Conopidae

The Conopidae, usually known as the thick-headed flies, are a family of flies within the Brachycera suborder of Diptera. Flies of the family Conopidae are distributed worldwide in all the ecozones except for the poles and many of the Pacific islands. About 800 species in 47 genera are described worldwide, about 70 of which are found in North America. The majority of conopids are black and yellow, or black and white, and often strikingly resemble wasps, bees, or flies of the family Syrphidae, themselves notable bee mimics. A conopid is most frequently found at flowers, feeding on nectar with its proboscis, which is often long.

WillistonConopidae
Conopidae morphology
Thick-headed flies
Conops quadrifasciatus - front (aka)
Conops quadrifasciatus
Wasp mimicking hoverfly
conopid wasp mimic
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Section:
Subsection:
Superfamily:
Conopoidea
Family:
Conopidae
Subfamilies

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera.

Rather thinly pilose or nearly bare, elongate or stout flies of small to large size (3–20 mm, usually 5–15 mm). They are often lustrous with a black and yellow colour pattern or with reddish brown markings. The head is broad and the frons is broad in both sexes. Ocelli may be present or absent (Conopinae). Ocellar bristles are small or absent. Interfrontal bristles and vibrissae are absent. The antennae have three segments, the third bearing a dorsal bare arista or terminal style. Above the antennae is an inflatable ptilinum. The oral opening is large and the proboscis is long and slender and often geniculate. The base of the abdomen is often constricted and the genitalia of both sexes are conspicuous. In the females the genitalia are often large or greatly elongated. The wing is usually clear, in some cases with dark markings often along the costa. The costa is continuous and the subcostal vein is complete. The anal cell is closed and the first basal cell is always very long, the second moderately long. The apical cell is closed or much narrowed. Tibiae are with (Myopinae) or without dorsal preapical bristle.

Sample genera: Conops, Dalmannia, Physocephala, Stylogaster, Myopa, and Physoconops.

Biology

The larvae of all conopids are internal parasites, most of aculeate (stinging) Hymenoptera. Adult females aggressively intercept their hosts in flight to deposit eggs. Accordingly, in the species Bombus terrestris, it has been shown that vulnerable foraging bees are likely the most susceptible to parasitism by conopids.[1] The female's abdomen is modified to form what amounts to a "can opener" to pry open the segments of the host's abdomen as the egg is inserted. The subfamily Stylogastrinae, including the genus Stylogaster, is somewhat different, in that the egg itself is shaped somewhat like a harpoon, with a rigid barbed tip, and the egg is forcibly jabbed into the host. Some species of Stylogaster are obligate associates of army ants, using the ants' raiding columns to flush out their prey. Certain members of the genus Physocephala have minor economic importance as parasites of honey bees. More research is needed to determine the life histories of most conopids.

Species lists

Identification

  • Krober. 1925. Conopidae.In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region , 4, 4: 1-41

Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).

  • Séguy, E. (1934) Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28. virtuelle numérique
  • Zirnjna. L.V. Family Conopidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.

Further reading

  • Kröber, O. (1939). "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Conopiden". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 11 (4): 38 1.
  • Camras, S. (1962). "The Conopidae of Madagascar (Diptera)". Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. E. Tananarive. 8: 18 1.
  • Smith, K. G. V. (1966). "The larva of Thecophora occidensis, with comments upon the biology of Conopidae (Diptera)". Journal of Zoology. 149 (3): 263–276. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1966.tb04048.x.. Keys larvae and pupae to genus (worldwide). Very full world bibliography of biology and immature stages.
  • K. G. V. Smith, 1989 An introduction to the immature stages of British Flies. Diptera Larvae, with notes on eggs, puparia and pupae.Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 10 Part 14. pdf download manual (two parts Main text and figures index)

References

  1. ^ Konig, C. and P. Schmid-Hempel (1995). "Foraging and immunocompetence in workers of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L.". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 260: 225–227. doi:10.1098/rspb.1995.0084.

External links

Data related to Conopidae at Wikispecies

Media related to Conopidae at Wikimedia Commons

Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Conopinae

Conopinae is a subfamily of flies from the family Conopidae.

Conopini

Conopini is a tribe of the flies family Conopidae. The larvae of species are parasitic on bees, especially bumblebees. Most adults will feed on nectar.

Conops

Conops is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae. The larvae of Conops are parasitic on bees, especially bumblebees. Adults feed on nectar.

Conops (subgenus)

Conops is a subgenus of flies from the genus Conops in the family Conopidae.The European species of the subgenus are:

C. ceriaeformis Meigen, 1824

C. flavicaudus (Bigot, 1880)

C. flavipes Linnaeus, 1758

C. maculatus Macquart, 1834

C. quadrifasciatus De Geer, 1776

C. rufiventris Macquart, 1849

C. silaceus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1824

C. scutellatus Meigen, 1804

C. strigatus Wiedemann in Meigen, 1824

Conops vesicularis

Conops vesicularis is a species of fly from the genus Conops in the family Conopidae. Their larvae are endoparasites of bees and wasps.

Dalmannia

Dalmannia is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.

List of conopid fly species of Great Britain

The following list is composed of the species of conopid fly recorded in Britain.

Myopa

Myopa is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.

Myopinae

Myopinae is a subfamily of flies from the family Conopidae.

Physocephala

Physocephala is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.

Physocephalini

Physocephalini is a tribe of fly from the family Conopidae.

Physoconops

Physoconops is a genus of thick-headed flies in the family Conopidae. There are about 13 described species in Physoconops.

Sicini

Sicini is a tribe of flies from the family Conopidae.

Sicus

Sicus is a genus of flies from the family Conopidae.

Stylogaster

The conopid genus Stylogaster is a group of unusual flies. It is the only genus in the subfamily Stylogastrinae, which some authorities have historically treated as a separate family Stylogastridae (or Stylogasteridae).

Thecophora

Thecophora is a genus of thick-headed fly from the family Conopidae.

Zodion

Zodion is a large genus of flies from the family Conopidae.

Zodionini

Zodionini is a tribe of flies from the family Conopidae.

Extant Diptera families

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