Connecticut-class battleship

The Connecticut class of pre-dreadnought battleships were the penultimate class of the type built for the United States Navy. The class comprised six ships: Connecticut, Louisiana, Vermont, Kansas, Minnesota, and New Hampshire, which were built between 1903 and 1908. The ships were armed with a mixed offensive battery of 12-inch (305 mm), 8-inch (203 mm), and 7-inch (178 mm) guns. This arrangement was rendered obsolete by the advent of all-big-gun battleships like the British HMS Dreadnought, which was completed before most of the Connecticuts entered service.

Nevertheless, the ships had active careers. The first five ships took part in the cruise of the Great White Fleet in 1907–1909—New Hampshire had not entered service. From 1909 onward, they served as the workhorses of the US Atlantic Fleet, conducting training exercises and showing the flag in Europe and Central America. As unrest broke out in several Central American countries in the 1910s, the ships became involved in police actions in the region. The most significant was the American intervention in the Mexican Revolution during the occupation of Veracruz in April 1914.

During the American participation in World War I, the Connecticut-class ships were used to train sailors for an expanding wartime fleet. In late 1918, they began to escort convoys to Europe, and in September that year, Minnesota was badly damaged by a mine laid by the German U-boat SM U-117. After the war, they were used to bring American soldiers back from France and later as training ships. The 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, which mandated major reductions in naval weapons, cut the ships' careers short. Within two years, all six ships had been sold for scrap.

USS Connecticut - NH 73318
USS Connecticut (BB-18)
Class overview
Name: Connecticut-class battleship
Operators: Flag of the United States (1908-1912).svg United States Navy
Preceded by: Virginia class
Succeeded by: Mississippi class
Built: 1903–1908
In commission: 1906–1923
Completed: 6
Retired: 6
General characteristics [1]
Type: Battleship
Displacement: 16,000 long tons (16,000 t)
Length: 456 ft 4 in (139.09 m)
Beam: 76 ft 10 in (23.42 m)
Draft: 24 ft 6 in (7.47 m)
Propulsion:
Speed: 18 kn (21 mph; 33 km/h)
Complement: 827 officers and men
Armament:
Armor:
  • Belt: 6–11 in (152–279 mm)
  • Barbettes: 6–10 in (152–254 mm)
  • Turret Main: 8–12 in (203–305 mm)
  • Turret secondary: 7 in (178 mm)
  • Conning tower: 9 in (229 mm)

Design

The United States' victory in the Spanish–American War in 1898 before had a dramatic impact on battleship design, as the question of the role of the fleet—namely, whether it should be focused on coastal defense or high seas operations—had been solved. The fleet's ability to conduct offensive operations overseas showed the necessity of a powerful fleet of battleships. As a result, the US Congress was willing to authorize much larger ships.[2] Design work on what would become the Connecticut class began in 1901. The Secretary of the Navy submitted a request for a new battleship design on 6 March to the Board on Construction. Among the issues considered was the composition and placement of the secondary battery. The preceding design, the Virginia class, placed some of its secondary guns in fixed turrets atop the main battery turrets as a way to save weight. The Board disliked the arrangement, as some members argued that guns in casemates could be fired faster. Additionally, the Virginias had mounted a mixed secondary battery of 6-inch (152 mm) and 8-inch (203 mm) guns; the Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) had recently introduced a quick-firing 7-inch (178 mm) gun, which was more powerful than the 6-inch and fired faster than the 8-inch.[3]

Connecticut-class battleship line-drawing
Line-drawing of the Connecticut class

The initial version of the Connecticut design, proposed by BuOrd, featured a secondary battery of twenty-four 7-inch guns with the same number of 3-inch (76 mm) guns for defense against torpedo boats. The armor layout was more comprehensive but thinner, and displacement rose to 15,560 long tons (15,810 t). BuOrd determined that a longer and finer hull shape, coupled with a small increase in engine power, would maintain the standard speed of 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph). The Bureau of Construction and Repair (C&R) proposed a ship more closely based on the Virginias, with the same two-story turrets and mixed 6- and 8-inch secondary battery, on a displacement of 15,860 long tons (16,110 t). This design featured only eight 3-inch guns, which was deemed wholly insufficient to defend the ship from small craft.[4]

