|Prince of Wallachia|
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Spouse||Doamna Marica Brâncoveanu|
Saints Constantin, Constantin, Ștefan, Radu and Matei Brâncoveanu
|Died||15 August 1714|
Constantinople, Ottoman Empire
|Venerated in||Romanian Orthodox Church and Russian Orthodox Church|
|Canonized||20 June 1992, Bucharest|
|Major shrine||Relics at the New Church of St. George, Bucharest.|
|Feast||16 August (Eastern Orthodox Church)|
|Attributes||They are usually depicted together, wearing golden cloaks.|
A descendant of the Craiovești boyar family and related to Matei Basarab, Brâncoveanu was born at the estate of Brâncoveni and raised in the house of his uncle, stolnic Constantin Cantacuzino. He soon became involved in the conflict between Constantin and Şerban Cantacuzino, and rose to the throne after the latter died in mysterious circumstances. He was initially supported by Constantin Cantacuzino, but the two ended up facing each other in a violent competition. Cantacuzino was exiled, and began advocating his son's Ștefan's candidacy to the throne, while competing with Brâncoveanu for the support of the Ottoman Empire - Wallachia's overlord.
The prince took steps in negotiating anti-Ottoman alliances first with the Habsburg Monarchy, and then with Peter the Great's Russia (see Russo-Turkish War, 1710-1711): upon the 1710 Russian intervention in Moldavia, the prince contacted Tsar Peter and accepted gifts from the latter, while his rivalry with the Moldavian Prince Dimitrie Cantemir (the main regional ally of the Russians) prevented a more decisive political move. Instead, Brâncoveanu gathered Wallachian troops in Urlați, near the Moldavian border, awaiting for Russian troops to storm into his country and offer his services to the tsar, while also readying to join the Ottoman counter-offensive in the event of a change in fortunes. When several of his boyars fled to the Russian camp, the prince saw himself forced to decide in favor of the Ottomans or risk becoming an enemy of his Ottoman suzerain, and swiftly returned the gifts he had received from the Russians.
Such policies were eventually denounced to the Porte. Brâncoveanu was deposed from his throne by Sultan Ahmed III, and brought under arrest to Constantinople, where he was imprisoned in 1714 at the fortress of Yedikule (the Seven Towers).
There he was tortured by the Ottomans, who hoped to locate the immense fortune he had supposedly amassed. He and his four sons were beheaded on the same day in August, together with Prince Constantin's faithful friend, grand treasurer Enache Văcărescu.
According to his secretary, Anton Maria Del Chiaro, their heads were then carried on poles through the streets of Constantinople, an episode which caused a great unrest in the city. Fearing a rebellion, including from that of the Muslim population which was outraged by the injustice done to the Prince, his sons and his close friend, [who?] ordered for the bodies to be thrown into the Bosporus. Christian fishermen took the bodies from the water, and buried them at the Halchi Monastery, in the city's vicinity.
The circumstances and facts of Constantin's death are recorded in history, and his santification is recognized by all The Eastern Orthodox Churches.
Dragoș Ungureanu, a specialist at the National Patrimony Institute, makes "a clear distinction between the holiness status of Prince Brâncoveanu and the same quality of some European monarchs who haven't suffered a martyr's death. Brâncoveanu was canonised for his and his sons' martyrdom, just like the martyrdom of Christians in ancient Rome, killed for their faith in Christ. And just like other Christian martyrs, Brâncoveanu had to choose between his and his sons' death, and their conversion to Islam."
On 15 August 1714, the Feast of the Dormition, when Constantin Brâncoveanu was also celebrating his 60th birthday, he and his four sons and his advisor Ianache were brought before Sultan Ahmed III of Turkey. Diplomatic representatives of Austria, Russia, France and England were also present. After all of his fortune has been seized, in exchange for the life of his family he was asked to renounce the Orthodox Christian faith. He reportedly said: ″Behold, all my fortunes and all I had, I have lost! Let us not lose our souls. Be brave and manly, my beloved! Ignore death. Look at how much Christ, our Savior, has endured for us and with what shameful death he died. Firmly believe in this and do not move, nor leave your faith for this life and this world.″ After this, his four sons, Constantin, Ștefan, Radu and Matei and advisor Ianache were beheaded in front of their father.
