Connecticut

Connecticut (/kəˈnɛtɪkət/ (listen))[11] is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index (0.962), and median household income in the United States.[12][13][14] It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, and Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport. It is part of New England, although portions of it are often grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which approximately bisects the state. The word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river".[15]

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was initially part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This was one of the Thirteen Colonies which rejected British rule in the American Revolution.

Connecticut is the third smallest state by area,[16] the 29th most populous,[17] and the fourth most densely populated[16] of the 50 states. It is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", and the "Land of Steady Habits".[1] It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States.

The Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state also has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County.

Coordinates: 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6°N 72.7°W

State of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut State seal of Connecticut
Flag Seal
Nickname(s):
  • The Constitution State (official)
  • The Nutmeg State
  • The Provisions State
  • The Land of Steady Habits
Motto(s):
State song(s): "Yankee Doodle"
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
Official languageNone
Demonym
CapitalHartford[5]
Largest cityBridgeport[6]
Largest metroGreater Hartford[7]
AreaRanked 48th
 • Total5,567 sq mi
(14,357 km2)
 • Width110 miles (177 km)
 • Length70 miles (113 km)
 • % water12.6
 • Latitude40°58' N to 42°03' N
 • Longitude71°47' W to 73°44' W
PopulationRanked 29th
 • Total3,572,665 (2018)
 • Density739/sq mi  (285/km2)
Ranked 4th
 • Median household income$72,889[8] (4th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointMassachusetts border on south slope of Mount Frissell[9][10]
2,379 ft (725 m)
 • Mean500 ft  (150 m)
 • Lowest pointLong Island Sound[9][10]
Sea level
Before statehoodConnecticut Colony
Admission to UnionJanuary 9, 1788 (5th)
GovernorNed Lamont (D)
Lieutenant GovernorSusan Bysiewicz (D)
LegislatureConnecticut General Assembly
 • Upper houseConnecticut Senate
 • Lower houseConnecticut House of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsRichard Blumenthal (D)
Chris Murphy (D)
U.S. House delegation5 Democrats (list)
Time zoneEastern: UTC −5/−4
ISO 3166US-CT
AbbreviationsCT, Conn.
Websitewww.ct.gov
Interactive map of Connecticut

Geography

Highest Point here

Mount Frissell, the highest point in the state

LakeMcdonoughFromTunxisTrail

Lake McDonough reservoir as seen from the Tunxis Trail Overlook Spur trail.

NASACandlewoodLakeConnecticut

Candlewood Lake is the largest lake in Connecticut.

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, and other major cities and towns (by population) include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, Danbury, New Britain, Greenwich, and Bristol. Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut.

Map of Connecticut NA cropped
Map of Connecticut

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[18] At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet (6 m) above sea level.

Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront (technically speaking). The coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, which is an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the west (toward New York City) and to the east (toward the "race" near Rhode Island). This situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, and many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's relatively small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape; for example, in the northwestern Litchfield Hills, it features rolling mountains and horse farms, whereas in areas to the east of New Haven along the coast, the landscape features coastal marshes, beaches, and large scale maritime activities.

Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities such as Stamford, Bridgeport, and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London, then northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, and so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, and look less visually like traditional New England.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 miles (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, and the town was split in half.[19][20]

The southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien, and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border, as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[21]

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include Appalachian National Scenic Trail, Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor, and Weir Farm National Historic Site.[22]

Climate

Connecticut Köppen
Köppen climate types in Connecticut
Barndoor Hills original
Scenery upon Barndoor Hills in Granby in autumn
EH 2001 snow
Winter in East Haven

Connecticut lies at the southern end of the humid continental climate, with cold winters with moderate snowfall and hot, humid summers. Coastal Connecticut is the rough transition zone from the cold continental climates of the north, to temperate - subtropical climates to the south. As such, far southern and coastal Connecticut has a borderline humid subtropical climate with hot, humid summers and milder winters with a mix of rain and infrequent snow. Most of Connecticut sees a fairly even precipitation pattern with rainfall/snowfall spread throughout the 12 months. Connecticut averages 56% of possible sunshine, averaging 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.[23]

Early spring (April) can range from slightly cool (40's to low 50's F) to warm (65 to 70 F), while mid and late spring (late April/May) is warm. By late May, the building Bermuda High creates a southerly flow of warm and humid tropical air, bringing hot weather conditions throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 85 °F (29 °C) in Windsor Locks at the peak of summer in late July. On occasion, heat waves with highs from 90 to 100 F occur across Connecticut. Although summers are sunny in Connecticut, quick moving summer thunderstorms can bring brief downpours with thunder and lightning. Occasionally these thunderstorms can be severe, and the state usually averages one tornado per year.[24] During hurricane season, the remains of tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region, though a direct hit is rare.

Weather commonly associated with the fall season typically begins in October and lasts to the first days of December. Daily high temperatures in October and November range from the 50s to 60s (Fahrenheit) with nights in the 40s and upper 30s. Colorful foliage begins across northern parts of the state in early October and moves south and east reaching southeast Connecticut by early November. Far southern and coastal areas however have more oak and hickory trees (and fewer maples), and are often less colorful than areas to the north. By December daytime highs are in the 40's F for much of the state, and average overnight lows are below freezing.