In November, the Board agreed to a compromise design that incorporated a secondary battery of eight 8-inch guns in four twin turrets amidships and twelve 7-inch guns in casemates.[5] The decision to retain the 8 in guns was made in large part due to American experiences in the Spanish–American War three years before. US Navy officers had been impressed with the performance of the gun at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba; despite scoring only 13 hits out of 309 shells fired, the gun had a flat trajectory and good range for its size.[6] Armor protection was improved over the BuOrd design, with a thicker armored belt and casemate protection, albeit at the expense of thinner armor covering the barbettes that supported the gun turrets. The designers reasoned that since the barbettes were behind the belt and a transverse bulkhead, weight could be saved by reducing the level of direct protection.[5]

The last four ships, starting with Vermont, received slightly improved armor protection, with the last vessel—New Hampshire—having further improvements.[5] As a result, they are sometimes referred to as the Vermont class.[7] The six Connecticut-class ships were the most powerful pre-dreadnought type battleship built by the US Navy, and they compared well with contemporary foreign designs. They were nevertheless rendered obsolescent almost immediately due to the advent of the "all-big-gun" battleship epitomized by the British HMS Dreadnought.[8] Two follow-on ships, the Mississippi class, were built at the same time to a design based on the Connecticuts but significantly reduced in size.[9]

General characteristics and machinery

USS Kansas (BB-21) on trials
Kansas on speed trials

The Connecticut-class ships were 450 feet (140 m) long at the waterline and 456 ft 4 in (139.09 m) long overall.[10] They had a beam of 76 ft 10 in (23.42 m) and a draft of 24 ft 6 in (7.47 m). Freeboard forward was 20 ft 6 in (6.25 m). They displaced 16,000 long tons (16,000 t) as designed and up to 17,666 long tons (17,949 t) at full load. The ships had a flush deck, and they were better sea boats than preceding designs, many of which had poor stability. The Connecticut class had a metacentric height of 4.62 feet (1.41 m). As built, the ships were fitted with two heavy military masts, but these were quickly replaced by lattice masts in 1909. They had a crew of 42 officers and 785 men.[1][10]

The ships were powered by two-shaft triple-expansion steam engines, with steam provided by twelve coal-fired Babcock & Wilcox boilers. The engines were rated at 16,500 indicated horsepower (12,300 kW) and generated a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). The boilers were trunked into three closely spaced funnels amidships.[1] The first five ships were equipped with eight 100-kilowatt (130 hp) electricity generators, while New Hampshire had four of these generators and two 200 kW (270 hp) units.[10] All of the ships had a combined output of 800 kW (1,100 hp); this was the highest output in any American warship then built.[7] Steering was controlled with a single rudder.[1] The ships' turning radius was 620 yards (570 m) at a speed of 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph).[10]

On trials, the ships exceeded their design speed slightly, with Minnesota being the fastest, at 18.85 knots (34.91 km/h; 21.69 mph). The ships carried 900 long tons (910 t) of coal normally, but additional spaces could be used for coal bunkers, with storage capacity ranging between 2,249 to 2,405 long tons (2,285 to 2,444 t) for each ship.[7] At a cruising speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph), the ships could steam for 6,620 nautical miles (12,260 km; 7,620 mi), though New Hampshire's engines were more efficient, allowing her to steam for 7,590 nautical miles (14,060 km; 8,730 mi) at the same speed.[10]

Armament

12-45 mk5 Connecticut gun pic
One of Connecticut's forward 12-inch guns being installed