History also that the smallest child, Matei (12 years old) was so frightened after seeing the bloodbath and the heads of his three brothers that he started crying and asking his father to let him renounce Christianity and convert to Islam as the Sultan Ahmed III had demanded. At that moment, Constantin Brâncoveanu said: "Of our kind none have lost their faith. It is better to die a thousand times than to leave your ancient faith just to live few more years on earth." Matei listened and offered his head. After Brâncoveanu himself was decapitated, their heads were impaled on javelins and displayed in a procession. Their bodies were left before the gate and later on thrown into the waters of the Bosphorus.
Brâncoveanu was a great patron of culture, his achievements being part of the Romanian and world cultural heritage. Under his reign, many Romanian, Greek, Bulgarian, Arabic, Turkish, and Georgian texts were printed after a printing press was established in Bucharest - an institution overseen by Anthim the Iberian. In 1694, he founded the Royal Academy of Bucharest.
In his religious and laic constructions, Brâncoveanu harmoniously combined in architecture the mural and sculptural painting, the local tradition, the Neo-Byzantine style and the innovative ideas of the Italian Renaissance, giving rise to Brâncovenesc style. The most accomplished and the best preserved example of Brâncovenesc style architecture is Hurezi monastery, inscribed by UNESCO on its list of World Heritage Sites, where Brâncoveanu intended to have his tomb. Other buildings erected by him are Mogoşoaia Palace complex, Potlogi Palace, Brâncoveanu monastery. Such cultural ventures relied on increased taxation, which was also determined by the mounting fiscal pressure of the Ottomans (adding in turn to Brâncoveanu's determination to strip Wallachia of Turkish rule).
Brâncoveanu left to the secular Romanian spirituality a few fundamental books, printed for the first time in Wallachia; among them, Aristotle's Ethics, the Flower of the Gifts and the Philosophical Examples, the last two being translated and printed by Antim Ivireanul. The neo-Romanian style was born from the style of the monasteries, of the houses and of the palaces of Brâncoveanu and it became, through Ion Mincu and his school, the national style at the time of the affirmation of the cultural identities of the nations of Europe in the beginning of the 20th century.
The architectural Brâncovenesc style is found in the churches of the Monasteries of Hurezi, Râmnicu Sarat, Doicesti and Saint George's New Church in Bucharest. Among secular buildings, the style can be found in Mogosoaia palace and the reworked Old Court.
In June 1992, the Sinode of the Romanian Orthodox Church decreed the sanctification of Constantin Brâncoveanu, his sons Constantin, Radu, Ştefan and Matei, and vornic Ianache Văcărescu. On March 7, 2018, the decision of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church added these saints to the calendar of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The intrigue marking Constantin's ascension and reign is reflected in chronicles of the time, which are ideologically divided: Letopisețul Cantacuzinesc gives a bleak account of Șerban's rule, as does Cronica Bălenilor; Radu Greceanu's is an official account of Brâncoveanu's rule, and Radu Popescu is adverse to Cantacuzino rulers.
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Monastery|
|Location||Brâncoveni, Olt County, Romania|
|Architect(s)||Patroness Celea (1570–83)|
Matei Basarab and Preda Brâncoveanu (1634–40)
Constantin and Ștefan Brâncoveanu (1699–1704)
Theodosius of Trebizond (1842)
|Direction of façade||West|
Dimitrie Cantemir's Historia Hieroglyphica is centered on the clash, and reflects Cantemir's preference for Constantin Cantacuzino, who was also related to Dimitrie through marriage (despite the fact that Cantemir and Brâncoveanu have taken the same side in the conflict with the Porte).
Ștefan Cantacuzino's brief rule saw in turn the downfall of the Cantacuzinos; he and his father were executed by the Ottomans, who saw the solution to the risk of Wallacho-Russian alliances in imposing the rigid system of Phanariote rule (inaugurated in Wallachia by Nicholas Mavrocordato, who, through his previous rule in Moldavia, is also considered the first Phanariote in that country).