Winters (December through mid March) are generally cold from south to north in Connecticut. The coldest month (January) has average high temperatures ranging from 38 °F (3 °C) in the coastal lowlands to 33 °F (1 °C) in the inland and northern portions on the state. The average yearly snowfall ranges from about 60 inches (1,500 mm) in the higher elevations of the northern portion of the state to only 20–25 inches (510–640 mm) along the southeast coast of Connecticut (Branford to Groton). Generally, any locale north or west of Interstate 84 receives the most snow, during a storm, and throughout the season. Most of Connecticut has less than 60 days of snow cover. Snow usually falls from late November to late March in the northern part of the state, and from early December to mid March in the southern and coastal parts of the state.

Connecticut's record high temperature is 106 °F (41 °C) which occurred in Danbury on July 15, 1995; the record low is −32 °F (−36 °C) which occurred in the Northwest Hills Falls Village on February 16, 1943, and Coventry on January 22, 1961.[25]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Connecticut cities (°F)
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Bridgeport 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28
Hartford 35/16 39/19 47/27 59/38 70/48 79/57 84/63 82/61 74/51 63/40 52/32 40/22
[26][27]

Flora

Forests consist of a mix of Northeastern coastal forests of Oak in southern areas of the state, to the upland New England-Acadian forests in the northwestern parts of the state. Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) is the state flower, and is native to low ridges in several parts of Connecticut. Rosebay Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) is also native to eastern uplands of Connecticut and Pachaug State Forest is home to the Rhododendron Sanctuary Trail. Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), is found in wetlands in the southern parts of the state. Connecticut has one native cactus (Opuntia humifusa), found in sandy coastal areas and low hillsides. Several types of beach grasses and wildflowers are also native to Connecticut.[28] Connecticut spans USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5b to 7a. Coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone where more southern and subtropical plants are cultivated. In some coastal communities, Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia), Crape Myrtles, scrub palms (Sabal minor), and other broadleaved evergreens are cultivated in small numbers.

History

Ctcolony
A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies

The name Connecticut is derived from the Algonquian word that has been translated as "long tidal river" and "upon the long river",[29] referring to the Connecticut River. The Connecticut region was inhabited by multiple Indian tribes before European settlement and colonization, including the Mohegans, the Pequots, and the Paugusetts.[30]

Colonial period

The first European explorer in Connecticut was Dutchman Adriaen Block,[31] who explored the region in 1614. Dutch fur traders then sailed up the Connecticut River, which they called Versche Rivier ("Fresh River"), and built a fort at Dutch Point in Hartford that they named "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop).[32]

The Connecticut Colony was originally a number of separate, smaller settlements at Windsor, Wethersfield, Saybrook, Hartford, and New Haven. The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor, and then at Wethersfield the following year.[33] John Winthrop the Younger of Massachusetts received a commission to create Saybrook Colony at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635.[34]

The main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. They were Puritans from Massachusetts Bay Colony led by Thomas Hooker, who established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford.[35] The Quinnipiack Colony[36] was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and others at New Haven in March 1638. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution called "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", signed on June 4, 1639.[37]

The settlements were established without official sanction of the English Crown, and each was an independent political entity.[38] In 1662, Winthrop traveled to England and obtained a charter from Charles II which united the settlements of Connecticut.[39] Historically important colonial settlements included Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford (1636), New Haven (1638), Fairfield (1639), Guilford (1639), Milford (1639), Stratford (1639), Farmington (1640), Stamford (1641), and New London (1646).

The Pequot War marked the first major clash between colonists and Indians in New England. The Pequots reacted with increasing aggression to Colonial settlements in their territory—while simultaneously taking lands from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes. Settlers responded to a murder in 1636 with a raid on a Pequot village on Block Island; the Pequots laid siege to Saybrook Colony's garrison that autumn, then raided Wethersfield in the spring of 1637. Colonists declared war on the Pequots, organized a band of militia and allies from the Mohegan and Narragansett tribes, and attacked a Pequot village on the Mystic River, with death toll estimates ranging between 300 and 700 Pequots. After suffering another major loss at a battle in Fairfield, the Pequots asked for a truce and peace terms.[40]

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. The Hartford Treaty with the Dutch was signed on September 19, 1650, but it was never ratified by the British. According to it, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles (32 km),[41][42] "provided the said line come not within 10 miles of Hudson River."[41][42] This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. Conflict continued concerning colonial limits until the Duke of York captured New Netherland in 1664.[41][42]

On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea"—that is, to the Pacific Ocean.[43] Most Colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna River and Delaware River named Westmoreland County. This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania.[44]

Yale College was established in 1701, providing Connecticut with an important institution to educate clergy and civil leaders.[45] The Congregational church dominated religious life in the colony and, by extension, town affairs in many parts.[46]

American Revolution

LowsCTmap.jpeg
A 1799 map of Connecticut which shows The Oblong, from Low's Encyclopaedia

Connecticut designated four delegates to the Second Continental Congress who signed the Declaration of Independence: Samuel Huntington, Roger Sherman, William Williams, and Oliver Wolcott.[47]

Connecticut's legislature authorized the outfitting of six new regiments in 1775, in the wake of the clashes between British regulars and Massachusetts militia at Lexington and Concord. There were some 1,200 Connecticut troops on hand at the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775.[48]

In 1777, the British got word of Continental Army supplies in Danbury, and they landed an expeditionary force of some 2,000 troops in Westport. This force then marched to Danbury and destroyed homes and much of the depot. Continental Army troops and militia led by General David Wooster and General Benedict Arnold engaged them on their return march at Ridgefield in 1777.[49]

