Constantine II of Greece

Constantine II (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, Konstantínos II, pronounced [ˌkonstanˈdinos]; born 2 June 1940) reigned as the King of Greece, from 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy in 1973.

He acceded as king following the death of his father King Paul in March 1964. Later that year he married Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark with whom he eventually had five children. Although the accession of the young monarch was initially regarded auspiciously, his reign soon became controversial: Constantine's involvement in the Apostasia of July 1965 created unrest among sections of the population and aggravated the ongoing political instability that culminated in the Colonels' Coup of 21 April 1967.

The coup was successful, leaving Constantine, as the head of state, little room to maneuver since he had no loyal military forces on which to rely. As a result, he reluctantly agreed to inaugurate the Greek military junta of 1967–1974 (the "putschist government") on the condition that it be made up largely of civilian ministers. On 13 December 1967, Constantine was forced to flee the country, following an unsuccessful countercoup against the junta. He remained (formally) the head of state in exile until the junta conducted the 1 June 1973 Greek republic referendum which abolished the monarchy.

This abolition was confirmed after the fall of the junta by the 1974 Greek republic referendum on 8 December, which established the Third Hellenic Republic. Constantine, who was not allowed to return to Greece to campaign,[1] accepted the results of the plebiscite.[2]

Constantine II
King Constantine
Constantine II in 1987
King of the Hellenes
Reign6 March 1964 – 1 June 1973
SuccessorMonarchy abolished
Prime Ministers
Born2 June 1940 (age 78)
Psychiko Palace, Athens, Kingdom of Greece
IssuePrincess Alexia
Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece
Prince Nikolaos
Princess Theodora
Prince Philippos
FatherPaul of Greece
MotherFrederica of Hanover
ReligionGreek Orthodox

Early life

Constantine II of Greece
Constantine II of Greece and Paul Elvstrøm 1960
Constantine (left) at the 1960 Olympics
Personal information
Height189 cm (6 ft 2 in)
Weight80 kg (176 lb)

Constantine was born at the Psychiko Palace in Psychiko, a suburb of Athens. He was the nephew of King George II, and also the second child and only son of the king's brother and heir presumptive, Prince Paul. His mother was Princess Frederica of Hanover.[3] Constantine's older sister Queen Sofía of Spain is the wife of the retired King Juan Carlos of Spain, while his younger sister, Princess Irene, has never been married.

Constantine was just one year old when Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany invaded Greece, and he spent the next four years in exile in Egypt and Cape Town, South Africa (where his sister Irene was born) with his family. He returned to Greece with his family in 1946. King George died in 1947, and Constantine's father became the new king, making Constantine the crown prince. He was educated at a preparatory school and later a boarding school where he was an above-average student academically.[3] A fellow student recalled him as "a good chap, a young man with all the right instincts. He was at his best on the playing fields."[3]

Constantine served in all three armed services, attending the requisite military academies. He also attended the NATO Air Force Special Weapons School in Germany, as well as the University of Athens, where he took courses in the school of law.[3]

Constantine was an able sportsman. In 1960, aged 20, he won an Olympic gold medal in sailing (dragon class), which was the first Greek gold medal in sailing since the Stockholm 1912 Summer Olympics.[4] He was also a strong swimmer and had a black belt in karate, with interests in squash, track events and riding.[3] In 1963 Constantine became a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). He resigned in 1974 because he was no longer a Greek resident, and was made an Honorary IOC Member.[5]


In March 1964, King Paul died of cancer, and the 23-year-old Constantine succeeded him as king. Prior to this, Constantine had already been appointed as regent for his ailing father.[6]

King Paul's long-time prime minister Konstantinos Karamanlis regarded him partly responsible for his fall from leadership in 1963.

However, due to his youth, he was also perceived as a promise of change. The accession of Constantine coincided with the recent election of Centrist George Papandreou as prime minister in February 1964, which ended 11 years of right-wing rule by the National Radical Union (ERE).

Greece was still feeling the effects of the Civil War of 1944–49 between communists and monarchists, and society was strongly polarised between the royalist/conservative right and the liberal/socialist center-left. It was hoped that the new young king and the new prime minister would be able to overcome past dissensions.

Initially, relations between the king and Papandreou seemed good, but by 1965, they had deteriorated. The conservative establishment feared the rising influence of Papandreou's left-leaning son Andreas, and the outbreak of the purported ASPIDA scandal seemed to confirm their suspicions.

The name of Andreas Papandreou was implicated in the case, and when the defence minister, Petros Garoufalias tried to form a committee of inquiry into the alleged scandal, the prime minister forced his resignation. Immediately, George Papandreou assigned the defence portfolio to himself, which caused alarm in the palace and the conservative security circles, which interpreted this move as an attempt by Papandreou to control the army. Constantine refused to accept the self-appointment, and a new political issue resulted.

Constantine proposed the appointment of any other person of the prime minister's choosing as defence minister because, as the king argued, there was a conflict of interest: the prime minister's son was allegedly involved in the scandal.