Through his death, Constantin Brâncoveanu became the hero of a series Romanian folk ballads, as well as being depicted on some of Romania's official coinage. According to the Romanian Orthodox Church, the reason for his and his sons' execution was their refusal to give up their Christian faith and convert to Islam. In 1992 the Church declared him, his sons, and Enache saints and martyrs (Sfinții Martiri Binecredinciosul Voievod Constantin Brâncoveanu, împreună cu fiii săi Constantin, Ștefan, Radu, Matei și sfetnicul Ianache - "The Martyr Saints the Right-Believing Voivode Constantin Brâncoveanu, together with his sons Constantin, Ștefan, Radu, Matei, and the counselor [Enache]"). Their feast day is August 16.
[...] Then Costandin-vodă [old rendition of his name] as well, arriving to his seat in Bucharest, catching news of the Austrians having entered his country and having reached Târgoviște, immediately left his seat [...] went forth towards Pitariului Bridge, setting camp in the river meadow of Plătăreşti, leaving behind the ispravnic [...] with orders that, when the Austrians were to arrive in Bucharest, he was to provide them with all supplies they would need.
Subsequently [the Austrian General], upon understanding this [action], immediately sent a letter to Costandin-vodă, inviting him to return to his seat and join [the Austrians] in harassing the Turk.
Then Costandin-vodă, upon understanding this, called as soon as he could the Metropolitan Theodosie, as well as all his lower and higher boyars, summoning a great council on what was to be done, whereupon some of the boyars vigorously showed themselves to favor Costandin-vodă's rejection of the Turks and his joining the Austrians; while another bunch of boyars, foremost Costandin [Constantin] Cantacuzino, who has been great stolnic, and Mihai Cantacuzino, the great spătar, believed this not to constitute good advice, as, where such a thing to happen, the nearby Tatars [who were Ottoman allies] would immediately arrive with a mighty force in order to enslave and plunder the country, and the Austrians would prove of no help. And immediately they moved spot and went to the village of Ruși, where the princely fish ponds are located.
Then [the Austrian General] came to Drăgănești, inviting Costandin-vodă to leave Ruși and meet him in Drăgănești, showing himself a great friend towards Costandin-vodă, asking him, in all good faith, to teach him what he should do next. And he told all the truth about how his and his troops' arrival had been brought about by the lies of [a high boyar], and how [the boyar] had boasted that, were [they] to enter the country, all boyars and all country would pay allegiance to [them], but that this had not in fact happened.
Thus Costandin-vodă told him the whole truth, about how the Tatars wished to enter his country, and [he] threw a major banquet in his honor and then returned to Bucharest in great fear. And the Tatars, aware of the Austrian presence, wasted no time in raising troops for the Sultan and sent forth messengers to Costandin-vodă, telling him that they were to come in the country to fight the Austrians.
Thus Costandin-vodă, upon hearing news of this, became very saddened, most of all considering the plight of the poor country, and immediately lifted camp and left for Buzău. And when he arrived there, he sent his Lady and all her ladies-in-waiting to the convent [...], and he rode with a few of his men to meet the Sultan, paying him high allegiance and offering him many gifts.
It is then that the Sultan saw that Costandin-vodă was not being rebellious, but rather [his] honest servant, and gave him assurance that his country would not be enslaved, and that [the Ottomans] were instead to meet the Austrians, who were their enemies.
Brâncoveanu and his wife Marica had seven daughters and four sons. Although all of his sons were murdered, many of his daughters had issue. Brâncoveanu's first born, Constantin II, also had a son who survived exile and rose to be a mare ban (foremost state function in Wallachian political hierarchy, except for the ruler). The male line of the Brâncoveanu family became extinguished in 1932, when Grigore Brâncoveanu died without having any children of his own. Yet he adopted a relative (who was also a descendant of Constantin Brâncoveanu) and thus passed the family name on.
According to a genealogical study, roughly 250 of his bloodline were alive at the middle of the 19th century. Amongst them Gheorghe Bibescu and Barbu Știrbei (rulers of Wallachia and Moldova), famous revolutionary Alexandru Ipsilanti, Romanian Prime ministers Barbu Catargiu, Nicolae Kretzulescu, George Manu and Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino "Nababul" and historians Dan and Mihnea Berindei.