The ship was armed with a main battery of four 12-inch (305 mm)/45 caliber Mark 5[a] guns in two twin gun turrets on the centerline, one forward and aft, as was typical for battleships of the period.[1] The guns fired a 870-pound (390 kg) shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,700 feet per second (820 m/s). The turrets were Mark VI mounts, which allowed for reloading at all angles of elevation. These mounts could elevate to 20 degrees and depress to -5 degrees. Each gun was supplied with sixty shells.[11] New Hampshire's magazines were rearranged compared to her sisters, which allowed for her to carry 20 percent more 12- and 7-inch shells, though under normal conditions she carried the same load.[5]

The secondary battery consisted of eight 8-inch (203 mm)/45 caliber guns and twelve 7-inch (178 mm)/45 caliber guns; this mixed battery proved to be problematic, as shell splashes from the two types could not be distinguished. The 8-inch guns were mounted in four twin Mark XII turrets amidships and the 7-inch guns were placed in casemates in the hull. The 8-inch guns were the Mark VI type, and they fired 260 lb (120 kg) shells at a muzzle velocity of 2,750 ft/s (840 m/s).[1][12] The 7-inch Mark I guns fired a 165 lb (75 kg) shell at 2,700 ft/s. These guns were later removed during World War I and converted for use on tracked gun carriages in France.[13] The outfit per gun was 100 shells for both types.[10]

For close-range defense against torpedo boats, they carried twenty 3-inch (76 mm)/50 caliber guns mounted in casemates along the side of the hull and twelve 47 mm (1.9 in) 3-pounder guns. They also carried four 37 mm (1.5 in) 1-pounder guns. As was standard for capital ships of the period, the Connecticut class carried four 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes, submerged in their hulls on the broadside.[1] Each ship carried a total of 16 torpedoes.[10] They were initially equipped with the Mark I Bliss-Leavitt design, but these were quickly replaced with Mark II, designed in 1905. The Mark II carried a 207 pounds (94 kg) warhead and had a range of 3,500 yards (3,200 m) at a speed of 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph).[14]

Armor

The first two ships' main armored belt was 11 in (279 mm) thick over the machinery spaces and reduced to 9 in (229 mm) abreast of the main battery turrets. This portion of the belt was 200 ft (61 m) long and 9 feet 3 inches (3 m) wide. On either end of the ship, the belt then thinned, first to 7 in, then to 5 in (127 mm) and finally to 4 in (102 mm) at the bow and stern.[10] The last four ships' belts were reduced to 9 in between the main battery.[5] The armored deck was 1.5 in (38 mm) thick amidships, where it was partially protected by the belt and casemate armor. It had 3 in thick sloped sides, which connected to the bottom edge of the belt. The deck was increased to 3 in forward and aft, where it was directly exposed to shellfire, also with 3 in thick sloped sides.[10] New Hampshire's belt was slightly shortened to permit a thicker deck over the magazines.[5] Each ship's conning tower had 9 in thick sides and a 2 in (51 mm) thick roof.[10]

The main battery gun turrets had 11 in thick faces, with 9 in thick sides and 2.5 in (64 mm) thick roofs. The supporting barbettes had the 10 in (254 mm) of armor plating, reduced to 6 in (152 mm). The secondary turrets had 6.5 in (165 mm) of frontal armor, with 6 in on the sides and 2 in on the roofs. Their barbettes were given 6 in of armor plating on the outboard sides and 4 in inboard. The casemates for the 7-inch guns were 7 in thick and below the gun ports, the casemates reduced slightly to 6 in.[10] For the last four ships, the savings in weight gained by reducing the thickness of the belt were used to increase the lower casement armor to 7 in.[5] Those for the 3-inch guns were 2 in thick. The 7-inch guns were divided by splinter bulkheads that were 1.5 to 2.5 inches (38 to 64 mm) thick to prevent one shell hit from disabling multiple guns.[10]