Papandreou rejected the king's proposition, although he had initially shown some willingness to accept it, and submitted his own resignation, stating that it was well within his constitutional powers as the elected prime minister commanding a Parliamentary majority to appoint his ministers at his pleasure, and it was beyond the constitutional powers of the king to refuse him this right.

A short time after his resignation, Constantine appointed a new government led by Georgios Athanasiadis-Novas, who failed to ensure the Parliament's confidence. This appointment, which became known as the "Royal Coup" (Το Βασιλικό Πραξικόπημα), evoked much criticism as being unconstitutional.

According to the critics, the appointment of this and successive governments consisting of aisle-crossers instead of the proclamation of new elections, caused a constitutional crisis and political instability that lasted for more than two years and led to the Greek military junta of 1967-1974.

After his failure, Novas was succeeded by Ilias Tsirimokos, who also failed to form a stable government and was dismissed. Constantine next appointed some of Papandreou's dissidents, known as the July Apostates and led by Stefanos Stefanopoulos, to form a government of "king's men", which lasted until December 1966, amidst mounting strikes and protests, supported by the right-wing ERE.

When Stefanopoulos resigned in frustration, Constantine appointed a caretaker government under Ioannis Paraskevopoulos, which called elections for May 1967. This government did not even last until the scheduled elections. It was replaced on 3 April 1967 by another caretaker government under the leader of the ERE, Panagiotis Kanellopoulos.

Constantine II of Greece (1959)
Prince Constantine in 1959

Greek dictatorship 1967–1974

Elections were scheduled for 28 May 1967, with expectations of a wide Centrist victory. According to United States diplomat John Day, the Americans worried that, due to the old age of George Papandreou, Andreas Papandreou would have a very powerful role in the next government.

According to the United States diplomats Robert Keely and John Owens, who were attached to the United States embassy in Greece at the time, Constantine asked United States Ambassador Phillips Talbot what the attitude of the United States government would be to an extra-parliamentary solution to this problem. The embassy responded negatively in principle, adding that "US reaction to such a move cannot be determined in advance but would depend on circumstances at time". To this day, Constantine denies all this. According to then-Ambassador from the United States Phillips Talbot, after this communication, Constantine met with the generals of the army, who promised the king that they would not take any action before the coming elections. However, they were nervous by the proclamations of Andreas Papandreou and reserved to themselves the right to reconsider possible courses of action according to the results of the election.[7]

A traditionalist, right-wing nationalist group of middle-ranking army officers led by Colonel George Papadopoulos took action first and staged a coup d'état on 21 April. The coup leaders met Constantine at his residence in Tatoi, which was surrounded by tanks to prevent resistance. Constantine later recounted that the officers of the tank platoons believed they were carrying out the coup under his orders.[7] The king argued with the colonels and initially dismissed them. Later in the day, he went to the Ministry of National Defence, where all coup leaders were gathered, and had a discussion with Kanellopoulos and with leading generals. He agreed to concede to the military demands and swear the new regime in only when the junta agreed to include a number of civilian politicians, with a royalist nominee, Konstantinos Kollias, as prime minister. Panayotis Kanellopoulos, the last legitimate prime minister of Greece prior to the coup, acting as witness for the prosecution, at the junta trials in 1975 during metapolitefsi, testified how he was arrested by machine-gun toting soldiers and transported to the palace to meet King Constantine. He added that during the meeting he urged the king to use his status as commander-in-chief of the Greek military to order loyal officers to crush the coup. Constantine apparently refused to do so because he feared bloodshed.[8]

From the outset, the relationship between Constantine and the regime of the colonels was an uneasy one.[9] Constantine organised a counter-coup, though no help or involvement of the United States was forthcoming. The king finally decided to launch his counter-coup on 13 December 1967. Since Athens was effectively in the hands of the junta militarily, Constantine decided to fly to the small northern city of Kavala, east of Thessaloniki. There he hoped to be among troops loyal only to him. The vague plan he and his advisors had conceived was to form a unit that would advance to Thessaloniki (Greece's second biggest city and unofficial capital of northern Greece) and take it. Constantine planned to install an alternative administration there. International recognition, which he believed to be forthcoming, as well as internal pressure from the fact that Greece would have been split in two governments would, the king hoped, force the junta to resign, leaving the field clear for him to return triumphant to Athens.

In the early morning hours of 13 December, the king boarded the royal plane together with Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, their two young children, Princess Alexia and Prince Pavlos, his mother, Queen Frederica, and his sister, Princess Irene. Constantine also took with him Premier Kollias. At first things seemed to be going according to plan. Constantine was well received in Kavala which, militarily, was under the command of a general loyal to him. The air force and navy, both strongly royalist and not involved in the 1967 coup, immediately declared for him and mobilised. Another of Constantine's generals effectively cut all communication between Athens and the north. However, the king's plans were overly bureaucratic, naïvely supposing that orders from a commanding general would automatically be followed. Further, the king was obsessive about avoiding "bloodshed" even where the junta would be the attacker.

