In United States local government, a consolidated city-county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation, and a county, which is an administrative division of a state. It has the powers and responsibilities of both types of entities.
A consolidated city-county is different from an independent city, although the latter may result from consolidation of a city and a county and may also have the same powers as a consolidated city-county. An independent city is a city not deemed by its state to be located within the boundary of any county and recognized by its state as a legal territorial entity separate from surrounding or adjoining counties. A consolidated city-county differs from an independent city in that the city and county both nominally exist, although they have a consolidated government, whereas in an independent city, the county does not even nominally exist.
Not considering Hawaii, which has no independent cities, the Midwest and Upper South have the highest concentration of large consolidated city-county governments in the United States, including Indianapolis, Indiana; Nashville, Tennessee; Louisville, Kentucky; Kansas City, Kansas; and Lexington, Kentucky. Currently, the largest consolidated city-county in the United States by population is Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, while the largest by land area is Sitka, Alaska.
According to information compiled by former Albuquerque mayor David Rusk, 105 referenda were held in the United States between 1902 and 2010 to consider proposals to consolidate cities and counties. Only 27 of these proposals were approved by voters.
Wyandotte County, Kansas, uses the term "unified government" to refer to its consolidation with Kansas City, Kansas, and most of the towns within the county boundaries in which some cities and towns remain separate jurisdictions within the county. Individual sections of a metropolitan or regional municipality may retain some autonomous jurisdiction apart from the citywide government.
Often, in place of another level of government, local governments form councils of governments – essentially governmental organizations which are not empowered with any law-making or law enforcement powers. This is the case in the Atlanta metropolitan area, where the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) studies and makes recommendations on the impact of all major construction and development projects on the region, but generally cannot stop them. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA) is a true government agency of the state of Georgia, and does control some state transportation monies to the cities and counties, but otherwise has very little authority beyond this small power of the purse.
The case of New York City is unique, in that the city consists of five boroughs, each of which is co-extensive with a county. Each borough, being coterminous with a county, has its own district attorney; however, county-level government is essentially non-existent as all executive and legislative power is exercised by the city government throughout the five boroughs. The city, as currently constituted, was created in 1898 when the city of New York (then comprising what would become the boroughs of Manhattan and The Bronx) annexed Kings County, Queens County, and Richmond County as the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island, respectively.
Similar arrangements also exist in other countries. England has six "metropolitan counties" created in 1974: Greater Manchester, Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands, and West Yorkshire. From 1986, these metropolitan counties do not have county councils but rather joint boards for certain functions. Modern unitary authorities are similar, and are known as county boroughs in Wales. In Scotland, Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow are functionally "independent cities", though the term is not used. London is unique however, being a ceremonial county (officially known as Greater London) containing the ancient City of London and 32 London boroughs. The single square mile that comprises the City of London is only a tiny part of the London as a capital city, which takes up 607 square miles.
In the Canadian province of Ontario, there exist several single-tier municipalities which serve the same sort of functions as American consolidated city-counties. One example of this is the City of Toronto, which was created in 1998 from the amalgamation of the central government and the six constituent municipalities of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto (a type of regional municipality) which was originally created in 1954.
In Germany, Berlin and Hamburg are both cities and states (the state of Bremen consists of the cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven). Nearly every larger city in Germany is a consolidated city-county, like Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich or Dresden; Austria, where the capital of Vienna is both a city and state; France, where the capital city of Paris has been coterminous with the département of Paris since 1968; and South Korea, where Seoul is a special city, while six other cities (Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Incheon, and Ulsan) are metropolitan cities. Additionally, the Australian Capital Territory government in Australia performs all municipal functions of the city of Canberra, and thus functions as an integrated city-territory. Similarly, the City of Tokyo merged with the prefecture to form Tokyo metropolis in 1943.
In nine consolidated city-county governments in the United States, the formerly independent incorporated places maintain some governmental powers. In these cities, which the United States Census Bureau calls "consolidated cities", statistics are recorded both for the entire consolidated government and for the component municipalities. A part of the consolidated government is called the "balance", which the Census Bureau defines as "the consolidated city minus the semi-independent incorporated places located within the consolidated city".
