1816
NationalityMoldavian
Known forPrince of Moldavia
TitlePrince
Term1799–1801 and 1802–1806
PredecessorAlexandru Callimachi
SuccessorAlexandru Şuţu
Spouse(s)Ralu Callimachi
ChildrenAlexander Ypsilantis, Demetrios Ypsilantis.
Parent(s)Alexander Ypsilantis
RelativesAlexandru Callimachi, father-in-law

Resistance against the Ottoman Empire

ConstantinIpsilanti1805
Ypsilantis Coat of Arms (1805)

Ypsilantis had joined in a conspiracy to liberate Greece and, on its discovery, fled to Vienna, had been pardoned by the sultan and in 1799 appointed by him hospodar of Moldavia. Deposed in 1805, he escaped to St Petersburg, and in 1806, at the head of some 20,000 Russians, returned to Bucharest, where he set to work on a fresh attempt to liberate Greece.

Union of Moldavia and Wallachia

From 1806, during Russian occupation of the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, Russia encouraged their provisional union under Prince Constantine Ypsilanti. Russia preferred their union for improved relations with the Principalities and their formal union was planned for 1830.[2]

Ypsilantis' plans were ruined by the peace of Tilsit and in 1807 he emigrated with his family to Russia.

Legacy

Ypsilantis died, in Kiev, where he had served as commandant of the Pechersk Fortress since 1807. He left five sons, of whom two played a conspicuous part in the Greek War of Independence: Alexander and Demetrios.

References

  1. ^ East, The Union of Moldavia and Wallachia, 1859, p. 178.
  2. ^ a b East, The Union of Moldavia and Wallachia, 1859, p. 59.

Sources

  • East, The Union of Moldavia and Wallachia, 1859 - An Episode in Diplomatic History, Thirlwall Prize Essay for 1927, Cambridge University Press (1929).
Preceded by
George Mourouzis
Grand Dragoman of the Porte
1796–1799
Succeeded by
Alexandros Soutzos
Preceded by
Alexandru Callimachi
Prince of Moldavia
1799–1801
Succeeded by
Alexandros Soutzos
Preceded by
Alexandros Soutzos
Prince of Wallachia
1802–1806
Succeeded by
Russian occupation
1802 Vrancea earthquake

The 1802 Vrancea earthquake occurred in the Vrancea Mountains of today's Romania (then Moldavia) on 26 October [O.S. 14 October] 1802, on St. Paraskeva's Day. With an estimated intensity of 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale, it is the strongest earthquake ever recorded in Romania and one of the strongest in European history. It was felt across an area of more than two million square kilometers in Eastern Europe and the Balkans, from Saint Petersburg to the Aegean Sea.In Bucharest, the earthquake had an estimated intensity of VIII–IX on the Mercalli scale. It toppled church steeples and caused Cotroceni Monastery to collapse. Numerous fires broke out, mainly from overturned stoves. In the Ottoman Empire (today's Bulgaria), the cities of Ruse, Varna and Vidin were almost completely destroyed. The force of the earthquake cracked walls as far north as Moscow.

The main quake was followed by a series of aftershocks, of which the largest had a magnitude of 5.5.

Alexander Mourouzis

Alexander Mourouzis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Μουρούζης; (1750/1760-1816) was a Grand Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire who served as Prince of Moldavia and Prince of Wallachia. Open to Enlightenment ideas, and noted for his interest in hydrological engineering, Mourouzis was forced to deal with the intrusions of Osman Pazvantoğlu's rebellious troops. In a rare gesture for his period, he renounced the throne in Wallachia, and his second rule in Moldavia was cut short by the intrigues of French diplomat Horace Sébastiani. Through his mother, he was a member of the Ghica family an Orthodox Phanariote family of Albanian origin.

Alexander Ypsilantis

Alexander Ypsilantis, Ypsilanti, or Alexandros Ypsilantis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης Alexandros Yipsilantis; Romanian: Alexandru Ipsilanti; Russian: Александр Константинович Ипсиланти Aleksandr Konstantinovich Ipsilanti; 12 December 1792 – 31 January 1828) was a Greek nationalist politician who was member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family, a prince of the Danubian Principalities, a senior officer of the Imperial Russian cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars, and a leader of the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization that coordinated the beginning of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire.

Alexander Ypsilantis (1725–1805)

Alexander Ypsilantis (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Υψηλάντης Alexandros Ypsilantis, Romanian: Alexandru Ipsilanti; 1725–1805) was a Greek Voivode (Prince) of Wallachia from 1775 to 1782, and again from 1796 to 1797, and also Voivode (Prince) of Moldavia from 1786 to 1788. He bears the same name as, but should not be confused with, his grandson, the Greek War of Independence hero of the early 19th century. The Ypsilantis were a prominent family of Phanariotes.