For the winter of 1778–79, General George Washington decided to split the Continental Army into three divisions encircling New York City, where British General Sir Henry Clinton had taken up winter quarters.[50] Major General Israel Putnam chose Redding as the winter encampment quarters for some 3,000 regulars and militia under his command. The Redding encampment allowed Putnam's soldiers to guard the replenished supply depot in Danbury and to support any operations along Long Island Sound and the Hudson River Valley.[51] Some of the men were veterans of the winter encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania the previous winter. Soldiers at the Redding camp endured supply shortages, cold temperatures, and significant snow, with some historians dubbing the encampment "Connecticut's Valley Forge".[52]

The state was also the launching site for a number of raids against Long Island orchestrated by Samuel Holden Parsons and Benjamin Tallmadge,[53] and provided men and material for the war effort, especially to Washington's army outside New York City. General William Tryon raided the Connecticut coast in July 1779, focusing on New Haven, Norwalk, and Fairfield.[54] New London and Groton Heights were raided in September 1781 by Benedict Arnold, who had turned traitor to the British.[55]

19th century

Early national period and industrial revolution

Connecticut ratified the U.S. Constitution on January 9, 1788, becoming the fifth state.[56] The state prospered during the era following the American Revolution, as mills and textile factories were built and seaports flourished from trade[57] and fisheries.

In 1786, Connecticut ceded territory to the U.S. government that became part of the Northwest Territory. The state retained land extending across the northern part of present-day Ohio called the Connecticut Western Reserve.[58] The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio.

Connecticut made agreements with Pennsylvania and New York which extinguished her land claims within those states' boundaries and created the Connecticut Panhandle. The state then ceded the Western Reserve in 1800 to the federal government,[58] which brought it to its present boundaries (other than minor adjustments with Massachusetts).

The British blockade during the War of 1812 hurt exports and bolstered the influence of Federalists who opposed the war.[59] The cessation of imports from Britain stimulated the construction of factories to manufacture textiles and machinery. Connecticut came to be recognized as a major center for manufacturing, due in part to the inventions of Eli Whitney and other early innovators of the Industrial Revolution.[60]

The state was known for its political conservatism, typified by its Federalist party and the Yale College of Timothy Dwight. The foremost intellectuals were Dwight and Noah Webster,[61] who compiled his great dictionary in New Haven. Religious tensions polarized the state, as the Congregational Church struggled to maintain traditional viewpoints, in alliance with the Federalists. The failure of the Hartford Convention in 1814 hurt the Federalist cause, with the Democratic-Republican Party gaining control in 1817.[62]

Connecticut had been governed under the "Fundamental Orders" since 1639, but the state adopted a new constitution in 1818.[63]

Civil War era

View of New London, Connecticut, from the Shore Road
View of New London in 1854

Connecticut manufacturers played a major role in supplying the Union forces with weapons and supplies during the Civil War. The state furnished 55,000 men, formed into thirty full regiments of infantry, including two in the U.S. Colored Troops, with several Connecticut men becoming generals. The Navy attracted 250 officers and 2,100 men, and Glastonbury native Gideon Welles was Secretary of the Navy. James H. Ward of Hartford was the first U.S. Naval Officer killed in the Civil War.[64] Connecticut casualties included 2,088 killed in combat, 2,801 dying from disease, and 689 dying in Confederate prison camps.[65][66][67]

A surge of national unity in 1861 brought thousands flocking to the colors from every town and city. However, as the war became a crusade to end slavery, many Democrats (especially Irish Catholics) pulled back. The Democrats took a pro-slavery position and included many Copperheads willing to let the South secede. The intensely fought 1863 election for governor was narrowly won by the Republicans.[68][69]

Second industrial revolution

Connecticut1895
1895 map from Rand McNally

Connecticut's extensive industry, dense population, flat terrain, and wealth encouraged the construction of railroads starting in 1839. By 1840, 102 miles (164 km) of line were in operation, growing to 402 miles (647 km) in 1850 and 601 miles (967 km) in 1860.[70]

The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, called the New Haven or "The Consolidated", became the dominant Connecticut railroad company after 1872. J. P. Morgan began financing the major New England railroads in the 1890s, dividing territory so that they would not compete. The New Haven purchased 50 smaller companies, including steamship lines, and built a network of light rails (electrified trolleys) that provided inter-urban transportation for all of southern New England. By 1912, the New Haven operated over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of track with 120,000 employees.[71]

In 1875, the first telephone exchange in the world was established in New Haven.[72]

20th century

World War I

When World War I broke out in 1914, Connecticut became a major supplier of weaponry to the U.S. military; by 1918, 80% of the state's industries were producing goods for the war effort.[73] Remington Arms in Bridgeport produced half the small-arms cartridges used by the U.S. Army,[74] with other major suppliers including Winchester in New Haven and Colt in Hartford.[75]

Connecticut was also an important U.S. Navy supplier, with Electric Boat receiving orders for 85 submarines,[76] Lake Torpedo Boat building more than 20 subs,[77] and the Groton Iron Works building freighters.[78] On June 21, 1916, the U.S. Navy made Groton the site for its East Coast submarine base and school.