These consolidated cities are:
Five cities in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia were formed by the consolidation of a city with a county: Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach (from Norfolk, Elizabeth City, Warwick, Nansemond, and Princess Anne counties, respectively). However, in each case an independent city was created and as such they are not consolidated city-counties. Instead, the Code of Virginia uses the term "consolidated city." Similarly, Carson City was consolidated with Ormsby County, Nevada in 1969, but the county was simultaneously dissolved. The city is now a municipality independent of any county.
Anaconda, county seat of Deer Lodge County, which has a consolidated city-county government, is located in southwestern Montana of the United States. Located at the foot of the Anaconda Range (known locally as the "Pintlers"), the Continental Divide passes within 8 mi (13 km) south of the community. As of the 2010 census the population of the consolidated city-county was 9,298, with a per capita personal income of $20,462 and a median household income of $34,716. It had earlier peaks of population in 1930 and 1980, based on the mining industry. As a consolidated city-county area, it ranks as the ninth most populous city in Montana, but as only a city is far smaller. Central Anaconda is 5,335 ft (1,626 m) above sea level, and is surrounded by the communities of Opportunity and West Valley.
The county area is 741 square miles (1,920 km2), characterized by densely timbered forestlands, lakes, mountains and recreation grounds. The county has common borders with Beaverhead, Butte-Silver Bow, Granite, Jefferson and Powell counties.Chattahoochee County, Georgia
Chattahoochee County, also known as Cusseta-Chattahoochee County, is a county located in the west central portion of the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,267. The county seat is Cusseta, with which the county shares a consolidated city-county government. Despite the city-county government Cusseta is not coterminous with the county; it remains a geographically distinct municipality within the county. The county was created on February 13, 1854.
Chattahoochee County is included in the Columbus, GA-AL Metropolitan Statistical Area.Coterminous municipality
A coterminous municipality, sometimes also known as a coterminous city or a coterminous town-village, is a form of local government in some U.S. states in which a municipality and one or more civil townships are coterminous and have partial or complete consolidation of their government functions. A term used for the formation of such a local government is "township and municipal consolidation." This form of local government is distinct from a municipality coterminous with a higher level of government, which is called a consolidated city-county or a variation of that term.Deer Lodge County, Montana
Deer Lodge County is a county in the U.S. state of Montana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,298. It forms a consolidated city-county government with its county seat of Anaconda. The county was established in 1865.Esnandes
Esnandes is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Its inhabitants are called Esnandais.Government of Indianapolis
The government of Indianapolis is a mayor-council, consolidated city-county system. The executive branch is headed by the elected mayor, and the legislative branch is made up of the 25-member City-County Council. Indianapolis and Marion County have a consolidated government known as Unigov. Most government offices are located in the City-County Building.Hartsville, Tennessee
Hartsville is a town in Trousdale County, Tennessee, United States. It is the county seat of Trousdale County, with which it shares a consolidated city-county government. The population of Hartsville was 7,870 as of 2010.Hartsville now shares with Trousdale County a consolidated city-county government by virtue of a referendum which passed in Trousdale County in 2000. Despite the city-county government, under Tennessee law, Hartsville is also considered to be a distinct municipality. Trousdale County High School is located here, as well a Tennessee Colleges of Applied Technology campus operated by the Tennessee Board of Regents. Trousdale County is one of two counties in Tennessee to have legalized parimutuel betting on horse racing, but no group has ever stepped forward to build a racetrack. Hartsville is located slightly north of the Cumberland River and is approximately fifty miles northeast of Nashville.
