Constantin Brâncuși

Constantin Brâncuși (Romanian: [konstanˈtin brɨŋˈkuʃʲ] (listen); February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957) was a Romanian sculptor, painter and photographer who made his career in France. Considered a pioneer of modernism, one of the most influential sculptors of the 20th-century, Brâncuși is called the patriarch of modern sculpture. As a child he displayed an aptitude for carving wooden farm tools. Formal studies took him first to Bucharest, then to Munich, then to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1905 to 1907. His art emphasizes clean geometrical lines that balance forms inherent in his materials with the symbolic allusions of representational art. Brâncuși sought inspiration in non-European cultures as a source of primitive exoticism, as did Paul Gauguin, Pablo Picasso, André Derain and others. However, other influences emerge from Romanian folk art traceable through Byzantine and Dionysian traditions.[1]

Constantin Brâncuși
Edward Steichen - Brancusi
Photograph taken by Edward Steichen in 1922

BornFebruary 19, 1876
DiedMarch 16, 1957 (aged 81)
Paris, France
Resting placeCimetière du Montparnasse, Paris
EducationÉcole des Beaux-Arts
Known forSculpture
Notable work
AwardsElection to Romanian Academy
Patron(s)John Quinn

Early years

Constantin Brancusi c.1905
Brâncuși c. 1905
Constantin Brancusi, Portrait of Mlle Pogany, 1912, Philadelphia Museum of Modern Art, Philadelphia
Constantin Brâncuși, Portrait of Mademoiselle Pogany [1], 1912, White marble; limestone block, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show.

Brâncuși grew up in the village of Hobiţa, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, close to Romania's Carpathian Mountains, an area known for its rich tradition of folk crafts, particularly woodcarving. Geometric patterns of the region are seen in his later works.

His parents Nicolae and Maria Brâncuși were poor peasants who earned a meager living through back-breaking labor; from the age of seven, Constantin herded the family's flock of sheep. He showed talent for carving objects out of wood, and often ran away from home to escape the bullying of his father and older brothers.

At the age of nine, Brâncuși left the village to work in the nearest large town. At 11 he went into the service of a grocer in Slatina; and then he became a domestic in a public house in Craiova where he remained for several years. When he was 18, Brâncuși created a violin by hand with materials he found around his workplace. Impressed by Brâncuși's talent for carving, an industrialist entered him in the Craiova School of Arts and Crafts (școala de arte și meserii), where he pursued his love for woodworking, graduating with honors in 1898.[2]

He then enrolled in the Bucharest School of Fine Arts, where he received academic training in sculpture. He worked hard, and quickly distinguished himself as talented. One of his earliest surviving works, under the guidance of his anatomy teacher, Dimitrie Gerota, is a masterfully rendered écorché (statue of a man with skin removed to reveal the muscles underneath) which was exhibited at the Romanian Athenaeum in 1903.[3] Though just an anatomical study, it foreshadowed the sculptor's later efforts to reveal essence rather than merely copy outward appearance.

Working in Paris

Constantin Brancusi, 1907-08, The Kiss, Exhibited at the Armory Show and published in the Chicago Tribune, 25 March 1913.
Constantin Brâncuși, 1907-08, The Kiss. Exhibited in 1913 at the Armory Show and published in the Chicago Tribune, 25 March 1913

In 1903, Brâncuși traveled to Munich, and from there to Paris. In Paris, he was welcomed by the community of artists and intellectuals brimming with new ideas.[4] He worked for two years in the workshop of Antonin Mercié of the École des Beaux-Arts, and was invited to enter the workshop of Auguste Rodin. Even though he admired the eminent Rodin he left the Rodin studio after only two months, saying, "Nothing can grow under big trees."[2]

After leaving Rodin's workshop, Brâncuși began developing the revolutionary style for which he is known. His first commissioned work, The Prayer, was part of a gravestone memorial. It depicts a young woman crossing herself as she kneels, and marks the first step toward abstracted, non-literal representation, and shows his drive to depict "not the outer form but the idea, the essence of things." He also began doing more carving, rather than the method popular with his contemporaries, that of modeling in clay or plaster which would be cast in metal, and by 1908 he worked almost exclusively by carving.

In the following few years he made many versions of Sleeping Muse and The Kiss, further simplifying forms to geometrical and sparse objects.

