The Conopidae, usually known as the thick-headed flies, are a family of flies within the Brachycera suborder of Diptera. Flies of the family Conopidae are distributed worldwide in all the ecozones except for the poles and many of the Pacific islands. About 800 species in 47 genera are described worldwide, about 70 of which are found in North America. The majority of conopids are black and yellow, or black and white, and often strikingly resemble wasps, bees, or flies of the family Syrphidae, themselves notable bee mimics. A conopid is most frequently found at flowers, feeding on nectar with its proboscis, which is often long.
|conopid wasp mimic|
For terms see Morphology of Diptera.
Rather thinly pilose or nearly bare, elongate or stout flies of small to large size (3–20 mm, usually 5–15 mm). They are often lustrous with a black and yellow colour pattern or with reddish brown markings. The head is broad and the frons is broad in both sexes. Ocelli may be present or absent (Conopinae). Ocellar bristles are small or absent. Interfrontal bristles and vibrissae are absent. The antennae have three segments, the third bearing a dorsal bare arista or terminal style. Above the antennae is an inflatable ptilinum. The oral opening is large and the proboscis is long and slender and often geniculate. The base of the abdomen is often constricted and the genitalia of both sexes are conspicuous. In the females the genitalia are often large or greatly elongated. The wing is usually clear, in some cases with dark markings often along the costa. The costa is continuous and the subcostal vein is complete. The anal cell is closed and the first basal cell is always very long, the second moderately long. The apical cell is closed or much narrowed. Tibiae are with (Myopinae) or without dorsal preapical bristle.
The larvae of all conopids are internal parasites, most of aculeate (stinging) Hymenoptera. Adult females aggressively intercept their hosts in flight to deposit eggs. Accordingly, in the species Bombus terrestris, it has been shown that vulnerable foraging bees are likely the most susceptible to parasitism by conopids. The female's abdomen is modified to form what amounts to a "can opener" to pry open the segments of the host's abdomen as the egg is inserted. The subfamily Stylogastrinae, including the genus Stylogaster, is somewhat different, in that the egg itself is shaped somewhat like a harpoon, with a rigid barbed tip, and the egg is forcibly jabbed into the host. Some species of Stylogaster are obligate associates of army ants, using the ants' raiding columns to flush out their prey. Certain members of the genus Physocephala have minor economic importance as parasites of honey bees. More research is needed to determine the life histories of most conopids.
Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
Data related to Conopidae at Wikispecies
Media related to Conopidae at Wikimedia CommonsAcalyptratae
The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.
The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.Conopinae
Conopinae is a subfamily of flies from the family Conopidae.Conopini
Conopini is a tribe of the flies family Conopidae. The larvae of species are parasitic on bees, especially bumblebees. Most adults will feed on nectar.Conops
Conops is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae. The larvae of Conops are parasitic on bees, especially bumblebees. Adults feed on nectar.Conops (subgenus)
Conops is a subgenus of flies from the genus Conops in the family Conopidae.The European species of the subgenus are:
C. ceriaeformis Meigen, 1824
C. flavicaudus (Bigot, 1880)
C. flavipes Linnaeus, 1758
C. maculatus Macquart, 1834
C. quadrifasciatus De Geer, 1776
C. rufiventris Macquart, 1849
C. silaceus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1824
C. scutellatus Meigen, 1804
C. strigatus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1824Conops vesicularis
Conops vesicularis is a species of fly from the genus Conops in the family Conopidae. Their larvae are endoparasites of bees and wasps.Dalmannia
Dalmannia is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.List of conopid fly species of Great Britain
The following list is composed of the species of conopid fly recorded in Britain.Myopa
Myopa is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.Myopinae
Myopinae is a subfamily of flies from the family Conopidae.Physocephala
Physocephala is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.Physocephalini
Physocephalini is a tribe of fly from the family Conopidae.Physoconops
Physoconops is a genus of thick-headed flies in the family Conopidae. There are about 13 described species in Physoconops.Sicini
Sicini is a tribe of flies from the family Conopidae.Sicus
Sicus is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.Stylogaster
The conopid genus Stylogaster is a group of unusual flies. It is the only genus in the subfamily Stylogastrinae, which some authorities have historically treated as a separate family Stylogastridae (or Stylogasteridae).Thecophora
Thecophora is a genus of thick-headed fly from the family Conopidae.Zodion
Zodion is a large genus of flies from the family Conopidae.Zodionini
Zodionini is a tribe of flies from the family Conopidae.
Extant Diptera families