Under these circumstances, rather than managing to put together a force and advancing on Thessaloniki, middle-ranking pro-junta officers neutralised and arrested his royalist generals and took command of their units, which subsequently put together a force advancing on Kavala to arrest the king. Realising that the countercoup had failed, Constantine fled Greece on board the royal plane, taking his family and hapless premier with him. They landed in Rome early in the morning of 14 December, where they remained in exile all through the rest of military rule (although he continued as king until 1 June 1973). He was never to return to Greece as a reigning king.

Constantine stated, "I am sure I shall go back the way my ancestors did."[9] The world had changed significantly though since the monarchy had made its last comeback. Constantine continued to watch events from abroad. He said to the Toronto Star:

I consider myself King of the Hellenes and sole expression of legality in my country until the Greek people freely decide otherwise. I fully expected that the (military) regime would depose me eventually. They are frightened of the Crown because it is a unifying force among the people.[3]

With Constantine abroad, Colonel George Papadopoulos illegally appointed himself prime-minister and General George Zoitakis as regent.

Over the next year the junta sent intermediaries to the king to negotiate the terms on which he might return to Greece. But Constantine insisted on the full restoration of democracy under the existing constitution as a precondition, and George Papadopoulos would not agree to this. Instead the regime illegally promulgated a new constitution in November 1968, which retained the monarchy, but stripped it of its powers, and provided for a permanent regency until the king chose to accept the new order. This standoff continued until 1972, when George Papadopoulos illegally dismissed George Zoitakis and appointed himself regent.

In June 1973, George Papadopoulos condemned Constantine as "a collaborator with foreign forces and with murderers" and accused him of "pursuing ambitions to become a political leader".[3] In May, officers of the largely royalist navy staged an abortive coup, although Constantine himself was not involved. George Papadopoulos retaliated by declaring Greece a republic (1 June), a decision which was confirmed by a plebiscite on 29 July. The vote was widely acknowledged to be rigged. Constantine refused to accept the outcome. George Papadopoulos then declared himself president, but in November there was a coup within the regime and he was replaced by General Phaidon Ghizikis, who was a front for the new military strongman, Dimitrios Ioannides.

Restoration of democracy and the referendum

In July 1974, the events in Cyprus led to the downfall of the military regime, and Karamanlis returned from exile to become prime minister. The 1973 republican constitution was regarded as illegitimate, and the new administration issued a constitutional decree restoring the 1952 constitution. Constantine confidently awaited an invitation to return.[3] On 24 July he declared his "deep satisfaction with the initiative of the armed forces in overthrowing the dictatorial regime" and welcomed the advent of Karamanlis as prime minister.

The former king visited both Buckingham Palace and 10 Downing Street and openly declared his hope to be shortly returning to Greece. However, the 1952 constitution was not restored with the overthrow of the illegal junta. Following Karamanlis' resounding victory in the November 1974 parliamentary elections (his New Democracy party won 54.4% of the vote), he called a referendum (held on 8 December 1974) on whether Greece would restore the monarchy or remain a republic.

Although he had been the leader of the traditionally monarchist right, Karamanlis made no attempt to restore the democratic constitution of 1952. Instead he called on the Greek people to vote "according to their conscience". The former king was not allowed by the government to return to Greece to campaign on behalf of the benefits to Greece of the constitutional monarchy. He was only allowed to broadcast to the Greek people from London on television. Analysts claim this was a deliberate act by the government to undermine any chance to restore the monarchy.[10]

The left voted overwhelmingly for the republic because the former king was perceived by them as having engaged in political interference far beyond the scope of the monarchical prerogative. They also objected to the perceived influence exercised by members of the royal family who had no constitutional role in the political life of the country; the former king's mother, Queen Frederica, being a case in point.

The republic received overwhelming support by the centrist voters who condemned Constantine for, among other things, swearing in the junta in 1967. They also blamed his reluctance to sever all ties with the junta once in exile, and the dismissal of the legitimately elected George Papandreou administration (Apostasia of 1965), the event which some believed led to the coup.

Constantine, speaking from London, freely admitted his past mistakes. He claimed to have sound democratic intentions in the future and promised that his mother would stay away from the country.[3] Local monarchists campaigned on his behalf. The vote to restore the monarchy was only about 31%, having most of his support from the Peloponnese region, with almost 69% of the electorate voting against the restoration of the monarchy and for the establishment of a republic.[3] The result was met with celebrations in the streets of Athens and other major cities.

In exile

Constantine remained in exile for almost forty years after the vote in favour of the republic.[3][11] He was strongly discouraged from returning to Greece, and he did not return until February 1981, when the government only allowed him to return for a few hours, to attend the funeral of his mother, Queen Frederica, in the family cemetery of the former Royal Palace at Tatoi.

There were also legal disputes with the Greek state. In 1992 he concluded an agreement with the conservative government of Prime Minister Constantine Mitsotakis, ceding most of his land in Greece to a non-profit foundation in exchange for the former palace of Tatoi, near Athens, and the right to export a number of movables from Greece. The latter reportedly included privately owned art treasures from the royal palaces. As such, no formal account of what was removed was ever given or needed to be given. In 1993, Constantine visited Greece, but faced with government insecurity, he was asked to leave. In 1994, the second government of Andreas Papandreou passed new legislation reversing the 1992 agreement and stripping Constantine of his property in Greece and his Greek citizenship.