His works became popular in France, Romania and the United States. Collectors, notably John Quinn, bought his pieces, and reviewers praised his works. In 1913 Brâncuși's work was displayed at both the Salon des Indépendants and the first exhibition in the U.S. of modern art, the Armory Show.

Edward Steichen - Brancusi's studio, 1920.jpeg
Brâncuși's Paris studio, 1920, photograph by Edward Steichen

In 1920, he developed a notorious reputation with the entry of Princess X[5] in the Salon. The phallic appearance of this large, gleaming bronze piece scandalized the Salon and, despite Brâncuși's explanation that it was simply meant to represent the essence of womanhood, removed it from the exhibition. Princess X was revealed to be Princess Marie Bonaparte, direct descendant of the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. The sculpture has been interpreted by some as symbolizing her obsession with the penis and her lifelong quest to achieve vaginal orgasm, with the help of Sigmund Freud.[6][7][8][9]

Around this time Brâncuși began crafting the bases for his sculptures with much care and originality because he considered them important to the works themselves.

One of his major groups of sculptures involved the Bird in Space — simple abstract shapes representing a bird in flight. The works are based on his earlier Măiastra series.[10] In Romanian folklore the Măiastra is a beautiful golden bird who foretells the future and cures the blind. Over the following 20 years, Brâncuși made multiple versions of Bird in Space out of marble or bronze. Athena Tacha Spear's book, Brâncuși's Birds, (CAA monographs XXI, NYU Press, New York, 1969), first sorted out the 36 versions and their development, from the early Măiastra, to the Golden Bird of the late teens, to the Bird in Space, which emerged in the early 1920s and which Brâncuși developed throughout his life.

One of these versions caused a major controversy in 1926, when photographer Edward Steichen purchased it and shipped it to the United States. Customs officers did not accept the Bird as a work of art and assessed customs duty on its import as an industrial item. After protracted court proceedings, this assessment was overturned, thus confirming the Bird's status as a duty-exempt work of art.[11][12] The ruling also established the important principle that "art" does not have to involve a realistic representation of nature, and that it was legitimate for it to simply represent an abstract concept – in this case "flight".[13][14]

Armory Show 2
Armory Show, 1913, North end of the exhibition, showing some of the modernist sculptures. In Arts Revolutionists of Today (1913), the caption for this photo reads: "At the left of the picture is a much-discussed portrait bust of Mlle. Pogany, a dancer, by Brâncuși. This freak sculpture resembles nothing so much as an egg and has excited much derision and laughter..."[15]

His work became increasingly popular in the U.S, where he visited several times during his life. Worldwide fame in 1933 brought him the commission of building a meditation temple in India for Maharajah of Indore, but when Brâncuși went to India in 1937 to complete the plans and begin construction, the Mahrajah was away and lost interest in the project when he returned.

In 1938, he finished the World War I monument in Târgu-Jiu where he had spent much of his childhood. Table of Silence, The Gate of the Kiss, and Endless Column commemorate the courage and sacrifice of Romanians who in 1916 defended Târgu Jiu from the forces of the Central Powers. The restoration of this ensemble was spearheaded by the World Monuments Fund and was completed in 2004.

The Târgu Jiu ensemble marks the apex of his artistic career. In his remaining 19 years he created less than 15 pieces, mostly reworking earlier themes, and while his fame grew he withdrew. In 1955 Life magazine reported, "Wearing white pajamas and a yellow gnome-like cap, Brâncuși today hobbles about his studio tenderly caring for and communing with the silent host of fish, birds, heads, and endless columns which he created."

Brâncuși was cared for in his later years by a Romanian refugee couple. He became a French citizen in 1952 in order to make the caregivers his heirs, and to bequeath his studio and its contents to the Musée National d'Art Moderne in Paris.