Ships

Name Builder[7] Laid down[7] Launched[7] Commissioned[7]
USS Connecticut (BB-18) Brooklyn Navy Yard 10 March 1903 29 September 1904 29 September 1906
USS Louisiana (BB-19) Newport News Shipbuilding Company 7 February 1903 27 August 1904 2 June 1906
USS Vermont (BB-20) Fore River Shipyard 21 May 1904 31 August 1905 4 March 1907
USS Kansas (BB-21) New York Shipbuilding Corporation 10 February 1904 12 August 1905 18 April 1907
USS Minnesota (BB-22) Newport News Shipbuilding Company 27 October 1903 8 April 1905 9 March 1907
USS New Hampshire (BB-25) New York Shipbuilding Corporation 1 May 1905 30 June 1906 19 March 1908

Service history

USS Vermont in heavy seas.tiff
Vermont in heavy seas, probably during the cruise of the Great White Fleet

All six ships of the class served with the Atlantic Fleet for the duration of their careers. The first five ships took part in the cruise of the Great White Fleet in 1907–1909. The fleet left Hampton Roads on 16 December 1907 and steamed south, around South America and back north to the US west coast. The ships then crossed the Pacific and stopped in Australia, the Philippines, and Japan before continuing on through the Indian Ocean. They transited the Suez Canal and toured the Mediterranean before crossing the Atlantic, arriving bank in Hampton Roads on 22 February 1909.[15] New Hampshire, which had not been completed in time to take part in the journey, met the fleet there during a naval review with President Theodore Roosevelt.[16]

The ships then began a peacetime training routine off the east coast of the United States and the Caribbean, including gunnery training off the Virginia Capes, training cruises in the Atlantic, and winter exercises in Cuban waters. In late 1909, all six ships crossed the Atlantic to visit British and French ports. Louisiana and Kansas made another trip to Europe in early 1911. As political unrest began to erupt in several Central American countries in the 1910s, the ships became increasingly active in the region. All six ships became involved in the Mexican Revolution, including the occupation of Veracruz in April 1914; Vermont and New Hampshire were among the ships that contributed landing parties to the initial occupation of the city. Several men from the two ships were awarded the Medal of Honor during the action.[b]

USS Kansas in Brest, France
Kansas (center) in Brest, France in 1919; New Hampshire (left) and Connecticut (right) are visible in the distance

In July 1914, World War I broke out in Europe; the United States remained neutral for the first three years of the war. Tensions with Germany came to a head in early 1917 following the German unrestricted submarine warfare campaign, which sank several American merchant ships in European waters. On 6 April 1917, the United States declared war on Germany. The Connecticut-class ships initially were used for training gunners and engine room personnel that would be necessary for the rapidly expanding wartime fleet.[b] In June 1918, New Hampshire and Louisiana were involved in a serious gunnery accident, where gunners aboard the former accidentally hit the latter, killing one and injuring several other men.[22] The following month, Louisiana was used to test Arthur Pollen's Argo Clock, the first fire control system to use an analog computer to calculate firing solutions.[23]

From late 1918, the ships were used to escort convoys part-way across the Atlantic. In late September, Minnesota struck a naval mine laid by the German U-boat U-117, causing serious damage that kept her out of service for five months.[24] Convoy duty was cut short by the German surrender in November; thereafter, the Connecticuts were used to ferry American soldiers back from the battlefields of France.[25] This work was completed by mid-1919. The ships briefly operated as training ships in the early 1920s, though under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty, they were all sold for scrap by 1924 and broken up.[b]