Constantine sued Greece at the European Court of Human Rights for €500 million in compensation for the seized property. He won a much smaller amount, receiving a monetary compensation of €12 million for the lost property, with a far smaller sum awarded to his unmarried younger sister, Princess Irene, and his aunt Princess Katherine.[12] The Greek government chose to pay out of the "extraordinary natural disasters" fund, but was not obliged by the court's decision to return any lands (the Court of Human Rights awards only monetary compensation).

Constantine, in turn, announced the creation of the Anna Maria Foundation, to allocate the funds in question back to the Greek people for use in "extraordinary natural disasters" and charitable causes. The court decision also ruled that Constantine's human rights were not violated by the Greek state's decision not to grant him Greek citizenship and passport unless he adopts a surname.

Later life

Former King Constantine & Queen Anne Marie of Greece in Colour
Constantine and his wife with their youngest children, Theodora and Philippos, by Allan Warren

Following the abolition of the monarchy, Constantine has repeatedly stated that he recognizes the Republic, the laws and the constitution of Greece. He told Time, "If the Greek people decide that they want a republic, they are entitled to have that and should be left in peace to enjoy it."[13]

Until 1994, Constantine's official Greek passport identified him as "Constantine, former King of the Hellenes". A law passed in 1994 stripped him of his Greek citizenship, passport, and property. The law stated that Constantine could not be granted a Greek passport unless he adopted a surname. He continues to use the title "King Constantine", although he no longer uses "Constantine, King of the Hellenes".

Today, this appellation draws attention to the fact that Constantine and his family lacks a legal surname in Greece. Constantine has stated: "I don't have a name—my family doesn't have a name. The law that Mr Papandreou passed basically says that he considers that I am not Greek and that my family was Greek only so long as we were exercising the responsibilities of sovereign, and I had to go out and acquire a name. The problem is that my family originates from Denmark, and the Danish royal family haven't got a surname." Glücksburg, he said, was not a family name but the name of a town. "I might as well call myself Mr. Kensington."[14]

In 2004, Constantine was back in Greece temporarily during the Athens Olympic Games as a member of the International Olympic Committee.[13] He freely travels in and out of Greece on a Danish diplomatic passport, as Constantino de Grecia (Spanish for "Constantine of Greece"),[15] because Denmark (upon request) issues diplomatic passports to any descendants of King Christian IX and Queen Louise; and Constantine is a Prince of Denmark in his own right.[16]

During his first visit to Greece using this passport, Constantine was mocked by some of the Greek media, which hellenized the "de Grecia" designation and used it as a surname, thus naming him Κωνσταντίνος Ντεγκρέτσιας ("Constantine Degrecias").[15]

Constantine and Anne-Marie for many years lived in Hampstead Garden Suburb, London, Constantine being a close friend of his second cousin Charles, Prince of Wales and a godfather to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, his second cousin once removed. After the wedding of their son, Nikolaos, Constantine and Anne-Marie moved back to Greece, currently residing in Porto Cheli, Peloponnese.

Royal Wedding Stockholm 2010-Konserthuset-412
Constantine II and his wife arriving at the Wedding of Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, and Daniel Westling

On 24 December 2004, Constantine and Anne-Marie and members of the former royal family visited the Presidential Mansion (the former Royal Palace) in Athens where Constantine met President Costis Stephanopoulos, who gave them a tour.

According to a nationwide 2007 survey of 2,040 households conducted on behalf of the newspaper To Vima, only 11.6% supported a constitutional monarchy. More than half of the respondents, 50.9%, considered the dictatorship of the junta had brought benefits to Greece.[17]

During the 2008 Beijing and 2012 London Olympics, Constantine II, in his role as honorary member of the International Olympic Committee, was the official presenter at the sailing medal ceremonies.

Constantine II is also Co-President of Honour of the International Sailing Federation with King Harald V of Norway, since 1994.[18]

As of 2013, Constantine II has returned to reside in Greece.[19]

In November 2015, the autobiography of Constantine was published in three volumes by the national newspaper, To Vima.[20] It has not yet been published in English.

Constantine serves as patron of Box Hill School, a public school in Dorking, in the south of England.

Marriage and children

On 18 September 1964, in a Greek Orthodox ceremony in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens, he married Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark.