Alexandros Soutzos

Alexandros Soutzos (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Σούτζος, Romanian: Alexandru Suţu, 1758 – January 18/19, 1821, Bucharest) was a Phanariote Greek who ruled as Prince of Moldavia (July 10, 1801 – October 1, 1802 and Prince of Wallachia (July 2, 1802 – August 30, 1802; August 24, 1806 – October 15, 1806; December 1806; November 17, 1818 – January 19, 1821). Born in Constantinople, he had earlier been Grand Dragoman of the Ottoman Empire.

Alexandru Callimachi

Alexandru Callimachi (1737 – 12 December 1821) was Prince of Moldavia during the period of 6 May 1795 through 18 March 1799.

Charles-Frédéric Reinhard

Charles-Frédéric, comte Reinhard (born Karl Friedrich Reinhard; 2 October 1761 – 25 December 1837) was a Württembergian-born French diplomat, essayist, and politician who briefly served as the Consulate's Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1799. A Girondist during the early stages of the French Revolution, he was dispatched to several countries before and after his ministerial mandate. In 1806-1807, he was appointed Consul and Resident to Moldavia, and subsequently arrested by the Russian Empire for one year. Reinhard was promoted under the Bourbon Restoration governments, which he represented to the German Confederation, and continued his political career under the July Monarchy.

Demetrios Ypsilantis

Demetrios Ypsilantis (also spelt using Dimitrios, Demetrius and/or Ypsilanti; Greek: Δημήτριος Υψηλάντης; Romanian: Dumitru Ipsilanti; 1793 – August 16, 1832) was a member of a prominent Phanariot Greek family Ypsilantis, a dragoman of the Ottoman Empire, served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army and played an important role in the Greek War of Independence. Ypsilantis was the brother of Alexander Ypsilantis, a leader of Filiki Eteria.

Giorgakis Olympios

Giorgakis Olympios (Greek: Γιωργάκης Ολύμπιος; Romanian: Iordache Olimpiotul; 1772–1821) was a Greek armatolos and military commander during the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. Noted for his activities with the Filiki Eteria in the Danubian Principalities, he is considered to be a leading figure of the Greek Revolution.

Holy Forty Martyrs Church, Iași

The Holy Forty Martyrs Church (Romanian: Biserica Sfinții 40 de Mucenici) is a Romanian Orthodox church located at 12 General Henri M. Berthelot Street in Iași, Romania. It is dedicated to the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste.

Located in the Copou neighborhood, which in the mid-18th century was sparsely populated and had no place of worship, the church was built in 1760 by hetman Vasile Roset and his wife Safta. It was located on a plot of land granted that year by Prince Ioan Teodor Callimachi. Completed quickly, it was blessed by the prince's brother, Metropolitan Gavriil Callimachi. Initially, Roset placed the church under the protection of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. In 1767, he transferred it to the Metropolis of Proilavia. Within twenty years, the church was in a state of degradation, prompting the high vistiernic Lascarache Roset to try and reclaim the church founded by his parents. Thus, he obtained a decree in 1787 from Prince Alexander Ypsilantis, providing twenty lei per month in customs revenue for church maintenance. Successive princes issued orders maintaining or increasing the allowance: Constantine Ypsilantis (1799), Alexandros Soutzos (1801), Alexander Mourousis (1803), Michael Soutzos (1820). Aside from the princes' and donors' contributions, the church earned revenue by renting out parcels of land in its yard or on its other properties, with the tenants required to pay an annual fee. Deceased parishioners were buried in the churchyard until 1871, when the city hall ordered a halt to church burials, their function supplanted by the new Eternitatea cemetery. Gheorghe Asachi was buried outside the church in 1869; a dozen members of his family share the grave.A vestibule with a choir space above was added in 1868, as well as a bell tower. The large bell, which weighs some 300 kg, dates to 1892. A foyer was installed in 1924. The church is in the Constantinople Baroque style, with its 24 stone pilasters with neo-Corinthian capitals of stone, as well as the two massive interior columns that separate nave from vestibule. The exterior division into decorative panels as well as certain ornamental details are Neoclassical; these elements appeared in the 1780s and '90s, making it the first church in Iași to feature a style that would become dominant in early 19th-century Moldavia. The church collection includes valuable icons, rare books, silver items and an archive. The iconostasis, of stuccoed linden coated in gold leaf, is original to 1760. Sculpted in Balkan Baroque, it features four 1814 icons (Christ, Virgin Mary, the Forty Martyrs and Saint Nicolas) painted and signed by Eustație Altini.Cultural figures associated with the parish include Altini, Asachi, Veniamin Costache, Alexandru Hrisoverghi, Spiru Haret and Ion Creangă, who was deacon there from 1859 to 1863. A memorial to Creangă was set up on the centennial of his death in 1989, while the yard features marble busts of him and Asachi. In 1890, Asachi was reburied beneath his statue. The nearby headstone marks the grave of Altini and Hrisoverghi.The church is listed as a historic monument by Romania's Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs.