The state enthusiastically supported the American war effort in 1917 and 1918, with large purchases of war bonds, a further expansion of industry, and an emphasis on increasing food production on the farms. Thousands of state, local, and volunteer groups mobilized for the war effort and were coordinated by the Connecticut State Council of Defense.[79] Manufacturers wrestled with manpower shortages; Waterbury's American Brass and Manufacturing Company was running at half capacity, so the federal government agreed to furlough soldiers to work there.[80]

Interwar period

In 1919, J. Henry Roraback started the Connecticut Light & Power Co.[81] which became the state's dominant electric utility. In 1925, Frederick Rentschler spurred the creation of Pratt & Whitney in Hartford to develop engines for aircraft; the company became an important military supplier in World War II and one of the three major manufacturers of jet engines in the world.[82]

On September 21, 1938, the most destructive storm in New England history struck eastern Connecticut, killing hundreds of people.[83] The eye of the "Long Island Express" passed just west of New Haven and devastated the Connecticut shoreline between Old Saybrook and Stonington from the full force of wind and waves, even though they had partial protection by Long Island. The hurricane caused extensive damage to infrastructure, homes, and businesses. In New London, a 500-foot (150 m) sailing ship was driven into a warehouse complex, causing a major fire. Heavy rainfall caused the Connecticut River to flood downtown Hartford and East Hartford. An estimated 50,000 trees fell onto roadways.[84]

World War II

The advent of lend-lease in support of Britain helped lift Connecticut from the Great Depression,[85] with the state a major production center for weaponry and supplies used in World War II. Connecticut manufactured 4.1% of total U.S. military armaments produced during World War II, ranking ninth among the 48 states,[86] with major factories including Colt[87] for firearms, Pratt & Whitney for aircraft engines, Chance Vought for fighter planes, Hamilton Standard for propellers,[88] and Electric Boat for submarines and PT boats.[89] In Bridgeport, General Electric produced a significant new weapon to combat tanks: the bazooka.[90]

On May 13, 1940, Igor Sikorsky made an untethered flight of the first practical helicopter.[91] The helicopter saw limited use in World War II, but future military production made Sikorsky Aircraft's Stratford plant Connecticut's largest single manufacturing site by the start of the 21st century.[92]

Post-World War II economic expansion

Connecticut lost some wartime factories following the end of hostilities, but the state shared in a general post-war expansion that included the construction of highways[93] and resulting in middle-class growth in suburban areas.

Prescott Bush represented Connecticut in the U.S. Senate from 1952 to 1963; his son George H.W. Bush and grandson George W. Bush both became Presidents of the United States.[94] In 1965, Connecticut ratified its current constitution, replacing the document that had served since 1818.[95]

In 1968, commercial operation began for the Connecticut Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in East Haddam; in 1970, the Millstone Nuclear Power Station began operations in Waterford.[96] In 1974, Connecticut elected Democratic Governor Ella T. Grasso, who became the first woman in any state to be elected governor.[97]

Late 20th century

Connecticut's dependence on the defense industry posed an economic challenge at the end of the Cold War. The resulting budget crisis helped elect Lowell Weicker as governor on a third-party ticket in 1990. Weicker's remedy was a state income tax which proved effective in balancing the budget, but only for the short-term. He did not run for a second term, in part because of this politically unpopular move.[98]

In 1992, initial construction was completed on Foxwoods Casino at the Mashantucket Pequots reservation in eastern Connecticut, which became the largest casino in the Western Hemisphere. Mohegan Sun followed four years later.[99]

Early 21st century

In 2000, presidential candidate Al Gore chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his running mate, marking the first time that a major party presidential ticket included someone of the Jewish faith.[100] Gore and Lieberman fell five votes short of George W. Bush and Dick Cheney in the Electoral College. In the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, 65 state residents were killed, mostly Fairfield County residents who were working in the World Trade Center.[101] In 2004, Republican Governor John G. Rowland resigned during a corruption investigation, later pleading guilty to federal charges.[102][103] Connecticut was hit by three major storms in just over 14 months in 2011 and 2012, with all three causing extensive property damage and electric outages. Hurricane Irene struck Connecticut August 28, and damage totaled $235 million.[104] Two months later, the "Halloween nor'easter" dropped extensive snow onto trees, resulting in snapped branches and trunks that damaged power lines; some areas were without electricity for 11 days.[105] Hurricane Sandy had tropical storm-force winds when it reached Connecticut October 29, 2012.[106] Sandy's winds drove storm surges into streets and cut power to 98% of homes and businesses, with more than $360 million in damage.[107]

On December 14, 2012, Adam Lanza shot and killed 26 people at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, and then killed himself.[108] The massacre spurred renewed efforts by activists for tighter laws on gun ownership nationally.[109]

In the summer and fall of 2016, Connecticut experienced a drought in many parts of the state, causing some water-use bans. As of November 15, 2016, 45% of the state was listed at Severe Drought by the US Drought Monitor, including almost all of Hartford and Litchfield counties. All the rest of the state was in Moderate Drought or Severe Drought, including Middlesex, Fairfield, New London, New Haven, Windham, and Tolland counties. This affected the agricultural economy in the state.[110][111][112]

President George W. Bush (8003096992)

Republican George W. Bush was born in Connecticut, winner in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections.

UA Flight 175 hits WTC south tower 9-11 edit.jpeg

9/11 killed 65 people living in Connecticut.

CT Gov John G. Rowland

Governor John G. Rowland was arrested for corruption in 2004.

Hurricane irene 082811 0832 edt

Tropical Storm Irene made landfall in Connecticut in August 2011.

2011 Halloween nor'easter Oct 29 2011 1805Z

The 2011 October nor'easter caused major snow damage in the state.

Hurricane Sandy morning October 29 2012

Category 1 Hurricane Sandy made landfall in Connecticut in October 2012, causing heavy destruction.

Police at Sandy Hook

In the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Adam Lanza killed 20 children and 6 adults.