The children of Constantine and Anne-Marie are:


Ancestors of Constantine II of Greece
8. George I, King of the Hellenes
4. Constantine I, King of the Hellenes
9. Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia
2. Paul, King of the Hellenes
10. Frederick III, German Emperor
5. Princess Sophia of Prussia
11. Victoria, Princess Royal
1. Constantine II, King of the Hellenes
12. Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
6. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick
13. Princess Thyra of Denmark
3. Princess Frederica of Hanover
14. Wilhelm II, German Emperor
7. Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia
15. Princess Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein

Titles, styles and honours

Titles and styles

He is known internationally, for example by the International Olympic Committee, as His Majesty King Constantine.[23] In Greece, he is referred to as ο τέως βασιλιάς or ο πρώην βασιλιάς ("the former king") or with the pejorative terms ο Τέως ("the Ex") or o Γκλύξμπουργκ ("Glücksburg"). He is referred to as ο βασιλιάς ("the king") by Greek monarchists. In an interview he gave on the 31 May 2016 edition of Istories on Skai TV, he said: "I am not the ex King Constantine, I am the King Constantine".[24]

As a male-line descendant of Christian IX of Denmark, he is also a Prince of Denmark.


National honours

Foreign honours


See also


  1. ^ Hope, Kevin. Referendum plan faces hurdles. Financial Times 1 November 2011.
  2. ^ "Constantine II", Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011, retrieved 12 November 2011, On 1 June 1973, the military regime ruling Greece proclaimed a republic and abolished the Greek monarchy. A referendum on July 29, 1973, confirmed these actions. After the election of a civilian government in November 1974, another referendum on the monarchy was conducted on 8 December. The monarchy was rejected, and Constantine, who had protested the vote of 1973, accepted the result.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Curley, W.J.P. (1975). Monarchs In Waiting. London: Hutchinson & Co Ltd. pp. 39–41. ISBN 0-09-122310-5.
  4. ^ "Olympic Records World Records". Olympic. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  5. ^ Crown Prince Konstantinos.
  6. ^ "Ailing Greek King Names Son Regent". The New York Times. 21 February 1964. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  7. ^ a b TV documentary "ΤΑ ΔΙΚΑ ΜΑΣ 60's – Μέρος 3ο: ΧΑΜΕΝΗ ΑΝΟΙΞΗ" Stelios Kouloglu
  8. ^ The Colonels on Trial. Time Magazine (11 August 1975)
  9. ^ a b Hindley, G (1979). The Royal Families of Europe. London: Lyric Books Ltd. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-07-093530-0.
  10. ^ R. Cronicles, The Referendum
  11. ^ Smith, Helena. "Greece's former king goes home after 46-year exile". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  12. ^ Helena Smith (29 November 2002). "Court deals decisive blow to deposed Greek royals". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  13. ^ a b "Throneless abroad: The men who would be king" TIME magazine (3 June 2002/Vol. 159 No. 22)
  14. ^ "King Without a Country", Vanity Fair (July 1995)
  15. ^ a b Βραβορίτου, Αγνή (25 April 2003). Δεν περνάει η μπογιά του. Eleftherotypia (in Greek). Χ. Κ. Τεγόπουλος Εκδόσεις Α.Ε. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  16. ^ Question '''S 3937''' to the Minister of Justice (11 September 2001). Retrieved on 9 April 2016.
  17. ^ The Greeks are looking for a new strong leader, To Vima, 22 April 2007;
  19. ^ Smith, Helena (15 December 2013). "Greece's former king goes home after 46-year exile". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  20. ^ The first volume of 'King Constantine' , 23 November 2015;
  21. ^ Maung, Carole Aye (5 September 1997). "Our Auntie Diana". The Mirror. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  22. ^ "Why European Royalty and Aristocrats are flocking to New York". Gotham Magazine.
  23. ^ HM King Constantine. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2016-09-16.
  24. ^ "'Κωνσταντίνος τέως Βασιλιάς της Ελλάδος' - ΙΣΤΟΡΙΕΣ, 31.05.2016 ΣΚΑΪ". Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  25. ^ 40th throne jubilee of Queen Margrethe II. – gala dinner – 42-31797623 – Rights Managed – Stock Photo – Corbis. (15 January 2012). Retrieved on 2016-04-09.
  26. ^ Gala Performance In The Royal Theatre In Preparation Danish Wedding. Getty Images. Retrieved on 9 April 2016.
  27. ^ JPG image.
  28. ^ Photographic image. Getty Images.
  29. ^ Photographic image. Getty Images.
  30. ^ "Image: 764633.jpg, (377 × 480 px)". Retrieved 2015-09-04.
  31. ^ "Greek royal jewels". Retrieved 2015-09-04.
  32. ^
  33. ^ Badraie image Archived 6 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 9 April 2016.
  34. ^ Photographic image. Getty Images.
  35. ^ Guests at the Royal Wedding of Beatrix and Claus.
  36. ^ "Wedding of Beatrix and Claus". Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  37. ^ Кавалеры 1-й степени. Saintanna.Ru. Retrieved on 9 April 2016.
  38. ^ List of recipients. Saintanna.Ru (16 February 2015). Retrieved on 2016-04-09.
  39. ^ Photographic image. Getty Images.
  40. ^ aloveofroyalhistory: Queen Rania of Jordan on the arm of King Constantine of Greece, 2010. | Rania of Jordan | Pinterest | Queen Rania, Greece and Jordans. Pinterest. Retrieved on 9 April 2016.
  41. ^ "Queen Anne Marie Of Greece Attends A Performance Of The Dramatic... News Photo | Getty Images". Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  42. ^ "Membership of the Constantinian Order". Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
  43. ^
  44. ^ "Official Website: Beppe Croce". Sailing. 21 February 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2013.