Personal life

Brancusi, Roche, Satie & Foster 1923
Brâncuși (left) with Henri-Pierre Roché, Erik Satie and Jeanne Robert Foster playing golf in 1923

Brâncuși always dressed in the simple ways the Romanian peasants did. His studio was reminiscent of the houses of the peasants from his native region: there was a big slab of rock as a table and a primitive fireplace, similar to those found in traditional houses in his native Oltenia, while the rest of the furniture was made by him out of wood. Brâncuși would cook his own food, traditional Romanian dishes, with which he would treat his guests.[16]

Brâncuși held a large spectrum of interests, from science to music. He was a good violinist and he would sing old Romanian folk songs, often expressing by them his feelings of homesickness. After the installment of communism, he never considered moving back permanently to his native Romania, but he did visit it eight times.[16][17]

His circle of friends included artists and intellectuals in Paris such as Amedeo Modigliani, Ezra Pound, Henri Pierre Roché, Guillaume Apollinaire, Louise Bourgeois, Pablo Picasso, Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, Henri Rousseau, Peggy Guggenheim, Tristan Tzara and Fernand Léger. He was an old friend of Romany Marie,[18] who was also Romanian, and referred Isamu Noguchi to her café in Greenwich Village.[19] Although surrounded by the Parisian avant-garde, Brâncuși never lost contact with Romania and had friends from the community of Romanian artists and intellectuals living in Paris, including Benjamin Fondane, George Enescu, Theodor Pallady, Camil Ressu, Nicolae Dărăscu, Panait Istrati, Traian Vuia, Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran and Paul Celan.[20]

Brâncuși held a particular interest in mythology, especially Romanian mythology, folk tales, and traditional art (which also had a strong influence on his works), but he became interested in African and Mediterranean art as well.[21]

A talented handyman, he built his own phonograph and made most of his furniture, utensils, and doorways. His worldview valued "differentiating the essential from the ephemeral," with Plato, Lao-Tzu, and Milarepa as influences. He was a saint-like idealist and near ascetic, turning his workshop into a place where visitors noted the deep spiritual atmosphere. However, particularly through the 1910s and 1920s, he was known as a pleasure seeker and merrymaker in his bohemian circle. He enjoyed cigarettes, good wine, and the company of women. He had one child, John Moore, with the New Zealand pianist Vera Moore, whom he never acknowledged.[2][22][23]

Death and legacy

ROL 500 1991 reverse
Constantin Brâncuși on the 500 Lei Romanian banknote (1991–1992 issue)

Brâncuși died on March 16, 1957, aged 81. He was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. This cemetery also displays statues that Brâncuși carved for deceased artists.

In 1962, Georg Olden used Brâncuși's Bird in Space as the inspiration behind his design of the Clio Award statuette.[24]

At his death Brâncuși left 1200 photographs and 215 sculptures. He bequeathed part of his collection to the French state, after it was refused by the Romanian Communist government, on condition that his workshop be rebuilt as it was on the day he died. This reconstruction of his studio, adjacent to the Pompidou Centre, is open to the public. Brâncuși's studio inspired Swedish architect Klas Anshelm's design of the Malmö Konsthall, which opened in 1975.[25]

Brâncuși was elected posthumously to the Romanian Academy in 1990.[26]

Google commemorated his 135th birthday with a Doodle in 2011 consisting of seven of his works.[27]

Brâncuși's works are housed in the National Museum of Art of Romania (Bucharest), the Museum of Modern Art (New York) and other museums around the world. The Philadelphia Museum of Art holds the largest collection of Brâncuși sculptures in the United States.[28]

In 2015 the Romanian Parliament declared February 19 "The Brâncuși Day", a working holiday in Romania.[29]

Art market

Brâncuși's piece Madame L.R. sold for €29.185 million ($37.2 million) in 2009, setting a record price for a sculpture sold at auction.[30]

In May 2018, La Jeune Fille Sophistiquée (Portrait de Nancy Cunard), a polished bronze on a carved marble base (1932), sold for US$71 million (with fees) at Christie's New York, setting a world record auction price for the artist.[31]

Brâncuși on his own work

(in French) "Il y a des imbéciles qui définissent mon œuvre comme abstraite, pourtant ce qu'ils qualifient d'abstrait est ce qu'il y a de plus réaliste, ce qui est réel n'est pas l'apparence mais l'idée, l'essence des choses."[32][33] "There are idiots who define my work as abstract; yet what they call abstract is what is most realistic. What is real is not the appearance, but the idea, the essence of things."
(in Romanian) "Am șlefuit materia pentru a afla linia continuă. Și când am constatat că n‑o pot afla, m‑am oprit; parcă cineva nevăzut mi‑a dat peste mâini."[34] "I ground matter to find the continuous line. And when I realized I could not find it, I stopped, as if an unseen someone had slapped my hands."
(in Romanian) "Muncește ca un sclav, poruncește ca un rege, creează ca un zeu."[35]

"Work like a slave; command like a king; create like a god."