(date of marriage)
Constantin II Brâncoveanu
|Anița, daughter of Ion Balș, Moldavian boyar.
(20 January 1706)
Constantin II was Brâncoveanu's first son, albeit not his first offspring. He had one son, Constantin III, who was spared by the Ottomans: he later engaged in politics and furthered the family's name.
Bălașa, daughter of Ilie Cantacuzino.
Ștefan was noted for his accomplished classical education. He is the author of several books in ancient Greek. His line ended with his daughter, who bore no children.
Engaged to a daughter of Antioh Cantemir, former Moldavian ruler, but the planned marriage didn't come to fruition in light of the 1714 events.
At the time of his death 11 or 12 years of age. A number of more and less reliable accounts of the August 1714 martyrdom state that he made a plea for his life, but his father convinced him not to trade his faith for his life. Was killed in front of his father.
|Source: If nothing else mentioned, Chiriță 1932|
| Prince of Wallachia
The first Romanian Bible translation is the Calvinist Palia de la Orăștie (Saxopolitan Old Testament) from 1581/1582. The translators were Hungarian Calvinist priests from Transylvania. The first complete translation to Romanian was made in 1688 (called "Biblia de la Bucureşti"). The Old Testament was translated by Moldavian-born Nicolae Milescu in Constantinople. The translator used as his source a Septuagint published in Frankfurt in 1597. The manuscript was afterwards revised in Moldova and later brought to Bucharest, where it was again subject to revision by a team of Wallachian scholars (among whom were Radu and Şerban Greceanu) with the help of Şerban Cantacuzino and Constantin Brâncoveanu.
Before the publication of the Bucharest Bible, other partial translations were published, such as the Slavic-Romanian Gospel (1551), Coresi's Gospel (1561), The Braşov Psalm Book (1570), Palia from Orăştie (1582), The New Testament of Alba Iulia (1648) and others. In September 1911, the British and Foreign Bible Society printed the Iasi Old Testament with the Nitzulescu New Testament, revised by Professor Garboviceanu and checked by Prof Alexics. This was the official BFBS text before Cornilescu was adopted in 1924, but was more literal. This text was revised by Cornilescu from 1928 and printed by the Bible Society in 1931 but has not been issued since.
Two main translations are currently used in Romanian. The Orthodox Church uses the Synodal Version, the standard Romanian Orthodox Bible translation, published in 1988 with the blessings of Patriarch Teoctist Arăpașu. The Protestant denominations mainly use the Bible Society translation translated by Dumitru Cornilescu. The New Testament was first published in 1921, and the whole Bible with references in 1924, produced by the British and Foreign Bible Society. In 1989 appeared an unofficial revision by German publishing house Gute Botschaft Verlag (GBV); it tried to get the existing translation closer to the original manuscripts, in a form grammatically corrected and adapted according to the evolution of the modern Romanian language.
The British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS), operating in Romania through the Interconfessional Bible Society of Romania (SBIR), brought out a special 90th anniversary definitive edition of the Cornilescu Bible in 2014, with many errors corrected.
Petru Pavel Aron
Constantin Brâncoveanu - into Romanian
Dumitru Cornilescu - Protestant, translated into Romanian
Gala Galaction - Romanian Orthodox, translated into Romanian
Radu and Şerban Greceanu - translated into RomanianBrâncoveanu
Brâncoveanu may refer to:
Constantin Brâncoveanu metro station
Constantin Brâncoveanu University
Constantin Brâncoveanu, a village in Dragalina Commune, Călăraşi County, Romania
Brâncoveanu, a village in Odobeşti Commune, Dâmboviţa County, RomaniaBrâncovenesc style
The Brâncovenesc style /brɨŋkovenesk/, also known as Wallachian Renaissance and Romanian Renaissance, is an art and architectural style that evolved during the administration of Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Brâncoveanu was an administrator of the Principality of Wallachia (between 1688 and 1714) under Ottoman Empire overlords, an extremely wealthy aristocrat, and a builder of fine palaces and churches.Brâncoveni
Brâncoveni is a commune in Olt County, Romania. It is composed of four villages: Brâncoveni, Mărgheni, Ociogi and Văleni.Bucharest Bible of 1688
The Bucharest Bible (Romanian: Biblia de la București; also known as the Cantacuzino Bible) was the first complete translation of the Bible into the Romanian language, published in Bucharest in 1688.