John Caradja

John Caradja or John George Caradja (Greek: Ἰωάννης Γεώργιος Καρατζάς, Ioannis Georgios Karatzas; Romanian: Ioan Gheorghe Caragea; French: Jean Georges Caradja; 1754, Constantinople – 1844, Athens) was a Phanariote Prince of Wallachia, who reigned between 1812 and 1818. He became famous due to the code of law known as the Legiuirea Caragea ("Caragea's Law" or "Caradja's Law"), which was the first modern code of the Danubian Principalities, but also because of the effective measures taken during the bubonic plague outbreak of 1813. The epidemic became commonly known as Caragea's plague.

A member of the Caradja family, he was related to the Mavrocordatos. His nephew, Prince Alexander Mavrocordatos, was Court Secretary in Bucharest under his rule. Together with his uncle, Alexander Mavrocordatos went into exile to the Italian Peninsula, via the Austrian Empire (1818).

Kiev Fortress

The Kiev Fortress (Ukrainian: Київська фортеця; Kyivs'ka fortetsia; Russian: Киевская крепость; Kievskaya krepost') is a complex of Russian fortifications in Kiev, Ukraine built over the span of the

17th through 19th centuries, soon after the 1654 Council in Pereyaslav, based on already existing fortified monastery of Kiev Pechersk Lavra.

Kiev Fortress once belonged to the extensive system of western Russian fortresses that existed in the Russian Empire. The Kiev Fortress complex features many separate fortifications in Pechersk, Old Kiev, Podil, and Zvirynets located in various city districts of Kiev. Currently most of the remaining structures turned into a historic reserve. The main fortification associated with the Kiev Fortress (where located the Historic and Architectural Museum) is the Hospital fortification.

List of people from Istanbul

This is a list of notable people hailing from the city of Istanbul.

Hrant Dink editor of an Armenian newspaper

Halide Edip Adıvar, novelist, politician

Müjde Ar, actress

Oğuz Aral, cartoonist

Bülent Arel, music producer

Duygu Asena, women's rights activist

Cenk Aydin, businessman

Hulusi Behçet, dermatologist

Semiha Berksoy, opera singer

Orhan Boran, radio and TV host

Aydın Boysan

Yaşar Büyükanıt, Chief of the Turkish General Staff

Eylül Cansın, transgender sex worker

Cornelius Castoriadis, Greek-French political philosopher

Hakan Celik, journalist, TV anchorman, radio producer

Hande Berktan, journalist, TV presenter

Nuri Bilge Ceylan, filmmaker

Manuel Chrysoloras, Greek academic, diplomat

Tansu Çiller, former prime minister

Bülent Ecevit, former prime minister

Neşe Erberk, Miss Europe 1984

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of Turkey

Sertab Erener, singer

Ahmet Ertegün, co-founder and executive of Atlantic Records and the New York Cosmos

Nesuhi Ertegün, co-founder and executive of Atlantic Records and the New York Cosmos

Yonca Evcimik, pop singer

Leyla Gencer, opera singer

Fatma Girik, actress

Gregory V, Greek Patriarch of Constantinople

Ara Güler, photographer

Tunç Hamarat, correspondence chess world champion 2004

Tunch Ilkin, former American football player, TV anchor

Ertuğrul Işınbark, stage magician

Nihat Kahveci, football player

Elia Kazan, director, producer, screenwriter, novelist

Hülya Koçyiğit, actress

Fahri Korutürk, former president of Turkey

Lefter Küçükandonyadis, football player

Mike Lazaridis, founder of Research in Motion

Nasuh Mahruki, first Turkish person to summit Mt. Everest

Barış Manço, musician

Andrew Mango, British author

Arif Mardin, music producer

Kleanthis Maropoulos, Greek footballer

Alexander Mavrocordatos, Greek dragoman to Sultan Mehmed IV

Kostas Negrepontis, Greek footballer

Aziz Nesin, novelist

Marika Nezer, Greek singer

Irfan Orga, Turkish Air Force fighter pilot, diplomat, writer

Leon Walerian Ostroróg, jurist of Polish descent, adviser to the Ottoman government

Orhan Pamuk, novelist

Pekinel sisters, twin pianists

Ajda Pekkan, singer

Athinodoros Prousalis, Greek actor

Nicola Rossi-Lemeni, opera singer

Alexandros Soutsos, Greek poet and partisan

Haldun Taner, playwright

Hidayet Türkoğlu, basketball player

Orhan Veli, poet

Stavros Xenidis, Greek actor

Hamza Yerlikaya, wrestler and Olympic gold medalist

Cem Yilmaz, stand-up comedian, actor

Alexander Ypsilantis (senior), Greek diplomat

Alexander Ypsilantis (junior), Greek military commander

Constantine Ypsilantis, Greek revolutionary

List of state leaders in 1799

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1799.