In 1977, the Tennessee Valley Authority began construction on the Hartsville Nuclear Plant, but cancelled the project in 1984 after spending nearly $2 billion. The plant's unused cooling tower dominates the view south from State Route 25 between Smith County and Trousdale County. In 2016, the Trousdale-Turner Correctional Facility, a medium-security prison, was opened by CoreCivic in between Smith County and Trousdale CountyIndependent city (United States)
In the United States, an independent city is a city that is not in the territory of any county or counties with exceptions noted below. Of the 41 independent U.S. cities, 38 are in Virginia, whose state constitution makes them a special case. The three independent cities outside Virginia are Baltimore, Maryland; St. Louis, Missouri; and Carson City, Nevada. The U.S. Census Bureau uses counties as its base unit for presentation of statistical information, and treats independent cities as county equivalents for those purposes. The most populous of them is Baltimore, Maryland.List of cities and towns in Montana
Montana is a state located in the Western United States. According to the 2010 United States Census, Montana is the 7th least populous state with 989,417 inhabitants but the 4th largest by land area spanning 145,545.80 square miles (376,961.9 km2) of land. Montana is divided into 56 counties and contains 129 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities and towns. Montana's municipalities cover only 1.2% of the state's land mass but are home to 53.8% of its population. The Montana Code 7-1-4124 gives municipal governments in Montana powers to enact ordinances, borrow money, and enact eminent domain among other legal powers.In Montana, municipalities are divided into four classes by state statute based on their population. Members of the three largest classes are deemed cities, while the members of the fourth class are called towns. Cities and towns are classified at the time of their organization, and are reorganized when they change classification due to an increase or decrease in population. A place may incorporate as a town with the support of 300 electors or two-thirds of the registered electors. A municipality with a population between 1,000 and 5,000 people is a Third Class city. A municipality with a population between 5,000 and 10,000 people is a Second Class city. And a municipality with a population over 10,000 people is a First Class city. Under certain exceptions municipalities with a population of between 9,000 and 10,000 may elect by resolution to be either a First or Second Class city. Under similar exceptions municipalities with a population of between 5,000 and 7,500 may elect by resolution to be either a Second or Third Class city. Municipalities with a population of between 1,000 and 2,500 may by resolution be classified as either a town or Third Class city. Unincorporated places such as census-designated places fall outside this scheme, and are subject to county governance, and thus are not towns or cities.
The largest municipality by population in Montana is Billings with 104,170 residents, and the smallest municipality by population is Ismay with 19 residents. The largest municipality by land area is Anaconda, a consolidated city-county, which spans 736.53 sq mi (1,907.6 km2), while Rexford and Flaxville are the smallest at 0.10 sq mi (0.26 km2).List of cities in Indiana
Indiana is a state located in the Midwestern United States. As of the 2018 census estimate, the state had 6,691,878 residents.
Under Indiana law, a municipality must have a minimum of 2,000 people to incorporate as a city. Except as noted, all cities are "third-class" cities with a seven-member city council and an elected clerk-treasurer. "Second-class" cities had a population of at least 35,000 and up to 600,000 at time of designation, and have a nine-member city council and an elected clerk. Indianapolis is the only "first-class" city in Indiana under state law, making it subject to a consolidated city-county government known as Unigov.List of counties by U.S. state and territory
The following is a list of the 3,142 counties and county-equivalents in the 50 states and District of Columbia sorted by U.S. state, plus an additional 100 county-equivalents in the U.S. territories sorted by territory.Local government in the United States
Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state. Most states and territories have at least two tiers of local government: counties and municipalities. In some states, counties are divided into townships. There are several different types of jurisdictions at the municipal level, including the city, town, borough, and village. The types and nature of these municipal entities vary from state to state.
Many rural areas and even some suburban areas of many states have no municipal government below the county level. In other places consolidated city-county jurisdictions exist, in which city and county functions are managed by a single municipal government. In places like New England, towns are the primary unit of local government and counties have no governmental function but exist in a purely perfunctory capacity (e.g. for census data).
In addition to general-purpose local governments, there may be local or regional special-purpose local governments, such as school districts and districts for fire protection, sanitary sewer service, public transportation, public libraries, public parks or forests, or water resource management. Such special purpose districts often encompass areas in multiple municipalities. According to the US Census Bureau's data collected in 2012, there were 89,004 local government units in the United States. This data shows a decline from 89,476 units since the last census of local governments performed in 2007.Louisville/Jefferson County metro government (balance), Kentucky
The Louisville/Jefferson County metro government (balance) is a statistical entity in the U.S. state of Kentucky defined by the United States Census Bureau to represent the portion of the consolidated city-county of Louisville-Jefferson County that does not include any of the 83 separate incorporated places (municipalities) located within the city and county. It is made of the portion of Jefferson County that was the city of Louisville prior to the 2003 creation of Louisville Metro, plus a large swath of previously unincorporated territory.