2016 Connecticut Drought Map

The 2016 Connecticut Drought affected the agricultural market around the state, causing water limitations to be applied on some towns.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790237,946
1800251,0025.5%
1810261,9424.4%
1820275,2485.1%
1830297,6758.1%
1840309,9784.1%
1850370,79219.6%
1860460,14724.1%
1870537,45416.8%
1880622,70015.9%
1890746,25819.8%
1900908,42021.7%
19101,114,75622.7%
19201,380,63123.9%
19301,606,90316.4%
19401,709,2426.4%
19502,007,28017.4%
19602,535,23426.3%
19703,031,70919.6%
19803,107,5762.5%
19903,287,1165.8%
20003,405,5653.6%
20103,574,0974.9%
Est. 20183,572,6650.0%
Sources:[113][114][115]
2018 Estimate[116]

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Connecticut was 3,572,665 on July 1, 2018, a −0.04% decrease since the 2010 United States Census.[116]

As of 2018, Connecticut had an estimated population of 3,572,665,[116] which is an decrease of 15,519, or -1.00%, from the prior year and an decrease of 1,432, or -0.04%, since the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moved from the 29th most populous state to 30th. 2018 estimates put Connecticut's population at 3,572,665.[116]

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, only 12.3% was considered rural. Most of western and southern Connecticut (particularly the Gold Coast) is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state and has high property costs and high incomes. The center of population of Connecticut is located in the town of Cheshire.[117]

Connecticut population map
Connecticut Population Density Map

Population

As of the 2010 United States Census, Connecticut's race and ethnic percentages were:

Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 13.4% of the population in the 2010 Census.[118]

The state's most populous ethnic group is Non-Hispanic White, but this has declined from 98% in 1940 to 71% in 2010.[119]

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born. In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31%, and Polish at 1.20%.[122]

The largest European ancestry groups are:[123]

Main Street, Newtown CT
Main Street, Newtown

Birth data

As of 2011, 46.1% of Connecticut's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[124]

A map showing the majority racial or ethnic group in Connecticut by census block
Majority Racial and Ethnic Groups in Connecticut, 2010

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[125] 2014[126] 2015[127] 2016[128] 2017[129]
White: 28,454 (78.8%) 28,543 (78.7%) 28,164 (78.8%)  ... |- Non-Hispanic White 20,704 (57.4%) 20,933 (57.7%) 20,395 (57.1%) 19,551 (54.3%) 18,842 (53.5%)
Black 5,103 (14.1%) 5,154 (14.2%) 4,988 (14.0%) 4,453 (12.4%) 4,301 (12.2%)
Asian 2,221 (6.2%) 2,280 (6.3%) 2,497 (7.0%) 2,583 (7.2%) 2,475 (7.0%)
American Indian 307 (0.9%) 308 (0.8%) 97 (0.3%) 26 (0.1%) 28 (0.1%)
Hispanic (of any race) 8,208 (22.7%) 8,129 (22.4%) 8,275 (23.1%) 8,622 (23.9%) 8,833 (25.1%)
Total Connecticut 36,085 (100%) 36,285 (100%) 35,746 (100%) 36,015 (100%) 35,221 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Religion

The religious affiliations of the people of Connecticut as of 2014:[130]

A Pew survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations: Protestant 35%, Mormonism 1%, Jewish 3%, Roman Catholic 33%, Orthodox 1%, Non-religious 28%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, Hinduism 1%, Buddhism 1% and Islam 1%.[131][132] Jewish congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000.[133] The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2010 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,252,936; the United Church of Christ, with 96,506; and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, with 72,863.[133]

Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low. Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: The First Cathedral in Bloomfield, Connecticut located in Hartford County. Hartford is seat to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford, which is sovereign over the Diocese of Bridgeport and the Diocese of Norwich.

Largest cities and towns

Most Populous Cities[134]
City Population (2017 Census estimate)
1. Bridgeport 146,579
2. New Haven 131,014
3. Stamford 130,824
4. Hartford 123,400
5. Waterbury 108,629
6. Norwalk 89,005
7. Danbury 85,246
8. New Britain 72,710
9. Bristol 60,223
10. Meriden 59,927
11. West Hartford 54,843
12. Milford 52,970

Economy

Connecticut Welcomes You Sign
Connecticut state welcome sign in Enfield, Connecticut

The total gross state product for 2012 was $229.3 billion, up from $225.4 billion in 2011.[135]

Connecticut's per capita personal income in 2013 was estimated at $60,847, the highest of any state.[136] There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; after New York, Connecticut had the second largest gap nationwide between the average incomes of the top 1% and the average incomes of the bottom 99%.[137] According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Connecticut had the third-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.32%.[138] New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Darien, Greenwich, Weston, Westport and Wilton also have per capita incomes over $65,000. Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.[139]

Entering the Merritt Parkway in Greenwich
Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York in Greenwich, Connecticut

The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in December 2018 was 4.0%, the 33rd highest in the nation.[140]

Taxation

Before 1991, Connecticut had an investment-only income tax system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at 13%, the highest rate in the U.S., with no deductions allowed for costs of producing the investment income, such as interest on borrowing.

In 1991, under Governor Lowell P. Weicker Jr., an independent, the system was changed to one in which the taxes on employment income and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. The new tax policy drew investment firms to Connecticut; as of 2014, Fairfield County was home to the headquarters for 14 of the 200 largest hedge funds in the world.[141]

As of 2014, the income tax rates on Connecticut individuals are divided into six tax brackets of 3% (on income up to $10,000); 5% ($10,000-$50,000); 5.5% ($50,000-$100,000); 6% ($100,000-$200,000); 6.5% ($200,000-$250,000); and 6.7% (more than $250,000), with additional amounts owed depending on the bracket.[142]

All wages of Connecticut residents are subject to the state's income tax, even if earned outside the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states have no Connecticut income tax withheld. Connecticut permits a credit for taxes paid to other jurisdictions, but since residents who work in other states are still subject to Connecticut income taxation, they may owe taxes if the jurisdictional credit does not fully offset the Connecticut tax amount.