Footnotes

Notes

  1. ^ /45 refers to the length of the gun in terms of calibers. A /45 gun is 45 times long as it is in bore diameter.
  2. ^ a b c See the DANFS entries for New Hampshire,[16] Vermont,[17] Kansas,[18] Minnesota,[19] Louisiana,[20] and Connecticut.[21]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gardiner, p. 143.
  2. ^ Friedman 1985, p. 42.
  3. ^ Friedman 1985, p. 43.
  4. ^ Friedman 1985, pp. 43–44.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Friedman 1985, p. 44.
  6. ^ Friedman 1985, p. 41.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Gardiner, pp. 143–144.
  8. ^ Silverstone, p. 6.
  9. ^ Friedman 1985, p. 45.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Friedman 1985, p. 430.
  11. ^ Friedman 2011, pp. 170–171.
  12. ^ Friedman 2011, pp. 177–178.
  13. ^ Friedman 2011, p. 179.
  14. ^ Friedman 2011, p. 342.
  15. ^ Albertson, pp. 41–66.
  16. ^ a b DANFS New Hampshire.
  17. ^ DANFS Vermont.
  18. ^ DANFS Kansas.
  19. ^ DANFS Minnesota.
  20. ^ DANFS Louisiana.
  21. ^ DANFS Connecticut.
  22. ^ Jones, p. 114.
  23. ^ Friedman 2008, p. 303.
  24. ^ Jones, pp. 115–116.
  25. ^ Jones, p. 122.

References

  • Albertson, Mark (2007). U.S.S. Connecticut: Constitution State Battleship. Mustang: Tate Publishing. ISBN 1-59886-739-3.
  • "Connecticut (BB-18) iv". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  • Friedman, Norman (2008). Naval Firepower: Battleship Guns and Gunnery in the Dreadnought Era. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-555-4.
  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War I. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7.
  • Friedman, Norman (1985). U.S. Battleships: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-715-1. OCLC 12214729.
  • Gardiner, Robert, ed. (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1860–1905. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-133-5.
  • Jones, Jerry W. (1998). U.S. Battleship Operations in World War I. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-411-3.
  • "Kansas (BB-21) ii". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  • "Louisiana (BB-19) III". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  • "Minnesota ii (Battleship No. 22)". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  • "New Hampshire (BB-25) ii". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  • Silverstone, Paul (2006). The New Navy, 1883–1922. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415978718.
  • "Vermont". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval History & Heritage Command. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
1907 in the United States

Events from the year 1907 in the United States.

Charles E. Vreeland

Charles Edward Vreeland (March 10, 1852 – September 27, 1916) was an officer of the United States Navy who reached the rank of rear admiral.

List of ship launches in 1905

The list of ship launches in 1905 includes a chronological list of some ships launched in 1905.

List of ship launches in 1906

The list of ship launches in 1906 includes a chronological list of some ships launched in 1906.

New Hampshire (disambiguation)

New Hampshire is a state in the United States of America.

New Hampshire may also refer to:

Province of New Hampshire, the colonial-era predecessor of the U.S. state

New Hampshire, Ohio, an unincorporated community in Auglaize County

New Hampshire (collection), a Pulitzer Prize-winning collection of poetry by Robert Frost

New Hampshire (chicken), a breed of chicken

USS New Hampshire (1864), a storeship launched in 1864 and destroyed by fire in 1921

USS New Hampshire (BB-25), a Connecticut-class battleship commissioned in 1908 and sold for scrapping in 1923

USS New Hampshire (BB-70), a Montana-class battleship authorized in 1940 but canceled in 1943

USS New Hampshire (SSN-778), a Virginia-class submarine commissioned in 2008

University of New Hampshire

New Hampshire Wildcats, the athletic teams of the University of New Hampshire

New Hampshire Avenue, a major street in Washington, DC

Newport News Shipbuilding

Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, is the largest industrial employer in Virginia, and sole designer, builder and refueler of United States Navy aircraft carriers and one of two providers of U.S. Navy submarines. Founded as the Chesapeake Dry Dock and Construction Co. in 1886, Newport News Shipbuilding has built more than 800 ships, including both naval and commercial ships. Located in the city of Newport News, their facilities span more than 550 acres (2.2 km2), strategically positioned in one of the great harbors of the East Coast.