External links

Constantine II of Greece
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 2 June 1940
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of the Hellenes
6 March 1964 – 1 June 1973
Monarchy abolished
Government offices
Preceded by
as King of the Hellenes
Head of State of Greece
6 March 1964 – 1 June 1973
Succeeded by
Georgios Zoitakis

as Regent of Greece in Constantine's name
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
King of the Hellenes
1 June 1973 – present
Reason for succession failure:
Abolition of the monarchy in 1973/74
Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece
Lines of succession
Preceded by
Princess Mireille of Hanover
Line of succession to the British throne
descended from Victoria, Princess Royal, daughter of Queen Victoria
Succeeded by
Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark
Beppe Croce

Andrea Giuseppe "Beppe" Croce (11 December 1914 – 16 September 1986) was a sailor and yachtsman from Genova, Italy.

Yachting: from 1969 to his death in 1986, Croce was the first non-British president of the International Sailing Federation.

Croce was also the president of the Italian Sailing Federation (Federazione Italiana Vela) from 1957 to 1981 and of the Yacht Club Italiano from 1958 to 1986; he also was the vice president of the CONI (Comitato Olimpico Nazionale Italiano) for a long time.

In 1939 Croce won the Italian University Star Class championship, while in 1969 he won the 5.50 class Italian Championship on Lake Garda, where in 1964 he had also won a very peculiar edition of the Centomiglia regatta, finished by only three out of fifty participant boats due to the presence of very severe weather conditions.

Croce also competed in the 6 metre class at the 1948 Summer Olympics and contributed organizing the 1960 Naples sailing Olympics as the president of the Olympic Committee.

In 1952, together with his friend René Levainville, Croce founded the famous Giraglia Cup, a regatta between St. Tropez and Genova organized by the Yacht Club Italiano in collaboration with the Yacht Club de France, which nowadays involves hundreds of sailors and maxi yachts.

Croce played also a key role in the organization of the 1982 Azzurra America's Cup Challenge, the first Italian America's Cup challenge, financed by his friend and former Fiat president Gianni Agnelli; the boat competed under the patronage of the Yacht Club Costa Smeralda, founded by Karim Aga Khan. Together with Agnelli, Croce had previously visited President John Fitzgerald Kennedy in order to persuade him to accept the Italian challenge.

After Croce's death, a memorial celebration was held at London's Westminster Cathedral. The ceremony was attended, among others, by HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, King Constantine II of Greece, King Olaf V of Norway and Prince Aga Khan IV.

In memory of Beppe Croce, the International Sailing Federation presents every year since 1989 the prestigious ISAF Beppe Croce Trophy to an individual who has made an outstanding voluntary contribution to the sport of sailing: the roll of honour is an impressive one, including multiple Olympic medallists, rules gurus and designers.

During his life Croce assembled a unique collection of Yacht Portrait Paintings from 1800, which adorned the walls of his house in the beloved Portofino, where he also owned the famous Hotel Splendido.

Recently, his family gifted the Galata Museo del Mare in Genova, Croce's hometown, with more than 100 paintings from such collection, which are now permanently on show at the museum's Beppe Croce Gallery.

Box Hill School

Box Hill School is an independent coeducational boarding and day school situated in the village of Mickleham near Dorking, Surrey, England. The school has approximately 425 pupils aged 11–18. The school has a 70% day student:30% boarding student ratio, and is a founding member of the Round Square Conference of Schools.

The school has offered the International Baccalaureate since September 2008 and re-introduced A levels in 2013, meaning both are now available at Sixth Form. It is situated 40 minutes from central London on the direct Dorking and Leatherhead line. The school's patron is HM Constantine II of Greece.

Carlos Morales Quintana

Carlos Javier Morales Quintana (born 31 December 1970) is a Spanish architect and yachtsman. He is the husband of Princess Alexia of Greece and Denmark who is member of the Greek and Danish Royal Families.Carlos Morales was born on 31 December 1970 in Lanzarote, Spain to Luis Miguel Morales y Armas and María Teresa Quintana y González. He married Princess Alexia, the eldest daughter and child of King Constantine II of Greece and Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, on 9 July 1999 at St. Sophia Cathedral, London, England.

The couple have four children:

Arrietta Morales y de Grecia (born 24 February 2002 in Barcelona)

Ana María Morales y de Grecia (born 15 May 2003 in Barcelona)

Carlos Morales y de Grecia (born 30 July 2005 in Barcelona)

Amelia Morales y de Grecia (born 26 October 2007 in Barcelona)Carlos, Alexia and their family live now in Puerto Calero, Lanzarote, Canary Islands in a house that Carlos designed. Carlos Morales is the president of the J/80 fleet at Lanzarote.