Connecticut levies a 6.35% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods.[143] Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. A provision excluding clothing under $50 from sales tax was repealed as of July 1, 2011.[143] There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. In August 2013, Connecticut authorized a sales tax "holiday" for one week during which retailers did not have to remit sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing.[144]

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $300 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.[145] Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property tax. According to the Tax Foundation, the 2010 Census data shows Connecticut residents paying the 2nd highest average property taxes in the nation with only New Jersey ahead of them.[146]

The Tax Foundation determined Connecticut residents had the third highest burden in the nation for state and local taxes at 11.86%, or $7,150, compared to the national average of 9.8%.[147]

As of 2014, the gasoline tax in Connecticut is 49.3 cents per gallon (the third highest in the nation) and the diesel tax is 54.9 cents per gallon (the highest in the nation).[148]

Real estate

Of home-sale transactions that closed in March 2014, the median home in Connecticut sold for $225,000, up 3.2% from March 2013.[149] Connecticut ranked ninth nationally in foreclosure activity as of April 2014, with one of every 887 residential units involved in a foreclosure proceeding, or 0.11% of the total housing stock.,[150] including City Place I and the Traveler's Tower, both housing the major insurance industry.

Industries

Finance and insurance is Connecticut's largest industry, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, generating 16.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2009. Major financial industry employers include The Hartford, Travelers, Cigna, Aetna, Mass Mutual, People's United Financial,[151] Royal Bank of Scotland,[152] UBS[153] Bridgewater Associates,[154] and GE Capital. Separately, the real estate industry accounted for an additional 15% of economic activity in 2009, with major employers including Realogy[155] and William Raveis Real Estate.[156]

Manufacturing is the third biggest industry at 11.9% of GDP and dominated by Hartford-based United Technologies Corporation (UTC), which employs more than 22,000 people in Connecticut.[157] Lockheed Martin subsidiary Sikorsky Aircraft operates Connecticut's single largest manufacturing plant in Stratford,[156] where it makes helicopters. Other UTC divisions include UTC Propulsion and Aerospace Systems, including jet engine manufacturer Pratt & Whitney and UTC Building and Industrial Systems.[158]

Other major manufacturers include the Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, which makes submarines in Groton,[159] and Boehringer Ingelheim, a pharmaceuticals manufacturer with its U.S. headquarters in Ridgefield.[156]

Connecticut historically was a center of gun manufacturing, and four gun-manufacturing firms continued to operate in the state as of December 2012, employing 2,000 people: Colt, Stag, Ruger, and Mossberg.[160] Marlin, owned by Remington, closed in April 2011.[161]

A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006 demonstrated that the areas of the arts, film, history, and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.[162] The Foxwoods Resort Casino and Mohegan Sun casino number among the state's largest employers;[163] both are located on Indian reservations in the eastern part of Connecticut.

Connecticut's agricultural sector employed about 12,000 people as of 2010, with more than a quarter of that number involved in nursery stock production. Other agricultural products include dairy products and eggs, tobacco, fish and shellfish, and fruit.[164]

Oyster harvesting was historically an important source of income to towns along the Connecticut coastline. In the 19th century, oystering boomed in New Haven, Bridgeport, and Norwalk and achieved modest success in neighboring towns. In 1911, Connecticut's oyster production reached its peak at nearly 25 million pounds of oyster meats. This was, at the time, higher than production in New York, Rhode Island, or Massachusetts.[165] During this time, the Connecticut coast was known in the shellfishing industry as the oyster capital of the world. From before World War 1 until 1969, Connecticut laws restricted the right to harvest oysters in state-owned beds to sailing vessels. These laws prompted the construction of the oyster sloop style vessel that lasted well into the 20th century.[166] The sloop Hope is believed to be the last oyster sloop built in Connecticut, completed in Greenwich in 1948.

Transportation

Roads

Q Bridge in New Haven Illuminated Red, White, and Blue (27460771747)
The Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, locally known as the Q Bridge, carries ten lanes over the Quinnipiac River in New Haven, along the Connecticut Turnpike.

The Interstate highways in the state are Interstate 95 (I-95; the Connecticut Turnpike) traveling southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 traveling southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 traveling north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 traveling north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form Connecticut Route 15 (Route 15), traveling from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and traveling parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin. I-95 and Route 15 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.[167] Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7 (US 7) in the west traveling parallel to the New York state line, Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and traveling north–south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with US 7, and Connecticut Route 9 in the east.

Between New Haven and New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Although I-95 has been widened in several spots, some areas are only 3 lanes and this strains traffic capacity, resulting in frequent and lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway and even US 1. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.[168]

Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycle ownership and use in the United States, particularly in New Haven. According to the US Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.[169]

Rail

Rail is a popular travel mode between New Haven and New York City's Grand Central Terminal. Southwestern Connecticut is served by the Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury. Connecticut lies along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service from New Haven south to New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, DC, and Norfolk, VA.

Coastal cities and towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line. Several new stations were completed along the Connecticut shoreline recently, and a commuter rail service called the Hartford Line between New Haven and Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line began operating in June 2018.[170] A proposed commuter rail service, the Central Corridor Rail Line, will connect New London with Norwich, Willimantic, Storrs, and Stafford Springs, with service continuing into Massachusetts and Brattleboro. Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, serving Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor Locks, and Springfield, MA and the Vermonter runs from Washington to St. Albans, Vermont via the same line.

Bus

Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. Connecticut Transit also operates CTfastrak, a bus rapid transit service between New Britain and Hartford. The bus route opened to the public on March 28, 2015.[171][172][173]

Florida 148
Bradley International Airport, the state's largest airport

Air

Bradley International Airport,[174] is located in Windsor Locks, 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford. Many residents of central and southern Connecticut also make heavy use of JFK International Airport and Newark International Airports, especially for international travel. Smaller regional air service is provided at Tweed New Haven Regional Airport. Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut, Hartford–Brainard Airport in central Connecticut, and Groton-New London Airport in eastern Connecticut. Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation.

Ferry

The Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Ferry travels between Bridgeport, Connecticut and Port Jefferson, New York by crossing Long Island Sound. Ferry service also operates out of New London to Orient, New York; Fishers Island, New York; and Block Island, Rhode Island, which are popular tourist destinations. Small local services operate the Rocky Hill – Glastonbury Ferry and the Chester–Hadlyme Ferry which cross the Connecticut River.

Law and government

Connecticut State Capitol, February 24, 2008
The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford

Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals.[56]

Constitutional history

Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State". The origin of this nickname is uncertain, but it likely comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution. Variations of the bicameral legislature had been proposed by Virginia and New Jersey, but Connecticut's plan was the one that was in effect until the early 20th century, when Senators ceased to be selected by their state legislatures and were instead directly elected. Otherwise, it is still the design of Congress.

The nickname also might refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal Connecticut state government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The State of Connecticut government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of the state's constitutional history. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662.

Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern U.S. Constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications.

Executive

The governor heads the executive branch. As of 2019, Ned Lamont is the Governor[175] and Susan Bysiewicz is the Lieutenant Governor,[176] both are Democrats. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. In 1974, Ella Grasso was elected as the governor of Connecticut. This was the first time in United States history when a woman was a governor without her husband being governor first.[97]

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Construction Services, Education, Emergency Management and Public Protection, Energy & Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Utility Regulatory Authority, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.[177]

In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller, and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four-year terms.[56]

Legislative

The legislature is the General Assembly. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the State Senate (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives).[56] Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Per Article XV of the state constitution, Senators and Representatives must be at least 18 years of age and are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. There also must always be between 30 and 50 senators and 125 to 225 representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro tempore presides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House.[178] As of 2017, Joe Aresimowicz is the Speaker of the House of Connecticut.

As of 2015, Connecticut's United States Senators are Richard Blumenthal (Democrat) and Chris Murphy (Democrat).[179] Connecticut has five representatives in the U.S. House, all of whom are Democrats.[180]

Locally elected representatives also develop Local ordinances to govern cities and towns.[181] The town ordinances often include noise control and zoning guidelines.[182] However, the State of Connecticut does also provide statewide ordinances for noise control as well.[183]

Judicial

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. As of 2015 the Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers.[184]

In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.[185] The Appellate Court is a lesser statewide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.

The State of Connecticut also offers access to Arrest warrant enforcement statistics through the Office of Policy and Management.[186]

Local government

and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by population, List of towns in Connecticut, List of cities in Connecticut, Borough (Connecticut), List of counties in Connecticut

Connecticut does not have county government, unlike all other states except Rhode Island. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county.[187] In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided into judicial districts at the trial-court level which largely follow the old county lines.[188] The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports and census reporting.

Connecticut shares with the rest of New England a governmental institution called the New England town. The state is divided into 169 towns which serve as the fundamental political jurisdictions.[56] There are also 21 cities,[56] most of which simply follow the boundaries of their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: the City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton, and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town.[56][189] Naugatuck is a consolidated town and borough.

The state is also divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management, with the exception of the Town of Stafford in Tolland County.[190] The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations".[190]

Politics

Connecticut Political Party Registration 1958 - 2012
Connecticut political party registration 1958–2012 marked with presidential influence

Registered voters

Connecticut residents who register to vote have the option of declaring an affiliation to a political party, may become unaffiliated at will, and may change affiliations subject to certain waiting periods. As of 2018 about 60% of registered voters are enrolled (just over 1% total in 28 third parties minor parties), and ratios among unaffiliated voters and the two major parties are about 8 unaffiliated for every 7 in the Democratic Party of Connecticut and for every 4 in the Connecticut Republican Party.

(Among the minor parties, the Libertarian Party and Green Party appeared in the Presidential-electors column in 2016, and drew, respectively, 2.96% and 1.39% of the vote.)

Many Connecticut towns and cities show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party.[2]