The shipyard is a major employer, not only for the lower Virginia Peninsula, but also portions of Hampton Roads south of the James River and the harbor, portions of the Middle Peninsula region, and even some northeastern counties of North Carolina.

The shipyard is building the aircraft carriers USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) and USS Enterprise (CVN-80).In 2013, Newport News Shipbuilding began the deactivation of the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which it also built.

Newport News Shipbuilding also performs refueling and complex overhaul (RCOH) work on Nimitz-class aircraft carriers. This is a four-year vessel renewal program that not only involves refueling of the vessel's nuclear reactors but also includes modernization work. The yard has completed RCOH for four Nimitz-class carriers (USS Nimitz, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, USS Carl Vinson and USS Theodore Roosevelt). As of May 2016 this work was underway for the fifth Nimitz-class vessel, USS Abraham Lincoln. As of November 2017 this work was underway for the sixth Nimitz-class vessel, USS George Washington.

USS Connecticut

USS Connecticut may refer to:

USS Connecticut (1776) was a gundalow that served with the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War

USS Connecticut (1799) served during the Quasi-War

USS Connecticut (1861) was a sidewheel steamer launched in 1861 and in service during the American Civil War

USS Pompanoosuc, a screw steamer whose building began in 1863, was renamed Connecticut on 15 May 1869, but never launched; broken up in 1884

USS Connecticut (1899) was a monitor renamed during construction and commissioned as USS Nevada

USS Connecticut (BB-18) was a Connecticut-class battleship, flagship of the Great White Fleet and saw action during World War I

USS Connecticut (SSN-22) is the second Seawolf-class submarine currently in service

USS Connecticut (BB-18)

USS Connecticut (BB-18), the fourth United States Navy ship to be named after the state of Connecticut, was the lead ship of her class of six battleships. Her keel was laid on 10 March 1903; launched on 29 September 1904, Connecticut was commissioned on 29 September 1906, as the most advanced ship in the US Navy.

Connecticut served as the flagship for the Jamestown Exposition in mid-1907, which commemorated the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Jamestown colony. She later sailed with the Great White Fleet on a circumnavigation of the Earth to showcase the US Navy's growing fleet of blue-water-capable ships. After completing her service with the Great White Fleet, Connecticut participated in several flag-waving exercises intended to protect American citizens abroad until she was pressed into service as a troop transport at the end of World War I to expedite the return of American Expeditionary Forces from France.

For the remainder of her career, Connecticut sailed to various places in both the Atlantic and Pacific while training newer recruits to the Navy. However, the provisions of the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty stipulated that many of the older battleships, Connecticut among them, would have to be disposed of, so she was decommissioned on 1 March 1923, and sold for scrap on 1 November 1923.

USS Kansas

USS Kansas may refer to:

USS Kansas (1863), a gunboat which saw action during the American Civil War

USS Kansas (BB-21), a Connecticut-class battleship which sailed with the Great White FleetSee also

USS Kansas City

USS Kansas (BB-21)

USS Kansas (BB-21) was a US Connecticut-class pre-dreadnought battleship, the fourth of six ships in the class. She was the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of Kansas. The ship was launched in August 1905 and commissioned into the fleet in April 1907. Kansas was armed with a main battery of four 12-inch (300 mm) guns and was capable of a top speed of 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph).

Shortly after she entered service, Kansas joined the Great White Fleet for its circumnavigation of the globe in 1908–1909. She made trips to Europe in 1910 and 1911 and after 1912, became involved in suppressing unrest in several Central American countries, including the United States occupation of Veracruz during the Mexican Revolution. After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, Kansas was employed as a training ship for new personnel. In September 1918, she began escorting convoys to Europe. After the war ended in November, she then began a series of trips to France to bring American soldiers home.

The ship's postwar career was short. She conducted training cruises for US Naval Academy cadets in 1920 and 1921, the first to the Pacific and the second to Europe. During this period she served briefly as the flagship of the 4th Battleship Division. After returning from the second cruise, Kansas was decommissioned and sold for scrap in August 1923 according to the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty.

USS Louisiana

Five ships of the United States Navy have borne the name USS Louisiana in honor of the 18th state.

USS Louisiana (1812) was a sloop that served in the War of 1812

USS Louisiana (1861) was a propeller-driven steamer that served in the American Civil War

USS Louisiana (BB-19) was a Connecticut-class battleship commissioned 2 June 1906 and decommissioned 20 October 1920

USS Louisiana (BB-71) was a Montana-class battleship cancelled before her keel was laid down

USS Louisiana (SSBN-743) is an Ohio-class submarine currently in active service

CSS Louisiana was commissioned by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War

USRC Louisiana (1819) was a wood hull topsail schooner that served in the United States Revenue Cutter Service from 1819 to 1824

USS Louisiana (BB-19)

USS Louisiana (BB-19) was a Connecticut-class battleship of the United States Navy. She was the second member of the class of six pre-dreadnought battleships, and the third ship to carry her name. Louisiana was laid down in February 1903, launched in August 1904, and commissioned in June 1906. She was a 16,000-long-ton (16,000 t) battleship capable of 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph). Her main armament consisted of four 12-inch (305 mm) guns supported by a mixed secondary battery of 7 in (178 mm) and 8 in (203 mm) guns.

Louisiana primarily operated along the east coast of the United States and in the Caribbean during her career. In 1908–1909, she took part in the world cruise of the Great White Fleet. A pair of trips to European waters took place in 1910 and 1911. From 1913, she began to become involved in the Mexican Revolution, as the US Navy began to send ships to protect American interests in the country. This activity culminated in the US occupation of Veracruz in April 1914. During World War I, Louisiana was employed as a training ship before serving as a convoy escort in late 1918. After the war ended that year, she was used to ferry American soldiers back from France. With this work completed, she was decommissioned in October 1920 and broken up for scrap at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 1923.

USS Minnesota

USS Minnesota may refer to:

USS Minnesota (1855) was a wooden steam frigate launched 1 December 1855 and sold in August 1901.

USS Minnesota (BB-22) was a Connecticut-class battleship, launched 8 April 1905 and sold for scrap 23 January 1924.

USS Minnesota (SSN-783) is a Virginia-class submarine, commissioned on September 7, 2013.See also

USS Minnesotan (ID-4545)

SS Gopher State (T-ACS-4)

USS Minnesota (BB-22)

USS Minnesota (BB-22), the fifth of six Connecticut-class pre-dreadnought battleships, was the first ship of the United States Navy in honor of the 32nd state. She was laid down at the Newport News Shipbuilding Company of Newport News, Virginia in October 1903, launched in April 1905, and commissioned into the US fleet in March 1907, just four months after the revolutionary British battleship HMS Dreadnought entered service. Minnesota was armed with a main battery of four 12-inch (300 mm) guns and a secondary battery of twenty 7 and 8 in (178 and 203 mm) guns, unlike Dreadnought, which carried an all-big-gun armament that rendered ships like Minnesota obsolescent.

Shortly after she entered service, Minnesota joined the Great White Fleet for its circumnavigation of the globe in 1908–1909. The years from 1909 to 1912 were uneventful, but thereafter the ship began to become involved in conflicts in the Caribbean. She supported efforts to put down an insurrection in Cuba in 1912 and patrolled the coast of Mexico in 1913–1914 during the Mexican Revolution. In 1916, the ship was placed in reserve, though she quickly returned to service when the United States entered World War I in April 1917. During the war, she trained naval personnel; while cruising off the eastern coast of the United States in September 1918, she struck a naval mine laid by a German U-boat. The extensive damage required lengthy repairs that kept her out of service for the rest of the war. She helped to return American soldiers from Europe in 1919 before resuming her training ship duties in 1920–1921, before being decommissioned in December 1921 and broken up for scrap at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 1924.