Constantine II

Constantine II may refer to:

Constantine II (emperor) (317–340), Roman Emperor 337–340

Constantine III (usurper) (died 411), known as Constantine II of Britain in British legend

Constantine II of Byzantine (630–668)

Antipope Constantine II (died 768), antipope from 767–768

Constantine II of Scotland (c.878 – 952), King of Scotland 900–942 or 943

Constantine II, Prince of Armenia (died 1129)

Constantine II of Cagliari (c. 1100 – 1163)

Constantine II of Torres (died 1198), called de Martis, was the giudice of Logudoro

Constantine II the Woolmaker (died 1322), Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church

Constantine II, King of Armenia (died 1344), first Latin King of Armenian Cilicia of the Lusignan dynasty

Constantine II of Bulgaria (early 1370s–1422), last emperor of Bulgaria 1396–1422.

Eskender (1471–1494), Emperor of Ethiopia sometimes known as Constantine II

Constantine II of Georgia (c. 1447 – 1505)

Constantine II of Kakheti (died 1732), King of Kakheti 1722–1732

Constantine II of Greece (born 1940), Olympic champion (1960) and formerly King of the Hellenes March 6, 1964 – December 8, 1974

Daly College

The Daly College is a co-educational residential and day boarding school located in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. It was founded by Sir Henry Daly of the British Indian Army during India's colonial British Raj. The school started in 1870 as the Residency School. It was then renamed as the East Rajkumar College in 1876, and in 1882, it came to be known as The Daly College. It was established by the Resident Governor of the erstwhile Presidency, to educate the children of the royalty, nobility and aristocracy of Central Indian Princely States of the 'Marathas', 'Rajputs', 'Mohameddans' and 'Bundelas'. It is one of the oldest co-educational boarding schools in the world.As of 2015 the school has more than 2,000 students. It is ranked 1st in India by Educationworld India for the year 2015 in the category day-cum-boarding schools.Daly College is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and CIE. In 2007, the first International Round Square Conference was held at Daly College, and was attended by former King Constantine II of Greece as its president. In December that year, a commemorative stamp on the college was released by India Post. The school is a member of the G20 Schools Group. The Daly College now also has a Business School under its umbrella – the Daly College Business School (DCBS), in collaboration with the De Montfort University, Leicester, UK. DCBS offers an undergraduate course in business management- Bachelor in Management (Business Studies) (BMBS).

Deposition (politics)

Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch. It may be done by coup, impeachment, invasion, or forced abdication. The term may also refer to the official removal of a clergyman, especially a bishop, from ecclesiastical office.

Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen

Emich Carl, Prince of Leiningen (27 September 1763 – 4 July 1814) was a German nobleman. He is an ancestor of various European royals, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, and Constantine II of Greece. After his death, his widow, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, married a son of George III of the United Kingdom and became the mother of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom.

Etz Hayyim Synagogue

The Etz Hayyim Synagogue (Hebrew: בית הכנסת עץ חיים‎) is the only surviving remnant of the once Romaniote Jewish community on the Greek isle of Crete. After being restored, the synagogue (with its Mikveh) has become a tourist destination and has attracted visits from foreign dignitaries like Queen Sofía of Spain, the sister of the former King Constantine II of Greece, who made a sudden and unannounced visit to the site on March 6, 2006.

The synagogue was the target of an arson attack by a British citizen in January 5, 2010.Today the community is a symbol of a good living together. The community life has revived while almost all congregants are Non-Jews. Occasionally a Rabbi or (at the jewish holidays) someone who is able to blow the shofar visits the community. An International team takes care of the congregation work. Christians and Muslims are invited to visit the meetings and in opposition to other Jewish Congregations in Europe, the visitors have not to show their passport at the entrance.Despite of the community's romaniote past, the congregation today uses primarily the sefardic custom of Greece and has developed its own Haggadah text.

House of Glücksburg

The House of Glücksburg (also spelled Glücksborg), shortened from House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, is a Dano-German branch of the House of Oldenburg, members of which have reigned at various times in Denmark, Norway, Greece and several northern German states.

Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, King Harald V of Norway, King Constantine II of Greece, Queen Sofía of Spain and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (and his eldest son and heir to the British throne Prince Charles) are patrilineal members of cadet branches of the Glücksburg dynasty.

List of honours of the Greek royal family by country

This article serves as an index - as complete as possible - of all the honorific orders or similar decorations received by the Greek Royal Family, classified by continent, awarding country and recipient.

Marie-Chantal, Crown Princess of Greece

Marie-Chantal, Crown Princess of Greece (Marie-Chantal Claire; née Miller; born 17 September 1968) is the wife of Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, son of Constantine II of Greece and Anne-Marie of Denmark. Her husband is the heir apparent to the defunct throne of Greece, as the monarchy was abolished in 1973. She is a Danish princess by marriage, as her husband is a male-line descendant of Christian IX of Denmark.

Maurice, Count of Oldenburg

Maurice I (German: Moritz I.; c. 1145 – c. 1211) was Count of Oldenburg from 1169 through 1211. Count Maurice of Oldenburg was the son of Count Christian I of Oldenburg and his wife Kunigunde.