In the 2010 Census, the balance had a population of 597,337, while the 2010 population of the entire governmental area was 741,096. It is also located within the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area.Metropolitan municipality (South Africa)
In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or Category A municipality is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a city or conurbation. This is by contrast to areas which are primarily rural, where the local government is divided into district municipalities and local municipalities.
The Constitution, section 155.1.a, defines "Category A" municipalities. In the Municipal Structures Act it is laid out that this type of local government is to be used for conurbations, "centre[s] of economic activity", areas "for which integrated development planning is desirable", and areas with "strong interdependent social and economic linkages".The metropolitan municipality is similar to the consolidated city-county in the USA, although a South African metropolitan municipality is created by notice of the provincial government, not by agreement between district and local municipalities.Moore County, Tennessee
Moore County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,362, making it the third-least populous county in Tennessee. It forms a consolidated city-county government with its county seat of Lynchburg.With 130 square miles (340 km2), it is the second-smallest county in Tennessee, behind only Trousdale. The county was created in 1871, during the Reconstruction era. Moore County is part of the Tullahoma-Manchester, TN Micropolitan Statistical Area.Quitman County, Georgia
Quitman County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,513, making it the second-least populous county in Georgia. The county seat is Georgetown. The county was created on December 10, 1858 and named after General John A. Quitman, leader in the Mexican–American War, and once Governor of Mississippi. In November 2006, residents voted to consolidate the city government of Georgetown and the county government of Quitman into a consolidated city-county.Red Rock Island
Red Rock Island (variously known as Moleta, Molate Rock, and Golden Rock) is an uninhabited, 5.8-acre (2.3 ha) island in the San Francisco Bay located just south of the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge. The property is the only privately owned island in San Francisco Bay. The boundaries of three counties – San Francisco, Marin and Contra Costa – converge on this high rock. The San Francisco County portion is an incorporated part of the city of San Francisco since it is a consolidated city-county; the Contra Costa portion (most of the island) is incorporated inside the city limits of Richmond.
The mountain of bright red earth and rock is 500 ft (150 m) across from east to west, 750 ft (230 m) from north and south, and rises out of the bay to a height of 151 ft (46 m). It is surrounded by some of the deepest water in the North Bay - 60 ft (18 m) deep.Trousdale County, Tennessee
Trousdale County, also known as Hartsville/Trousdale County, is a county in the U.S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,870. Its county seat is Hartsville, with which it shares a uniquely formed consolidated city-county government. With an area of just 117 square miles (300 km2), it is Tennessee's smallest county.
Trousdale County is part of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area, although it is located just beyond the ring of "bedroom communities" in the Nashville metropolitan area. Farming and livestock-raising characterize this largely rural area.
Hartsville is the county seat of Trousdale County and now coextensive with it as a metropolitan government by virtue of a referendum which passed in Trousdale County by a single vote. Trousdale County High School is located here, as well as a technical school operated by the Tennessee Board of Regents. Trousdale County is one of two counties in Tennessee to have legalized parimutuel betting on horse racing, but no group has ever stepped forward to build a racetrack.Unigov
Unigov is the colloquial name adopted by the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, to describe its consolidated city–county government. By an act of the Indiana General Assembly, Indianapolis consolidated with the government of Marion County in 1970.
Within Unigov are eleven "included towns". Under Indiana Code 36-3-1-4 sec. 4(a)(2)), included towns retain their identity as towns under Indiana law and have some limited autonomy. However, they are legally part of the Consolidated City of Indianapolis and are fully subject to the laws and control of the government of Indianapolis. Four other municipalities in Marion County are not part of the Indianapolis government ("excluded cities and towns"), but receive county-level services from Unigov and take part in elections for the Indianapolis City–County Council and mayor.
The area of Marion County not within the included or excluded towns, but including what was the City of Indianapolis prior to the enactment of Unigov, is designated by the U.S. Census Bureau as the Indianapolis (balance), and its population is usually quoted as the population of Indianapolis for census purposes.
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities