Conservation International

Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. Its goal is to protect nature as a source of food, fresh water, livelihoods and a stable climate.[2]

CI's work focuses on science, policy, and partnership with businesses and communities. The organization employs more than 1,000 people and works with more than 2,000 partners in 30 countries.[3][4] CI has helped support 1,200 protected areas and interventions across 77 countries, safeguarding more than 601 million hectares of land, marine and coastal areas.[5]

Conservation International
Source: Conservation International, Owner: Conservation InternationalOriginal Designer: Chermayeff & Geismar
FounderSpencer Beebe and Peter Seligmann
FocusClimate change, freshwater security, health, food security, biodiversity, cultural services
Key people
M. Sanjayan, Ph.D. (CEO)
Jennifer Morris (President)
Sebastian Troeng, Ph.D. (Executive Vice President)
Peter A. Seligmann (Chairman of the Board)
Wes Bush (Executive Committee Chairman)
Harrison Ford (Vice Chair)
FY 2016: $212 million[1]
1,000 in 30 countries


Conservation International was founded in 1987 with the goal of protecting nature for the benefit of people.[6]

In 1989, CI formally committed to the protection of biodiversity hotspots, ultimately identifying 36 such hotspots around the world and contributing to their protection. The model of protecting hotspots became a key way for organizations to do conservation work.[7]

As of FY 2016, CI's revenue totaled $212 million.[8]

On July 1, 2017, Peter Seligmann stepped down as CEO of CI and a new executive team made up of senior CI leadership was announced. Conservation scientist M. Sanjayan was named chief executive officer; Jennifer Morris, formerly chief operating officer, was named president; and Sebastian Troeng, formerly senior vice president of the Americas Field Division, was named executive vice president. Peter Seligmann will remain Chairman of the Board.[9]

Growth and mission shift

In the subsequent two decades, CI expanded its work, with a stronger focus on science, corporate partnership, conservation funding, indigenous peoples, government, and marine conservation, among other things.[10]

The organization's leadership grew to believe that CI's focus on biodiversity conservation was inadequate to protect nature and those who depended on it. CI updated its mission in 2008 to focus explicitly on the connections between human well-being and natural ecosystems.

As of FY2014, CI's expenses totaled more than US $135.3 million.[11]

CI receives high ratings from philanthropic watchdog organizations, with an A rating from Charity Watch.[12] Charity Navigator awarded CI a score of 92.28 out of 100 for accountability and transparency.[13]

Approach to conservation

The foundation of CI's work is "science, partnership and field demonstration." The organization has scientists, policy workers and other conservationists on the ground in more than 30 countries. It also relies heavily on thousands of local partners.[11]

CI works with governments, universities, NGOs and the private sector with the aim of replicating these successes on a larger scale. By showing how conservation can work at all scales, CI aims to make the protection of nature a key consideration in economic development decisions around the world.[14] CI supported 23 Pacific Island nations and territories in the formation of the Pacific Oceanscape, a framework to conserve and sustainably manage over 15 million square miles of sea in the South Pacific. In addition to the sustainable management of ocean resources, the agreement includes the world's largest marine protected areas and sanctuaries for whales, dolphins, turtles and sharks.[15]

The organization has been active in United Nations discussions on issues such as climate change[16] and biodiversity,[17] and its scientists present at international conferences and workshops. Its United States policy work currently highlights "a direct connection between international conservation and America's economic and national security interests."[18]

A few years after its founding, CI began working with McDonald's to implement sustainable agriculture and conservation projects in Central America.[19] The organization expanded its commitment to working with the business sector in 2000, when it created the Center for Environmental Leadership in Business with support from the Ford Motor Company.[20]


CI has been criticized for links to companies such as BP, Cargill, Chevron, Monsanto and Shell.[21][22] CI has defended its work with the private sector, arguing that change requires working with corporations that have large environmental impacts.[23]

A 2008 article in The Nation claimed that the organization had attracted $6 million for marine conservation in Papua New Guinea, but that the funds were used for "little more than plush offices and first class travel."[24] CI has touted its operations in Papua New Guinea, claiming that they have contributed to new scientific discoveries and the establishment of new protected areas.[25]

In 2011, Conservation International was targeted by a group of reporters from Don't Panic TV who posed as an American company and asked if the charity could "raise [their] green profile." Options outlined by the representative of Conservation International (CI) included assisting with the company's green PR efforts, membership of a business forum in return for a fee, and sponsorship packages where the company could potentially invest money in return for being associated with conservation activities. Conservation International agreed to help the company find an "endangered species mascot". Film footage shows the Conservation International employee suggesting a vulture and North African birds of prey as a possible endangered species mascot for the company.[26][27] CI contends that these recordings were heavily edited to remove elements that would have cast CI in a more favorable light, while using other parts of the video out of context to paint an inaccurate and incomplete picture of CI's work with the private sector.[28]

In May and June 2013, Survival International reported that an indigenous Bushman tribe in Botswana was threatened with eviction from their ancestral land in order to create a wildlife corridor[29] known as the Western Kgalagadi Conservation Corridor.[30] A Botswana government representative denied this.[31] A May press release from CI said, "Contrary to recent reports, Conservation International (CI) has not been involved in the implementation of conservation corridors in Botswana since 2011," and asserted that CI had always supported the San Bushmen and their rights.[32]


  • CEO: M. Sanjayan, Ph.D.[9]
  • President: Jennifer Morris[9]
  • Executive Vice President: Sebastian Troeng, Ph.D.[9]
  • Chairman of the Board: Peter Seligmann[9]
  • Chairman of the Executive Committee: Wes Bush
  • Vice Chair: Harrison Ford[33]


  • Paint It Wild: Paint & See Activity Book (Discover The Rainforest, Vol. 1) (1991), introduction by Mike Roberts and Russell Mittermeier, written by Gad Meiron and Randall Stone, illustrated by Donna Reynolds and Tim Racer[34]
  • Sticker Safari: Sticker And Activity Book (Discover The Rainforest, Vol. 2) (1991), introduction by Mike Roberts and Russell Mittermeier, written by Gad Meiron and Randall Stone, illustrated by Donna Reynolds and Tim Racer[35]
  • Wonders In The Wild: Activity Book (Discover The Rainforest, Vol. 3) (1991), introduction by Mike Roberts and Russell Mittermeier, written by Gad Meiron and Randall Stone, illustrated by Donna Reynolds and Tim Racer[36]
  • Ronald McDonald and the Jewel of the Amazon Kingdom: Storybook (Discover The Rainforest, Vol. 4) (1991), introduction by Mike Roberts and Russell Mittermeier, written by Gad Meiron and Randall Stone, illustrated by Donna Reynolds and Tim Racer[37]


  1. ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Conservation International. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
  2. ^ "About Us". Conservation International. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  3. ^ "CI's Global Mission". Gotham Magazine. Retrieved 2015-10-19.
  4. ^ "Conservation International 2016 Annual Report" (PDF).
  5. ^ "Conservation International 2016 Annual Report" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Huffington Post post by Peter Seligmann".
  7. ^ Roach, John. "Conservationists Name Nine New "Biodiversity Hotspots"". National Geographic. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  8. ^ "Conservation International 2016 Annual Report" (PDF).
  9. ^ a b c d e "Conservation International Names New Executive Team".
  10. ^ "Conservation International Celebrates 25 Years of Groundbreaking Accomplishments". Ecowatch. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  11. ^ a b "Conservation International Annual Report 2014" (PDF). Conservation International. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  12. ^ "Conservation International". Charity Watch. Retrieved 2015-09-12.
  13. ^ "Conservation International". Charity Navigator. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  14. ^ "Conservation International: Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation". Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  15. ^ "IUCN Member News: Pacific Island Leaders Unite". IUCN. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  16. ^ Biello, David. "Cancun Talks Yield Climate Compromise". Scientific American. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  17. ^ Walsh, Bryan (2010-10-29). "Wildlife: Nations Agree on a Historic Deal for Biodiversity in Nagoya". Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  18. ^ "United States Government Policy". Conservation International. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  19. ^ "Corporate Partnership -- McDonald's". Conservation International. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
  20. ^ Snell, Marilyn Berlin (November–December 2001). "Lay of the Land". Sierra. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
  21. ^ Conservation International 'agreed to greenwash arms company'. The Ecologist. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  22. ^ The Wrong Kind of Green. The Nation (2010-03-04). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  23. ^ "Partnerships for the Planet: Why We Must Engage Corporations".
  24. ^ Dowie, Mark. "Wrong Path to Conservation in Papua New Guinea | The Nation". The Nation. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  25. ^ "Community-Driven Conservation in Papua New Guinea".
  26. ^ Conservation International 'agreed to greenwash arms company'
  27. ^ Conservation International Duped By Militant Greenwash Pitch
  28. ^ Seligmann, Peter (2011-05-19). "Partnerships for the Planet: Why We Must Engage Corporations". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012-02-03.
  29. ^ Bushmen face imminent eviction for ‘wildlife corridor’. Survival International. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  30. ^ "Conservation Corridors in South-western Botswana" (PDF). Conservation International. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  31. ^ "Botswana denies plans to 'evict' Bushmen". 2013-05-27. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  32. ^ "Statement of Conservation International on Alleged Relocations of San People in Botswana". Conservation International. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^

External links


ARKive was a global initiative with the mission of "promoting the conservation of the world's threatened species, through the power of wildlife imagery", which it did by locating and gathering films, photographs and audio recordings of the world's species into a centralised digital archive. Its priority was the completion of audio-visual profiles for the c. 17,000 species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.The project was an initiative of Wildscreen, a UK-registered educational charity, based in Bristol. The technical platform was created by Hewlett-Packard, as part of the HP Labs' Digital Media Systems research programme.ARKive had the backing of leading conservation organisations, including BirdLife International, Conservation International, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the United Nations' World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), as well as leading academic and research institutions, such as the Natural History Museum; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; and the Smithsonian Institution. It was a member of the Institutional Council of the Encyclopedia of Life.Two ARKive layers for Google Earth, featuring endangered species and species in the Gulf of Mexico were produced by Google Earth Outreach. The first of these was launched in April 2008 by Wildscreen's Patron, Sir David Attenborough.The website closed on 15 February 2019; its collection of images and videos remains securely stored for future generations.

Bat Conservation International

Bat Conservation International (BCI) is an international non-governmental organization working to conserve the world's bats and their habitats through conservation, education and research efforts.

BCI was founded in 1982 by prominent bat biologist Dr. Merlin Tuttle. Since its establishment, BCI has formed lasting partnerships with the US Fish & Wildlife Service and many national and international agencies and nonprofits, and has produced publications, workshops, scholarships and research, and site-specific projects across the nation and around the world. Currently, BCI employs a staff of 30 biologists, educators, and administrators and is supported by members in 60 countries.

Biodiversity hotspot

A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with humans.Norman Myers wrote about the concept in two articles in “The Environmentalist” (1988), and 1990 revised after thorough analysis by Myers and others “Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions” and a paper published in the journal Nature.To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot on Myers 2000 edition of the hotspot-map, a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation. Around the world, 36 areas qualify under this definition. These sites support nearly 60% of the world's plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a very high share of those species as endemics. Some of these hotspots support up to 15,000 endemic plant species and some have lost up to 95% of their natural habitat.Biodiversity hotspots host their diverse ecosystems on just 2.3% of the planet's surface, however, the area defined as hotspots covers a much larger proportion of the land. The original 25 hotspots covered 11.8% of the land surface area of the Earth. Overall, the current hotspots cover more than 16% of the land surface area, but have lost around 85% of their habitat. This loss of habitat explains why approximately 60% of the world's terrestrial life lives on only 2.3% of the land surface area.

BirdLife International

BirdLife International (formerly the International Council for Bird Preservation) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats, and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources. It is the world's largest partnership of conservation organisations, with over 120 partner organisations.It has a membership of more than 2.5 million people and partner organizations in more than 100 countries. Major partners include Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, the Wild Bird Society of Japan, and the U.S. National Audubon Society. The group’s headquarters are located in Cambridge, UK.

BirdLife International’s priorities include preventing extinction of bird species, identifying and safeguarding important sites for birds, maintaining and restoring key bird habitats, and empowering conservationists worldwide. Guided by a global council, member organizations implement the group’s strategies on local, regional, and national levels.

BirdLife International has identified 7,500 important bird areas and manages more than 2,500,000 million acres (1,000,000 hectares) of wildlife habitat. As the official listing authority for birds for the World Conservation Union’s Red List of threatened species, BirdLife International has identified more than 1,000 bird species threatened with extinction and has developed conservation strategies for each of them.

Botanic Gardens Conservation International

Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) is a plant conservation charity based in Kew, London, England. It is a membership organisation, working with 800 botanic gardens in 118 countries, whose combined work forms the world's largest plant conservation network.

Founded in 1987, BGCI is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, and its members include the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, as two of its key supporters. The founder and director from 1987 to 1993 was Professor Vernon H Heywood. He was followed in 1994 by Dr. Peter Wyse Jackson (as Secretary-General) who led BGCI till 2005 when Sara Oldfield succeeded him.

BGCI's patron is HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales. Lady Suzanne Warner was Chair of BGCI from December 1999 - December 2004. She received an OBE in the Queen's 2006 New Year's Honours for her services to plant conservation. Dedicated to plant conservation and environmental education, the charity works to support and promote the activities of its member gardens. Its official stated mission is to "mobilise botanic gardens and engage partners in securing plant diversity for the well-being of people and planet."

As a global organisation BGCI has projects in a variety of different countries, with major ongoing projects in China (where half of the wild magnolias are threatened), North America, the Middle East and Russia. Two of its major projects are the creation of on-line searchable databases listing the world's botanic gardens (Garden Search) and plants in cultivation among participating botanic gardens (Plant Search).On 18 January 2008, Botanic Gardens Conservation International (representing botanic gardens in 120 countries) stated that "400 medicinal plants are at risk of extinction, from over-collection and deforestation, threatening the discovery of future cures for disease." These included yew trees (the bark is used for cancer drugs, paclitaxel); Hoodia gordonii (from Namibia, source of weight loss drugs); half of Magnolias (used as Chinese medicine for 5,000 years to fight cancer, dementia and heart disease); and Autumn crocus (for gout). The group also found that 5 billion people benefit from traditional plant-based medicine for health care.In 2017 Botanic Gardens Conservation International published a list of 60,065 tree species worldwide obtained from information supplied by its member organisations. The aim of the project was to identify trees that are in danger of extinction and promote efforts to conserve these trees.

Botanical garden

A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation, preservation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, and so on; there may be greenhouses, shadehouses, again with special collections such as tropical plants, alpine plants, or other exotic plants. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, and other entertainment.

Botanical gardens are often run by universities or other scientific research organizations, and often have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display, and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden.

The origin of modern botanical gardens is generally traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which also entailed the curation of a medicinal garden. However, the objectives, content, and audience of today’s botanic gardens more closely resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens.The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany gradually established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems often being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, and economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, near London.

Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display a mix of the themes mentioned and more; having a strong connection with the general public, there is the opportunity to provide visitors with information relating to the environmental issues being faced at the start of the 21st century, especially those relating to plant conservation and sustainability.

California Floristic Province

The California Floristic Province (CFP) is a floristic province with a Mediterranean-type climate located on the Pacific Coast of North America with a distinctive flora similar to other regions with a winter rainfall and summer drought climate like the Mediterranean Basin. This biodiversity hotspot is known for being the home of the Sierran giant sequoia tree and its close relative the coast redwood. In 1996, the Province was designated as a biodiversity hotspot allowing it to join ranks among 33 other areas in the world with a large number of endemic species. To be named a biodiversity hotspot, an area has to contain species and plant life that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. The California Floristic Province is home to over 3,000 species of vascular plants, 60% of which are endemic to the province.The California Floristic Province belongs to the Madrean Region of the Holarctic (or Boreal) Floristic Kingdom. As part of the Madrean Region, it is bordered on its east by the Great Basin Floristic Province, and to the south and southwest by the Sonoran Province (which includes the Mojave, Colorado, Sonoran, and Baja California Deserts). To the north, the region is bordered by the Vancouverian Province of the Rocky Mountain Region, and much of coastal and mountain Northern California and southwestern Oregon are defined as falling into either province depending on a given author's delimitations.

With an area of 293,803 km2 (113,438 sq mi), as defined by Conservation International, it includes 70% of California and extends into southwestern Oregon, a small part of western Nevada and northern Baja California. The province is bordered by, and sometimes defined as partly coincident with, the Rocky Mountain Floristic Region in the north. This boundary is poorly defined as some leading geobotanists, including Robert F. Thorne (Flora of North America) and Armen Takhtajan, include Oregon and Northern California within the Rocky Mountain Province.The California Floristic Province is a world biodiversity hotspot as defined by Conservation International, due to an unusually high concentration of endemic plants: approximately 8,000 plant species in the geographic region, and over 3,400 taxa limited to the CFP proper, as well as having lost over 70% of its primary vegetation. A biodiversity hotspot contains irreplaceable areas to the plants and animals that live there. Among these unique regions, almost every one of them is subject to their exclusive species being at greater risk from the impact of humans. The greatest threat to this area is wilderness destruction caused by large commercial farming industries and the heavy expansion of urban areas. Conservation International proposed a strategy in 1998, to focus more specifically on areas of the California Floristic Province that contained the most human impact in order to lower the threat to the region. The issues that are causing the most threats to this province include but are not limited to population pressures, loss of habitat, unsustainable resource use, and introduced non-native species.


Deforestation, clearance, clearcutting or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land which is then converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests.Deforestation can occur for several reasons: trees can be cut down to be used for building or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal or timber), while cleared land can be used as pasture for livestock and plantation. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive the enemy of vital resources and cover for its forces. Modern examples of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya during the Malayan Emergency and by the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. As of 2005, net deforestation rates had ceased to increase in countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.

Disregard of ascribed value, lax forest management, and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that lead to large-scale deforestation. In many countries, deforestation–both naturally occurring and human-induced–is an ongoing issue. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. More than half of all plant and land animal species in the world live in tropical forests.Between 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometres (890,000 sq mi) of forests around the world were cut down. As a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometres (2.4 million square miles) remain of the original 16 million square kilometres (6 million square miles) of tropical rainforest that formerly covered the Earth. An area the size of a football pitch is cleared from the Amazon rainforest every minute, with 136 million acres (55 million hectares) of rainforest cleared for animal agriculture overall.

Gerald R. Allen

Gerald Robert "Gerry" Allen (born March 26, 1942 in Los Angeles, California) is an American-born Australian ichthyologist. His career began in 1963, when he spent a semester at the University of Hawaii, where he also received a PhD in marine zoology in 1971. In 1972, Allen wrote his doctoral thesis on the systematics and biology of the anemone fish.

In 1974, he was made curator at the Western Australian Museum in Perth till 1997, where Allen moved to Conservation International, working as a science team leader undertaking coral reef fish surveys in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and the Philippines until 2003. Allen has written 33 books and about 400 scientific papers. In 2003, he received the K. Radway Allen Award from the Australian Society for Fish Biology for his outstanding scientific achievements in the field.He has mapped and analysed the distributions of all Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. Allen continues to publish scientific papers and is involved in the nonprofit organisation Conservation International, especially for the preservation of biodiversity in the area of Vogelkop Peninsula.

Guinean Forests of West Africa

The Guinean forests of West Africa is a biodiversity hotspot designated by Conservation International, which includes the belt of tropical moist broadleaf forests along the coast of West Africa, running from Sierra Leone and Guinea in the west to the Sanaga River of Cameroon in the east. The Dahomey Gap, a region of savanna and dry forest in Togo and Benin, divides the Guinean forests into the Upper Guinean forests and Lower Guinean forests.

The Upper Guinean forests extend from Sierra Leone and Guinea in the west through Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ghana to Togo in the east. The Lower Guinean forests extend east from Benin through Nigeria and Cameroon. The Lower Guinean forests also extend south past the Sanaga River, the southern boundary of the hotspot, into southern Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Cabinda, and Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Lemurs of Madagascar (book)

Lemurs of Madagascar is a 2010 reference work and field guide for the lemurs of Madagascar, giving descriptions and biogeographic data for the known species. The primary contributor is Russell Mittermeier, president of Conservation International, and the cover art and illustrations were drawn by Stephen D. Nash. Currently in its third edition, the book provides details about all known lemur species, general information about lemurs and their history, and also helps travelers identify species they may encounter. Four related pocket field guides have also been released, containing color illustrations of each species, miniature range maps, and species checklists.

The first edition was reviewed favorably in the International Journal of Primatology, Conservation Biology, and Lemur News. Reviewers, including Alison Jolly, praised the book for its meticulous coverage of each species, numerous high-quality illustrations, and engaging discussion of lemur topics, including conservation, evolution, and the recently extinct subfossil lemurs. Each agreed that the book was an excellent resource for a wide audience, including ecotourists and lemur researchers. A lengthy review of the second edition was published in the American Journal of Primatology, where it received similar favorable comments, plus praise for its updates and enhancements. The third edition was reviewed favorably in Lemur News; the reviewer praised the expanded content of the book, but was concerned that the edition was not as portable as its predecessors.

The first edition identified 50 lemur species and subspecies, compared to 71 in the second edition and 101 in the third. The taxonomy promoted by these books has been questioned by researchers, such as Ian Tattersall, who view these growing numbers of lemur species as insufficiently justified inflation of species numbers (taxonomic inflation).

List of botanical gardens in Egypt

This is a list of botanical gardens in Egypt.

Megadiverse countries

The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbor the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species. Conservation International identified 18 megadiverse countries in 1998. Many of them are located in, or partially in, tropical or subtropical regions.

Megadiversity means exhibiting great biodiversity. The main criteria for megadiverse countries is endemism at the level of species, genera and families. A megadiverse country must have at least 5,000 species of endemic plants and must border marine ecosystems.

In 2002, Mexico formed a separate organisation focusing on Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries, consisting of countries rich in biological diversity and associated traditional knowledge. This organisation does not include all the megadiverse countries as identified by Conservation International.

Montane monkey-faced bat

The montane monkey-faced bat (Pteralopex pulchra) is a megabat endemic to the Solomon Islands. It is listed as a critically endangered species. Due to its imperiled status, it is identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction as a species in danger of imminent extinction. In 2013, Bat Conservation International listed this species as one of the 35 species of its worldwide priority list of conservation.

Only one individual has ever been found.

New Georgian monkey-faced bat

The New Georgian monkey-faced bat (Pteralopex taki) is a recently described species of megabat endemic to the Solomon Islands, more specifically New Georgia and Vangunu Islands. It is presumably extinct on Kolombangara Island, and remaining population on other islands are threatened by habitat loss and hunting. Consequently, it is considered vulnerable by IUCN. In 2013, Bat Conservation International listed this species as one of the 35 species of its worldwide priority list of conservation.

Succulent Karoo

The Succulent Karoo is a desert ecoregion of South Africa and Namibia.

Temotu flying fox

The Temotu flying fox (Pteropus nitendiensis) is a species of flying fox in the family Pteropodidae. It is endemic to the Solomon Islands. It is threatened by habitat destruction due to subsistence agricultural practices, as well as natural disasters such as tropical cyclones. Due to its imperiled status, it is identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction as a species in danger of imminent extinction. In 2013, Bat Conservation International listed this species as one of the 35 species of its worldwide priority list of conservation.

Tropical Andes

The Tropical Andes are the northern of the three climate-delineated parts of the Andes, the others being the Dry Andes and the Wet Andes. The Tropical Andes' area spans 1,542,644 km2 (595,618 sq mi).

Wildlife Conservation Society

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) was founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society (NYZS) and currently works to conserve more than two million square miles of wild places around the world. The organization is led by President and CEO Cristián Samper, former Director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Based at the Bronx Zoo, WCS maintains approximately 500 field conservation projects in 65 countries, with 200 PhD scientists on staff. It manages four New York City wildlife parks in addition to the Bronx Zoo: the Central Park Zoo, New York Aquarium, Prospect Park Zoo and Queens Zoo. Together these parks receive 4 million visitors per year. All of the New York City facilities are accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA).

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