It was ordered and patronized by Șerban Cantacuzino, then-ruler of Wallachia, and overseen by logothete Constantin Brâncoveanu.
It's a compilation based on a "Frankfurt Septuagint" from 1597 compared with a Venetian Bible printed in 1687 both translated by the Greceanu brothers, an Old Testament by Nicolae Milescu and a New Testament of Transylvania's Metropolitan Simion Stefan from 1648 patronized by Prince György Rákóczi.
The translation project started somewhere in 1682, the material being collected and organized by Archbishop Germanus of Nyssa from the Patriarchal Academy of Constantinople, Sevastos Kyminitis from the Greek School of Bucharest, Radu Greceaunu and Stefan Greceanu. None of them is mentioned in the book. The final draft was submitted for correction to Bishop Mitrofan of the Husi Diocese (mentioned on the last page). The printing run began on 5 November 1687 and ended on 10 November 1688. It was printed in the Metropolitanate's Press of Bucharest under the see of Theodosius, Metropolitan of Hungro-Wallachia.
It was a milestone for the Romanian culture and for the Romanian Language to be used in the church. At the time, Romanian language was despised and it was not used in the Romanian Church, For example, in 1698 Atanasie Anghel was ordained Archbishop of Transylvania receiving specific orders from Dositheos of Jerusalem to "read aloud inside the church either in Greek or Church Slavonic since Romanian is too small and too limited". The same year Atanasie proclaimed the union of the Transylvanian Orthodox Church with "Rome", creating the Romanian Church United with Rome, escaping the Greek-Slavic (Bulgarian) control of the Romanian Church...Băile Govora
Băile Govora (or just Govora) is a Romanian spa town in Vâlcea County, about 20 km (12.43 mi) south-west of Râmnicu Vâlcea and west of the Olt river, in the historical region of Oltenia. Notable features of the town (beside its mineral springs, recommended for a variety of ailments) include the Govora abbey (built in the 15th century and consolidated by Matei Basarab and later by Constantin Brâncoveanu) and the nearby Dintr-un lemn Monastery (16th or 17th century; the legend of its origin was recorded by Paul of Aleppo).
Govora Abbey was the site where Matei Basarab introduced the first printing press in Wallachia – where the first written code of laws in Romanian was published, Pravila de la Govora, in 1640.
The town administers three villages: Curăturile, Gătejești and Prajila.Codrii Vlăsiei
Codrii Vlăsiei was the forest that once covered parts of southern Romania, including the territory of today's Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County.
The thick forests were used by Romanians as a retreat during the age of migrations because they were not easy to cross on horseback. In fact, the name of the forest means "the Forests of Wallachia". Codrii means "forests" in the Romanian language, while Vlăsiei is the genitive form of Vlăsia, the Slavic denomination for Wallachia.
The thick forest was also useful in the Middle Ages, being used by several voivods to defeat other armies. In 1456, Vlad Ţepeş defeated his rival Vladislav Dan at Târgșor at the edge of Codrii Vlăsiei. This was also the place where Vlad defeated the Ottoman army that came to depose him. It is also thought that Vlad was assassinated there following a plot of the boyars. The forests were later a hideout for highwaymen, haiducs and other outlaws.
Between 1692 and 1700, a paved road which linked the centre of Bucharest to the Mogoşoaia Palace of Constantin Brâncoveanu was built through the forest. Named Podul Mogoșoaiei, it was made of oak wood.
Most roads in the Balkans at that time became muddy in the spring and autumn, and the wood prevented this. Consequently, the road was one of the most important construction works of the area and a source of pride to Bucharesters. In 1842 the road was paved with cobblestone. It was later upgraded to asphalt. The road was renamed "Calea Victoriei" after the Romanian victory in the Independence War of 1877-78.