Selected works

Both Bird in Space and Sleeping Muse I are sculptures of animate objects; however, unlike ones from Ancient Greece or Rome, or those from the High Renaissance period, these works of art are more abstract in style.

Bird in Space is a series from the 1920s. One of these, constructed in 1925 using wood, stone, and marble (Richler 178) stands around 72 inches tall and consists of a narrow feather standing erect on a wooden base. Similar models, but made from materials such as bronze, were also produced by Brâncuși and placed in exhibitions.

Sleeping Muse I has different versions as well; one, from 1909–10, is made of marble and measures 6 ¾ in. in height (Adams 549). This is a model of a head, without a body, with markings to show features such as hair, nose, lips, and closed eyes. In A History of Western Art, Adams says that the sculpture has "an abstract, curvilinear quality and a smooth contour that create an impression of elegance" (549). The qualities which produce the effect can particularly be seen in the shape of the eyes and in the set of the mouth.

Other works


Brancusi, Portrait of Eileen Lane c. 1922

'Fish' by Constantin Brâncusi, Tate Modern

Brancusi Fish Tate Modern Collection

In fiction

  • Robert McAlmon's 1925 collection of short stories Distinguished Air includes one that revolves around an exhibition of Princess X. In 1930 the watercolour painter Charles Demuth painted Distinguished Air, based on this story.[37]
  • In Evelyn Waugh's novel Brideshead Revisited, Anthony Blanche remarks in relating a story to Charles Ryder that "I have two sculptures by Brancusi and several pretty things" [sic].
  • In the 1988 movie Short Circuit 2, a man walking through an outdoor exhibition speculates that the stationary Johnny 5 robot, who is also admiring the exhibit, is "an early Brâncuși."
  • In the 1999 science fiction series Total Recall 2070, one episode ("Astral Projections") featured an artifact called the "Brancusi Stone" because it looks like one of Brâncuși's sculptures.
  • In the 2000 film Mission to Mars, the "Face on Mars" is modeled after Brâncuși's Sleeping Muse.


  1. ^ MoMA, Constantin Brancusi, The Collection, Sanda Miller, Grove Art Online, 2009 Oxford University Press
  2. ^ a b c Constantin Brâncuși Archived 2006-12-20 at the Wayback Machine at (Accessed March 27, 2007.)
  3. ^ Brezianu, B.; Geist, S. (1965). "The Beginnings of Brancusi". Art Journal. 25 (1): 15–25. doi:10.2307/774863. JSTOR 774863.
  4. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art website
  5. ^ Philadelphia Museum of Art, Princess X
  6. ^ Princess Marie Bonaparte, De la Sexualité de la Femme, Grove Press, 1962
  7. ^ Marie Bonaparte, Actions culturelle et pédagogique, Commémorations nationales, recueil 2012, Sciences et techniques, Archives de France
  8. ^ Ryudolph Maurice Loewenstein, ed; Schur, Max, ed; Princess Marie Bonaparte, 1882-1962, Drives, affects, behavior, New York,: International Universities Press
  9. ^ Jennifer Blessing; Judith Halberstam, 1961, Rrose is a rrose is a rrose : gender performance in photography, 1961; Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, N.Y.
  10. ^ Măiastra
  11. ^ Force Metal ezine Archived 2006-06-21 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Tomkins, Calvin: Duchamp: A Biography, pages 272, 275, 318. Henry Holt and Company, Inc, 1996.
  13. ^ Thomas L Hartshorne, "Modernism on Trial: C Brancusi v United States (1928)", Journal of American Studies vol 129 No 1 (April 1986), 93
  14. ^ McCouat, Philip. "The Controversies of Brancusi". Journal of Art in Society.
  15. ^ Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Walt Kuhn scrapbook of press clippings documenting the Armory Show, vol. 2, 1913, Page 135
  16. ^ a b Sandqvist, p. 249
  17. ^ Pavel Ţugui, Dosarul Brâncuşi, Editura Dacia, Cluj, 2001, p. 64
  18. ^ Robert Shulman. Romany Marie: The Queen of Greenwich Village (pp. 85-86, 109). Louisville: Butler Books, 2006. ISBN 1-884532-74-8.
  19. ^ John Haber. "Before Buckyballs". Review of Noguchi Museum's Best of Friends exhibition (2006).
  20. ^ Sandqvist, p. 249-250
  21. ^ Sandqvist, p. 250
  22. ^ "Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957)". Christie's.
  23. ^ "Bonhams : Alfred Wallis (1855-1942) Two boats 10 x 14 cm. (4 x 5 1/2 in.)". Retrieved 2016-08-14.
  24. ^
  25. ^ "About Malmö Konsthall". Malmö Konsthall. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
  26. ^ "Comunicat 06.03.2001 - Anunt an Brancusi (Communique 06.03.2001 - Ad Brancusi Year)". The Romanian Academy. 2001-03-06. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  27. ^ Gripper, Ann (9 February 2011). "Constantin Brancusi doodle: Which sculptures make up the Google Doodle?". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  28. ^ David Netto (2011-02-25). "Hymn to Flight". Wall St Journal. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  29. ^ "Legea pentru declararea Zilei Brâncuşi ca sărbătoare naţională a fost promulgată de Iohannis" (in Romanian). Mediafax. 2015-11-27. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
  30. ^ Culturekiosque Staff (2009-02-24). "The Yves Saint Laurent and Pierre Bergé collection: A bruised beau monde binges". Culturekiosque. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  31. ^ A Malevich and a Bronze by Brancusi Set Auction Highs for the Artists, New York Times, 15 May 2018
  32. ^ "Sculptura pe Internet" (in Romanian). Caiete Silvane magazine. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  33. ^ original quote: Guilbert, Clair Gilles: Propos de Brancusi Prisme des Arts 12 (Dec. 1957), pages 5-7
  34. ^ Vavila Popovici. "Jurnal American - 21 Septembrie, altă zi la New York" (in Romanian). Centrul Cultural Pitești. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  35. ^ Matei Stircea-Craciun. "Brancusi - De la Maiastra la Pasare in Vazduh (II)" (in Romanian). Observator Cultural. Retrieved 2011-03-13.
  36. ^ "Princess X". Philadelphia Museum of Art.
  37. ^ "Distinguished Air, Charles Demuth (1930)". Whitney Museum of American Art.


  • Tom Sandqvist, Dada East – The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, MIT Press, 2006, ISBN 0-262-19507-0
  • Adams, Laura S. A History of Western Art. 4th ed. New York: McGraw–Hill, 2005.
  • Richler, Martha. National Gallery of Art, Washington: A World of Art. London: Scala Books, 1998.
  • Neutres, Jerome. Brâncuși New York, 1913-2013. New York: Editions Assouline, 2014. ISBN 9781614281962
  • Varia, Radu. Brancusi. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.

External links

Allianz Tower

Allianz Tower is a fifty-floor, 209-metre-tall (686 ft) skyscraper in Milan, Italy.

In 2016, Il Dritto was nominated by Emporis as the third-best skyscraper that was completed in 2015.Il Dritto (The Straight One in English) or Allianz Tower is currently one of the tallest buildings in Italy at 209 m (686 ft)—249 m (817 ft) with broadcast antenna—and with its 50 floors is the tallest to the roof. It was designed by the Japanese architect Arata Isozaki and Italian architect Andrea Maffei.

The tower is composed by eight modules by six floors each one. The façade of the module is composed by a triple-glass unit slightly curved to outside. The vertical succession of rounded forms create a feeling of slight vibration of the volume of the building as it rises upward. Elevations of the short sides are fully glazed and show the mechanical series of six panoramic lifts going up and down to the various floors of the building.

The idea of an endless tower can be compared to previous ambitions of other artists such as Constantin Brâncuși, for example, who in 1937–38 installed one of his endless columns of Târgu Jiu in the park to create repeatable systems indefinitely.

The building serves as the headquarters of the Allianz Group and the Italian parent company Allianz SpA.

Bird in Space

Bird in Space (L'Oiseau dans l'espace) is a series of sculptures by Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. The original work was created in 1928. It was sold in 2005 for $27.5 million, at the time a record price for a sculpture sold in an auction.

The original title in Romanian is Pasărea în văzduh.

Constantin Brâncuși University

Constantin Brâncuși University Universitatea "Constantin Brâncuși") is a university located in the city of Târgu Jiu, Romania. It was established as a stand-alone university in 1992, and it is named after the sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. Prior to 1992 it offered technology degrees as part of University of Craiova.

The university is organized in three faculties and one academic departments.

Faculty of Education, Law and Public Administration

Faculty of Economics

Faculty of Technical, Medical and Behavioral SciencesDepartment of Teacher TrainingThe chancellor of the university is Toader Nicoara, PhD.


Contimporanul (antiquated spelling of the Romanian word for "the Contemporary", singular masculine form) was a Romanian (initially a weekly and later a monthly) avant-garde literary and art magazine, published in Bucharest between June 1922 and 1932. Edited by Ion Vinea, Contimporanul was prolific in the area of art criticism, dedicating entire issues to modern art phenomena, and organizing the Bucharest International Modern Art Exhibit in December 1924 (with the participation of Constantin Brâncuși).

Several writers contributing to Contimporanul soon moved on to adopt more specific styles, including a literary form of constructivism (which was the dominant style of the magazine for a certain period), Dada, and, eventually, surrealism.

Dimitrie Paciurea

Dimitrie Paciurea (Romanian pronunciation: [diˈmitri.e paˈt͡ʃjure̯a] (listen); 2 November (1873 or 1875) – 14 July 1932) was a Romanian sculptor. His representational and symbolic style contrasts strongly to the more abstract style of his contemporary and co-national Constantin Brâncuși.

Born in Bucharest, he studied in Bucharest (1890–1894) and Paris (1896–1900). Paciurea was one of the founders of the Romanian Art Society (1919). A room of the Romanian National Art Museum is devoted largely to his Chimera sculptures.

Eustațiu Stoenescu

Eustațiu Stoenescu (Craiova, 1884-New York City, 1957) was a Romanian painter principally known for his portraiture.Stoenescu was, early on, inspired by the work of Jean-Paul Laurens with whom he studied. By 1930 he was considered in French art circles to be the greatest living Romanian painter at the time.He was a friend of the sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, who made a (lost) portrait bust of Stoenescu's son Daniel Eustațiu Stoenescu (b. 1921-d.after 1970). Daniel went on to become a successful, Coty Award winning designer of inventive costume jewellery who, with Steven Brody, founded the Cadoro jewelry company in Manhattan.

Hakone Open-Air Museum

Hakone Open-Air Museum (箱根 彫刻の森美術館, Hakone Choukoku no Mori Bijutsukan) is Japan's first open-air museum, opened in 1969 in Hakone in Ashigarashimo District, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It has collections of artworks made by Picasso, Henry Moore, Taro Okamoto, Yasuo Mizui, Churyo Sato, and many others, featuring over a thousand sculptures and works of art. The museum is affiliated with the Fujisankei Communications Group media conglomerate.

The museum houses over 1,000 sculptures and features art by Henry Moore, Constantin Brâncuși, Barbara Hepworth, Rokuzan Ogiwara, and Kōtarō Takamura. The sculptural works in Hakone Open-Air Museum has about 120 on permanent display across the huge sculpture park.

Henri Lazarof

Henri Lazarof (Bulgarian: Хенри Лазаров) (April 12, 1932 – December 29, 2013) was a Bulgarian composer.

Born in Sofia, Bulgaria, his formal musical training began in Israel under Paul Ben-Haim. After a short stint in Rome, Lazarof settled in the United States, studying with Harold Shapero and Arthur Berger at Brandeis University. After earning a master's degree in 1959, Lazarof began teaching composition at UCLA and was active in promoting the music of his contemporaries. He was given the title Professor Emeritus at UCLA.

Lazarof wrote seven symphonies, nine string quartets, concerti for clarinet, violin and cello, a string octet, and various chamber music. But perhaps he is best known for his Tableaux for piano and orchestra. His music has been recorded on the Composers Recordings, Inc., Naxos Records and Delos labels.

In December 2007, Janice and Henri Lazarof gave the Los Angeles County Museum of Art 130 mostly Modernist works estimated to be worth more than $100 million. The collection includes 20 works by Picasso, watercolors and paintings by Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky and a considerable number of sculptures by Alberto Giacometti, Constantin Brâncuși, Henry Moore, Willem de Kooning, Joan Miró, Louise Nevelson, Archipenko and Arp.His notable students include Edward Applebaum, Don Davis and Daniel Kessner. See: List of music students by teacher: K to M#Henri Lazarof.

I Am Princess X

I Am Princess X is a 2015 book by Cherie Priest. It first published on May 26, 2015 through Arthur A. Levine Books and its story is told through a hybrid of traditional novel and graphic novel formats. The work is not related to the 1916 sculpture Princess X by Constantin Brâncuși.

Les Lalanne

Les Lalanne are a French artist duo comprising married couple François-Xavier Lalanne (1927–2008) and Claude Lalanne (born 1924).

Francois-Xavier Lalanne was born in Agen, France, and received a Jesuit education. At age 18, he moved to Paris and studied sculpture, drawing and painting at Académie Julian. Francois-Xavier rented a studio in Montparnasse, next door to friend Constantin Brâncuși, after completing mandatory military service. Brâncuși introduced Lalanne to artists such as Max Ernst, Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, and Jean Tinguely. He met Claude Lalanne at his first gallery show in 1952. The show signified an end of painting for François-Xavier as he and Claude began their career sculpting together.

In 1983 Lalanne was commissioned by the French Ministry of Culture to design new monumental fountains for the square in front of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris, and also to design gardens for the reconstructed Les Halles in the center of Paris.Claude Lalanne (b. 1924) was born in Paris and studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts and at the École des Arts Décoratifs. She involved herself in the artist community in Impasse Ronsin, Montparnasse, Paris and became friends with American artists Larry Rivers and Jimmy Metcalf who helped her develop the art of electro-plating.Claude Lalanne became known to the larger public in France in 1976 when the singer Serge Gainsbourg selected one of her works, the man with the head of a cabbage, for the title and cover of an album in 1976.

Les Lalanne are represented by Paul Kasmin Gallery in New York City and Ben Brown Fine Arts in London.

Noesis Cultural Society

The Noesis Cultural Society (Romanian Societatea Culturală Noesis) is a Romanian organization that produces and markets CD-ROM-based works pertaining to Romanian culture and thought. They are based in Bucharest, Romania. "Noesis" is an Ancient Greek word for "thought".

Founded in autumn 1998 by Remus Cernea, among their projects to date as of 2004 are "virtual encyclopedias" on Constantin Brâncuși, Nichita Stănescu, and I.L. Caragiale. They have also produced several "virtual anthologies" of contemporary Romanian artists, writers, and academics. Each of these anthologies has contained the equivalent of fifty ordinary books on a CD-ROM and has sold for a price comparable to a single book. This strategy is particularly interesting for a country where money is generally in short supply, but where most academics and intellectuals have access to computers.

Paul Guillaume

Paul Guillaume (1891 in Paris – 1934 in Paris) was a French art dealer. Dealer of Chaim Soutine and Amedeo Modigliani, he was one of the first to organize African art exhibitions. He also bought and sold many works from cutting edge artists of the time, such as Henri Matisse, Constantin Brâncuși, Pablo Picasso, and Giorgio de Chirico.


Peștișani is a commune in Gorj County, Romania. It is composed of seven villages: Boroșteni, Brădiceni, Frâncești, Gureni, Hobița, Peștișani and Seuca.

Hobița village is the birthplace of sculptor Constantin Brâncuși.

Princess X

Princess X is a sculptured rendering of the French princess, Marie Bonaparte, by the artist Constantin Brâncuși. Princess Bonaparte was the great-grand niece of the emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. The artist, Constantin Brâncuși, was born in Hobiţa, Romania in early 1876. The piece was created between 1915 and 1916. The sculpture was originally the final piece of a collection of sketches, Brâncuși worked on. The polished bronze atop a limestone block stands a little over two and a half feet tall, and is currently being held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.Brâncuși was born in a small Romanian village in 1876. At eleven years old, Brâncuși left his village and traveled through several Romanian cities, where he worked in several different crafts. He set foot in Paris in 1904, where he began sculpting and perfecting his style, later recognized as simplistic and abstract.According to the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Brâncuși had been "at the center of two of modern arts most notorious scandals." One of the scandals was that the Salon des Indépendants, in Paris where Brâncuși practiced his trade, discontinued the display of Princess X for its apparent obscene content, as some thought it looked like a penis. After having his art taken off display, Brâncuși was shocked. He declared the incident a misunderstanding. He had created Princess X not as a sculpture depicting a more masculine subject, but the object of feminine desire and vanity.