He married Salome, the daughter of Otto II, Count of Wickrath. He is the male-line progenitor of Margrethe II of Denmark, Harald V of Norway, Constantine II of Greece and Charles, Prince of Wales.

Porto Cheli

Porto Heli (Greek: Πορτοχέλι, also Porto Cheli) is a summer resort town in the municipality of Ermionida in the southeastern part of Argolis, Greece. It is situated on a bay of the Argolic Gulf, 6 km south of Kranidi and 40 km southeast of Nafplio. The island of Spetses is located 6 km south of Porto Heli. There are ferry connections from Porto Heli to the islands of Spetses, Hydra and Poros, and to Ermioni and Piraeus. There is a small private airport, Porto Cheli Airport, south of the town.

The luxury resort Amanzoe, an Aman Resorts property, is a few miles outside of Porto Cheli.

The ancient city of Halieis (named Halike by Pausanias), excavated by Michael H. Jameson, is situated near Porto Heli.The former King Constantine II of Greece lives with his wife the Queen Anne-Marie of Greece in Porto Cheli.

Prince Achileas-Andreas of Greece and Denmark

Prince Achileas-Andreas of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Αχιλλέας Ανδρέας, born 12 August 2000) is a member of the Greek royal family. He is the second son and third child of Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece and Marie-Chantal Miller. His paternal grandparents are Constantine II of Greece and Anne-Marie of Denmark, who were the last King and Queen of the Hellenes. He is currently third in the line of succession to the former Greek throne.

Princess Alice of Battenberg

Princess Alice of Battenberg (Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie; 25 February 1885 – 5 December 1969) was the mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and mother-in-law of Queen Elizabeth II.

A great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria, she grew up in the United Kingdom, the German Empire, and the Mediterranean. She was congenitally deaf. After marrying Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark in 1903, she adopted the style of her husband, becoming Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark. She lived in Greece until the exile of most of the Greek royal family in 1917. On returning to Greece a few years later, her husband was blamed in part for the country's defeat in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), and the family was once again forced into exile until the restoration of the Greek monarchy in 1935.

In 1930, she was diagnosed with schizophrenia and was committed to a sanatorium in Switzerland; thereafter, she lived separately from her husband. After her recovery, she devoted most of her remaining years to charity work in Greece. She stayed in Athens during the Second World War, sheltering Jewish refugees, for which she is recognised as "Righteous Among the Nations" by Israel's Holocaust memorial institution, Yad Vashem. After the war, she stayed in Greece and founded an Orthodox nursing order of nuns known as the Christian Sisterhood of Martha and Mary.

After the fall of King Constantine II of Greece and the imposition of military rule in Greece in 1967, she was invited by her son and daughter-in-law to live at Buckingham Palace in London, where she died two years later. Her remains were transferred from a vault in her birthplace, Windsor Castle, to a Russian Orthodox convent on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem in 1988.

Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark

Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Ειρήνη; born 11 May 1942) is the youngest child of King Paul of Greece and his wife Princess Frederika of Hanover. She is the younger sister of Queen Sofía of Spain and of the deposed King Constantine II of Greece.

Princess Maria-Olympia of Greece and Denmark

Princess Maria-Olympia of Greece and Denmark (born 25 July 1996 in New York City) is an American-born fashion model, socialite and member of the Greek royal family. She is the oldest child and only daughter of Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece and his wife, Marie-Chantal Miller. Her paternal grandparents are Constantine II of Greece and Anne-Marie of Denmark, who were the last King and Queen of the Hellenes, while her maternal grandfather is duty free entrepreneur Robert Warren Miller. She is currently sixth in the line of succession to the former throne of Greece, after her father and brothers.

Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia

Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia (Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte; 13 September 1892 – 11 December 1980) was the only daughter and the last child of German Emperor Wilhelm II and Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein. She was a great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria through her father. Her 1913 marriage to Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover was the largest gathering of reigning monarchs in Germany since German unification in 1871, and one of the last great social events of European royalty before the First World War began fourteen months later.

Shortly after the wedding, she became the Duchess of Brunswick by marriage. Through her daughter Frederica, Princess Victoria Louise was the maternal grandmother of Queen Sophia of Spain (mother of Felipe VI, King of Spain) and the former King Constantine II of Greece.


A reign is the period of a person's or dynasty's occupation of the office of monarch of a nation (e.g., Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Andorra), of a people (e.g., the Franks, the Zulus) or of a spiritual community (e.g., Roman Catholicism, Tibetan Buddhism, Nizari Ismailism). In most hereditary monarchies and some elective monarchies (e.g., Holy Roman Empire) there have been no limits on the duration of a sovereign's reign or incumbency, nor is there a term of office. Thus, a reign usually lasts until the monarch dies, unless the monarchy itself is abolished or the monarch abdicates or is deposed.

In elective monarchies, there may be a fixed period of time for the duration of the monarch's tenure in office (e.g., Malaysia).

The term of a reign can be indicated with the abbreviation "r." (for Latin rexit) after a sovereign's name, such as the following:

George VI, King of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions, Emperor of India (r. 1936–1952)

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