Patriarchal Monastery of the Holy Trinity

The Patriarchal Monastery of the Holy Trinity (Bulgarian: Патриаршески манастир „Света Троица“, Patriarsheski manastir „Sveta Troitsa“) is a Bulgarian Orthodox monastery in the vicinity of Veliko Tarnovo, north central Bulgaria. Founded in the Middle Ages, it was reconstructed in 1847 and again in the mid-20th century.

Saint Charalambos Church, Iași

Saint Charalambos Church (Romanian: Biserica Sfântul Haralambie) is a Romanian Orthodox church located at 4 Octav Botez Street in Iași, Romania. It is dedicated to Saint Charalambos.

According to a legend, repeated by Mihail Sadoveanu in Hanu Ancuței, there were two brothers from Epirus, Gheorghe and Haralambie Leondarie, who served as head messengers (ceauși) for Prince Constantine Ypsilantis at the end of the 18th century. After Haralambie became a hajduk, Ypsilantis ordered Gheorghe to capture the outlaw dead or alive, on pain of execution. The latter went on pursuit with fifty troops. While attempting to capture his brother near Văratec Monastery, Gheorghe accidentally killed him. He gave Haralambie's head to the prince, quit the service and, in order to obtain forgiveness, built the church on a plot of land granted by Ypsilantis. Begun in 1799, it was consecrated in 1804. The structure had three spires; the interior painting was done around 1900. The bell tower preserves one bell donated by the ktitor in 1804 and others from the parishioners. In the early 19th century, the church belonged to the guild of mercenaries in the prince's guard and to firearms makers. For a time, the church served Old Believers driven out of Russia.There was a graveyard outside the church; part of the remains were disinterred after Eternitatea cemetery was established in 1871, an exception being Gheorghe Leondari, who was buried there after his death in 1835. A hundred years later, his remains were placed in the church, on the right side of the nave. Also in 1935, the church was blessed a second time by Metropolitan Nicodim Munteanu. An athenaeum associated with the church was built in the yard in 1934. This hosted cultural figures, among the most popular speakers being philosopher Ion Petrovici. It was destroyed during World War II. After the 1977 Vrancea earthquake, the damaged spires were rebuilt in 1997-1998 and the interior repainted in 1987-1989. During the same period, the Miclăușeni Monastery donated part of Saint Charalambos' relics to the parish. Following the Romanian Revolution, a bakery and food pantry were established at the church.The church is listed as a historic monument by Romania's Ministry of Culture and Religious Affairs.

Serb volunteers in the Greek War of Independence

Some Serbs joined the Greeks, their co-religionists, in the Greek War of Independence (1821–29). Volunteers arrived from Serbia, Montenegro, and territories still under Ottoman rule, to fight alongside the Greek rebels against the Ottoman Empire. Several of the volunteers were veterans of the Serbian Revolution, such as Hadži-Prodan,

Ypsilantis

The Ypsilantis (Greek: Υψηλάντης; Romanian: Ipsilanti) were a Greek Phanariote family which grew into prominence and power in Constantinople during the last centuries of Ottoman Empire and gave several short-reign hospodars to the Danubian Principalities. The family was originally from the southern coast of Black Sea.

Since the end of the Ottoman Empire, members of the Ypsilanti family can be found all over the world.

Notable members of the family include:

Alexander Ypsilantis (1725 - 1805), Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia

Constantine Ypsilantis (?–1816), son of the above, Prince of Moldavia, fled to the Russian court

Alexander Ypsilantis (1792 - 1828), eldest son of the above. A General in the Imperial Russian Army, he became the leader of the Filiki Eteria, and began the Greek Revolution in 1821 by crossing over with his followers into the Danubian Principalities. Defeated by Ottoman forces, he retreated to Austria, where he died in 1828.

Demetrios Ypsilantis (1793–1832), second son of Constantine Ypsilantis, one of the early leaders of the Greek Revolution, later General under John Capodistria. The city of Ypsilanti, Michigan is named after him.

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