Most of the forest was intact until the 19th century, when commerce involving cereals and wood began to develop in Wallachia and the forest was razed for the land to be used in agriculture. Of the old forests only a few small areas remain, mostly north of Bucharest, in localities such as Snagov, Pustnicul, Cernica, Romaneşti and Comana. The surface of forests is currently just about. 35 000 ha.Băneasa Forest, situated in the north of Bucharest, is in danger to be transformed in a park.
The slicing of forest estates as a result of restitution of forestland to the pre-World War II owners creates major difficulties in the management of forests from the area, which imposes new rules in the unitary management of forests as well.Constantin Brâncoveanu University
The Constantin Brâncoveanu University is a private university in Bucharest, Romania, founded in 1991.Constantin Brâncoveanu metro station
Constantin Brâncoveanu is a metro station in Bucharest. It is named after Constantin Brâncoveanu, a Wallachian prince (1654–1714).
It is located at the junction of the Olteniței road (Șoseaua Olteniței) and the Constantin Brâncoveanu boulevard (Bd. Constantin Brâncoveanu), right next to the southern entrance into Tineretului Park, providing easy access to the Sala Polivalentă (Polivalenta Hall, a frequent host to sport events and concerts). Here you can find "Oraselul copiilor"(City of the kids) the greatest amusement park in Romania.
Since the fall of communism the platform has been dominated by a statue of Constantin Brâncoveanu and his sons, replacing the old statue of Ion Popescu-Puturi, a communist leader.Dragalina, Călărași
Dragalina is a commune in Călărași County, Romania, named after the Romanian general Ion Dragalina. It is composed of three villages: Constantin Brâncoveanu, Dragalina and Drajna Nouă.
As of 2007 the population of Dragalina is 8,575.Horezu Monastery
The Horezu Monastery or Hurezi Monastery was founded in 1690 by Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu in the town of Horezu, Wallachia, Romania. It is considered to be a masterpiece of "Brâncovenesc style", known for its architectural purity and balance, the richness of its sculpted detail, its treatment of religious compositions, its votive portraits, and its painted decorative works.
The Brâncovenesc style, which can be found at several other churches and monasteries in Wallachia, is the only true and original Romanian style and is called "Brancoveanu art" by the name of the ruler who, in a period of constant battles between the world powers of that time, put cultural development of the country above everything and made it the goal of his life.
The monastery has been inscribed by UNESCO on its list of World Heritage Sites.House of Basarab
The Basarabs (also Bazarabs or Bazaraads, Romanian: Basarab pronounced [basaˈrab] (listen)) were a family which had an important role in the establishing of the Principality of Wallachia, giving the country its first line of Princes, one closely related with the Mușatin rulers of Moldavia. Its status as a dynasty is rendered problematic by the official elective system, which implied that male members of the same family, including illegitimate offspring, were chosen to rule by a council of boyars (more often than not, the election was conditioned by the military force exercised by candidates). After the rule of Alexandru I Aldea (ended in 1436), the house was split by the conflict between the Dănești and the Drăculești, both of which claimed legitimacy. Several late rulers of the Craiovești claimed direct descent from the House after its eventual demise, including Neagoe Basarab, Matei Basarab, Constantin Șerban, Șerban Cantacuzino, and Constantin Brâncoveanu.
Rulers usually mentioned as members of the House include (in chronological order of first rule) Mircea the Elder, Dan II, Vlad II Dracul, Vlad III the Impaler, Vlad the Monk, Radu IV the Great, and Radu of Afumați.Kretzulescu Church
Kretzulescu Church (Romanian: Biserica Kretzulescu or Crețulescu) is an Eastern Orthodox church in central Bucharest, Romania. Built in the Brâncovenesc style, it is located on Calea Victoriei, nr. 45A, at one of the corners of Revolution Square, next to the former Royal Palace.
The church was commissioned in 1720–1722 by the boyar Iordache Crețulescu and his wife Safta, a daughter of prince Constantin Brâncoveanu. Originally, the exterior was painted, but since the restoration work done in 1935–1936 (under the supervision of architect Ștefan Balș), the facade is made of brick. The frescoes on the porch date from the original structure, while the interior frescoes were painted by Gheorghe Tattarescu in 1859–1860.