USS New Hampshire

USS New Hampshire may refer to one of a number of United States Navy ships named in honor of the state of New Hampshire:

USS New Hampshire (1864) was one of nine ships of the line authorized (as the USS Alabama) in 1816, but not launched until 1864 as a storeship and destroyed by fire in 1921

USS New Hampshire (BB-25) was a Connecticut-class battleship commissioned in 1908 and sold for scrapping in 1923

USS New Hampshire (BB-70) was a Montana-class battleship authorized in 1940 but cancelled in 1943 before her keel was laid

USS New Hampshire (SSN-778) is a Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine, commissioned in 2008 and currently in active service

USS New Hampshire (BB-25)

New Hampshire (BB-25) was the sixth and final Connecticut-class pre-dreadnought battleship, the last vessel of that type built for the United States Navy. Like most contemporary battleships, she was armed with an offensive armament that consisted of four large-caliber 12-inch (300 mm) guns and several medium-caliber 7 and 8-inch (178 and 203 mm) guns. The ship was laid down in May 1905, launched in June 1906, and commissioned in March 1908, a little over a year after the revolutionary all-big-gun HMS Dreadnought rendered ships like New Hampshire obsolescent.

Despite being rapidly surpassed by new American dreadnoughts, New Hampshire had an active career. She made two trips to Europe in 1910 and 1911, and she sank the old battleship USS Texas, which had been converted into a target ship. New Hampshire was particularly active in the Caribbean during this period, as several countries, including Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico devolved into internal political conflicts. These actions included the United States occupation of Veracruz, during which the ship's commander was awarded the Medal of Honor.

After the United States entered World War I in April 1917, the ship was used primarily to train gunners and engine room personnel, as the US Navy had expanded significantly to combat the German U-boat campaign. She escorted convoys in late 1918, and after the war ended she took part in the effort to bring American soldiers back from France. New Hampshire remained in service for only a few years after the war, as the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty significantly reduced the navies of the signatories; as a result, the ship was sold for scrap in November 1923.

USS Vermont

Three ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Vermont in honor of the 14th state.

The first USS Vermont was one of nine ships of the line authorized by Congress in 1816, but it was not launched until 1848, and only ever saw service as a receiving ship, from 1862 to 1901.

The second USS Vermont (BB-20) was a Connecticut-class battleship

The third USS Vermont (SSN-792) is a planned Virginia-class submarine

USS Vermont (BB-20)

USS Vermont (BB-20), a Connecticut-class battleship, was the second ship of the United States Navy named after the 14th state. She was the third member of the class, which included five other ships. The Connecticut-class ships were armed with a main battery of four 12-inch (300 mm) guns and had a top speed of 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph). Vermont was laid down in May 1904 at the Fore River shipyard and launched in August 1905. The ship entered service with the Atlantic Fleet in March 1907.

Shortly after she entered service, Vermont joined the Great White Fleet for its circumnavigation of the globe in 1908–1909. She took part in the international Hudson-Fulton Celebration in New York in 1909 and made trips to Europe in 1910 and 1913. Thereafter, the ship became involved in interventions in several Central American countries, including the United States occupation of Veracruz during the Mexican Revolution, where two of her crew earned the Medal of Honor. During the United States' participation in World War I from April 1917 to November 1918, Vermont served as a training ship for engine room personnel. From November 1918 to June 1919, she made a series of trips to return American soldiers from Europe before being decommissioned in June 1920. She was sold for scrap in November 1923 according to the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty. Her bell currently resides at the Vermont State Capitol in Montpelier, VT.

Connecticut-class battleships
United States naval ship classes of World War I
Dreadnought battleships
Pre-dreadnought battleships
Battlecruisers
Armored cruisers
Protected cruisers
Scout cruisers
Unprotected cruisers
Destroyers
Submarines
Auxiliaries

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