After much accusation, Brâncuși insisted the sculpture had been his rendition of Marie Bonaparte.

Brâncuși discussed the comparison of the bronze figure to the princess. He described his detestation of Marie, as a "vain woman." He claimed she went as far as placing a hand mirror on the table at mealtimes, so she could gaze upon herself. The sculpture's C-like form reveals a woman looking over and gazing down, as if looking into an object. The large anchors of the sculpture resemble the "beautiful bust" which she possessed. Without knowing the context, to a viewer Princess X could look like an erect penis. The princess as seen shown to the right, Brâncuși allows to gaze upon herself in an eternal loop locked in the bronze sculpture.

The style of Brâncuși is one that "was largely fueled by myths, folklore, and primitive culture," this combined with the modern materials and tools Brâncuși used to sculpt, "formed a unique contrast...resulting in a distinctive kind of modernity and timelessness." The technique Brâncuși was known for and used on Princess X could be mistaken for a penis, but in fact it was the simple form of a woman.

What my art is aiming at, is above all realism; pursue the inner hidden reality, the very essence of objects in their own intrinsic fundamental nature: this is my only preoccupation.

Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu

The Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu is an homage to the Romanian heroes of the First World War. The ensemble comprises three sculptures: The Table of Silence, The Gate of the Kiss and the Endless Column, on an axis 1,300 m (4,250 ft) long, oriented west to east. The ensemble is considered to be one of the great works of 20th-century outdoor sculpture.

Sleeping Muse

The Sleeping Muse is a bronze sculpture created by Constantin Brâncuși in 1910. It was originally carved from marble using Baroness Renée Irana Franchon as the model. Refining the sculpture, Brâncuși cast several of the sculptures in bronze, which are now in museums around the world, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and the Musée National d'Art Moderne in Paris. It is a model of a head, without a body, with markings to show features such as hair, nose, lips, and closed eyes. In A History of Western Art, Laurie Adams says that the sculpture has “an abstract, curvilinear quality and a smooth contour that create an impression of elegance.” By casting them in metal with a fine finish, these sculptures are "self-sufficient, archetypal modern forms".

The Kiss (Brâncuși sculpture)

The Kiss (in Romanian: Sărutul /səruːtul/) is a sculpture by Romanian Modernist sculptor Constantin Brâncuși. It is an early example of his proto-cubist style of non-literal representation.

This plaster was exhibited at the 1913 Armory Show and published in the Chicago Tribune of 25 March 1913. This early plaster sculpture is one of six casts that Brancusi made of the 1907–08 The Kiss.

VersionsThe original stone carving is in the Muzeul de Arta at Craiova, Romania.Brâncuși created many versions of The Kiss, further simplifying geometric forms and sparse objects in each version, tending each time further toward abstraction. His abstract style emphasizes simple geometrical lines that balance forms inherent in his materials with the symbolic allusions of representational art. Here, the shape of the original block of material is maintained. Another version of The Kiss serves as an adornment of a tomb in Montparnasse cemetery in Paris, France but has since August 2017 been covered up in a box. Another version still can be seen at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.This version of The Kiss is one of the artist's most well known works, along with Sleeping Muse (1908), Prometheus (1911), Mademoiselle Pogany (1913), The Newborn (1915), Bird in Space (1919) and The Column of the Infinite (Coloana infinitului), known as The Endless Column (1938).

Torso of a Young Man

Torso of a Young Man is a sculpture created by Constantin Brâncuși between 1917 and 1922. It depicts the male torso as a cylinder mounted on vestigial cylindrical legs, cut off at mid-thigh. Sidney Geist has pointed out that the sculpture, without genitalia, is itself a phallus with testes. There are several versions. Torso of a Young Man I was carved from a fork in a maple branch wood mounted on a limestone block. It is now in the Brodsky Gallery of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. A similar sculpture, dated 1923 and carved in walnut, is in the Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Brancusi also cast the torso in highly polished bronze. The two examples of this version are held in the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden

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