The church, damaged during the November, 1940 earthquake, was repaired in 1942–1943. In the early days of the communist regime, Kretzulescu Church was slated for demolition, but was saved due to efforts of architects such as Henriette Delavrancea-Gibory. More renovations took place after the Bucharest earthquake of 1977 and the Revolution of 1989. To the side of the church now stands now a memorial bust of Corneliu Coposu.Matei Balș
Matei G. Balș (1905–1989) was a Romanian bacteriologist.
He was born in Bucharest into the boyar Balș family. His paternal grandmother was a sister of Dimitrie A. Sturdza; on his mother's side, Barbu Știrbey was an uncle, and an aunt was married to Ion I. C. Brătianu. His maternal grandfather was Alexandru B. Știrbei, and he was a direct descendant of Constantin Brâncoveanu. He graduated from the medical faculty of Bucharest University in 1930. After a bacteriology internship at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, he returned home to collaborate with his uncle Ioan Cantacuzino, who was married to the sister of father. The two worked at the infectious disease hospital in Colentina. In 1942, while Romania was at war with the Soviet Union, he was the director of a hospital on the Eastern Front. After a communist regime was set up in 1947, he was allowed only a very small team of collaborators, and his teaching activity was also affected. Nevertheless, the regime was more tolerant of medical authorities with aristocratic origins than of their counterparts in other fields.From 1944 to 1952, Balș was instructor, rising to associate professor (1952-1956) and then full professor at what was now the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy. Later, he became dean of the Medical-Pharmaceutical Institute and of the specialization faculty for doctors and pharmacists, serving from 1962 to 1972. He established the discipline of clinical bacteriology in Romania, raising the profile of the country's research into infectious pathology. His research extended into virology. He was also prolific as the head of a medical research team and teaching laboratories. He published over 350 scientific papers domestically and 35 abroad. In 1969, he became a titular member of the Academy of Medicine. He also belonged to the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the New York Academy of Sciences.In 1999, Bucharest's infectious disease institute was named after Balș. He and his wife Lucia Cantacuzino had a son and a daughter. His brother Alexandru, an engineer, died at Pitești prison.Mogoșoaia
Mogoșoaia is a commune in the west of Ilfov County, Romania, composed of a single village, Mogoșoaia.
In late 17th century, Constantin Brâncoveanu bought land here, and, between 1698–1702, he built the Mogoșoaia Palace.Mogoșoaia Palace
Mogoșoaia Palace (in Romanian: Palatul Mogoșoaia, pronounced [paˈlatul moɡoˈʃo̯aja]) is situated about 10 kilometres from Bucharest, Romania. It was built between 1698-1702 by Constantin Brâncoveanu in what is called the Romanian Renaissance style or Brâncovenesc style. The palace bears the name of the widow of the Romanian boyar Mogoș, who owned the land it was built on.Tineretului Park
Tineretului Park (Romanian: Parcul Tineretului, "Youth's Park") is a large public park in southern Bucharest (Sector 4).William Paget, 6th Baron Paget
William Paget, 6th Baron Paget (10 February 1637 – 26 February 1713) was an English peer and ambassador.
Paget was English ambassador to Vienna between 1689 and 1692. Appointed as ambassador to the Ottoman Empire at Constantinople in June 1692. The Royal Instructions arrived on 5 September and he left England a week later. He travelled via Vienna, which he left on 12 December, arriving at Adrianople on 30 January 1693. He finally reached Constantinople in July. Paget asked to be recalled in 1697, during which time he was central to the negotiation of the Treaty of Carlowitz between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs. His cousin, the poet Aaron Hill, visited him in Constantinople. He was finally brought home in May 1702.
Paget owned considerable estates in Staffordshire, particularly around Burton on Trent. In 1699, he obtained an Act of Parliament to extend navigation on the River Trent from Nottingham up to Burton, but nothing was immediately done. In 1711, Lord Paget leased his rights to George Hayne, who carried out improvements, quickly opening the river to Burton and stimulating the export of Burton Ale.Ștefan Cantacuzino
Ștefan Cantacuzino (Greek: Στέφανος Καντακουζηνός, Stephanos Kantakouzinos), was a Prince of Wallachia between April 1714 and January 21, 1716, the son of stolnic Constantin Cantacuzino. He was married to Păuna Greceanu-Cantacuzino.