Connecticut voter registration and party enrollment as of November 5, 2018[191]
Party Active voters Percentage
Unaffiliated 877,392 40.52%
Democratic 792,558 36.60%
Republican 463,167 21.39%
Independent 26,848 1.24%
Libertarian 2,980 0.14%
Green 1,762 0.08%
Working Families 317 0.01%
24 other minor parties without
statewide enrollment privileges
205 0.01%
Total 2,165,229 100%
Gubernatorial election results[192]
Year Democratic Republican
1950 47.7% 419,404 49.7% 436,418
1954 49.5% 463,643 49.2% 460,528
1958 62.3% 607,012 37.0% 360,644
1962 53.2% 549,027 46.8% 482,852
1966 55.7% 561,599 44.3% 446,536
1970 46.2% 500,561 53.8% 582,160
1974 58.4% 643,499 39.9% 440,169
1978 59.2% 613,109 40.7% 422,316
1982 53.4% 578,264 45.9% 497,773
1986 57.9% 575,638 41.1% 408,489
1990 20.7% 236,641 37.5% 427,840
1994 32.7% 375,133 36.2% 415,201
1998 35.4% 354,187 62.9% 628,707
2002 43.9% 448,984 56.1% 573,958
2006 35.5% 398,220 63.2% 710,048
2010 49.5% 567,278 49.0% 560,874
2014 50.7% 554,314 48.2% 526,295
2018 49.4% 694,510 46.2% 650,138
Presidential election results[192]
Year Democratic Republican
1952 43.9% 481,649 55.7% 611,012
1956 36.3% 405,079 63.7% 711,837
1960 53.7% 657,055 46.3% 565,813
1964 67.8% 826,269 32.1% 390,996
1968 49.5% 621,561 44.3% 556,721
1972 40.1% 555,498 58.6% 810,763
1976 46.9% 647,895 52.1% 719,261
1980 38.5% 541,732 48.2% 677,210
1984 38.8% 569,597 60.7% 890,877
1988 46.9% 676,584 52.0% 750,241
1992 42.2% 682,318 35.8% 578,313
1996 52.8% 735,740 34.7% 483,109
2000 55.9% 816,015 38.4% 561,094
2004 54.3% 857,488 44.0% 693,826
2008 60.6% 997,773 38.2% 629,428
2012 58.1% 905,109 40.7% 634,899
2016 54.6% 897,572 40.9% 673,215
United States presidential election in Connecticut, 2016
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Voting

In April 2012 both houses of the Connecticut state legislature passed a bill (20 to 16 and 86 to 62) that abolished the capital punishment for all future crimes, while 11 inmates who were waiting on the death row at the time could still be executed.[193]

In July 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor M. Jodi Rell to pass SustiNet, the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.[194]

Education

Connecticut ranked third in the nation for educational performance, according to Education Week’s Quality Counts 2018 report. It earned an overall score of 83.5 out of 100 points. On average, the country received a score of 75.2.[195] Connecticut posted a B-plus in the Chance-for-Success category, ranking fourth on factors that contribute to a person’s success both within and outside the K-12 education system. Connecticut received a mark of B-plus and finished fourth for School Finance. It ranked 12th with a grade of C on the K-12 Achievement Index.[195]

K–12

The Connecticut State Board of Education manages the public school system for children in grades K–12. Board of Education members are appointed by the Governor of Connecticut. Statistics for each school are made available to the public through an online database system called "CEDAR".[196] The CEDAR database also provides statistics for "ACES" or "RESC" schools for children with behavioral disorders.[197]

Private schools

Colleges and universities

Connecticut was home to the nation's first law school, Litchfield Law School, which operated from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield. Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the Collegiate School (1628) in Manhattan and the Boston Latin School (1635).

Private

Yale MMI
Yale's motto means light & truth.
UConn Main
University of Connecticut, the state's main public university
Yale MMIII
Yale (close up of door). Yale was formerly known as the Collegiate School.

Public universities

Public community colleges

Southbury Greenhouse MMII
Southbury Training School Greenhouse, Interior.
Southbury Greenhouse MMI
Southbury Greenhouse, 2016

The state also has many noted private day schools, and its boarding schools draw students from around the world.

Sports

There are two Connecticut teams in the American Hockey League. The Bridgeport Sound Tigers is a farm team for the New York Islanders which competes at the Webster Bank Arena in Bridgeport. The Hartford Wolf Pack is the affiliate of the New York Rangers; they play in the XL Center in Hartford.

The Hartford Yard Goats of the Eastern League are a AA affiliate of the Colorado Rockies. Also, the Connecticut Tigers play in the New York-Penn League and are an A affiliate of the Detroit Tigers. The Bridgeport Bluefish and the New Britain Bees play in the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. The Connecticut Sun of the WNBA currently play at the Mohegan Sun Arena in Uncasville. In soccer, Hartford Athletic will begin play in the USL Championship in 2019, serving as the reserve team for the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer.

The state hosts several major sporting events. Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. It was originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open" and is now known as the Travelers Championship. The Connecticut Open tennis tournament is held annually in the Cullman-Heyman Tennis Center at Yale University in New Haven.

American Le Mans Series at Road America 2007
Lime Rock, a home of the American Le Mans Series tournament

Lime Rock Park in Salisbury is a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) road racing course, home to the International Motor Sports Association, SCCA, United States Auto Club, and K&N Pro Series East races. Thompson International Speedway, Stafford Motor Speedway, and Waterford Speedbowl are oval tracks holding weekly races for NASCAR Modifieds and other classes, including the NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour. The state also hosts several major mixed martial arts events for Bellator MMA and the Ultimate Fighting Championship.

Professional sports teams

The Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League played in Hartford from 1975 to 1997 at the Hartford Civic Center. They departed to Raleigh, North Carolina after disputes with the state over the construction of a new arena, and they are now known as the Carolina Hurricanes. In 1926, Hartford had a franchise in the National Football League known as the Hartford Blues.[212] They joined the National League for one season in 1876, making them the state's only Major League baseball franchise before moving to Brooklyn, New York and then disbanding one season later.

Team Sport League
Bridgeport Sound Tigers Ice hockey American Hockey League
Hartford Wolf Pack Ice hockey American Hockey League
Connecticut Whale Ice Hockey National Women's Hockey League
Hartford Yard Goats Baseball Eastern League (AA)
Connecticut Tigers Baseball New York–Penn League (A)
New Britain Bees Baseball Atlantic League
Connecticut Sun Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Hartford City FC Soccer National Premier Soccer League
Hartford Athletic Soccer USL Championship
AC Connecticut Soccer USL League Two
New England Black Wolves Lacrosse National Lacrosse League

College sports

Yale-Harvard-Game
Yale Bowl during "The Game" between Yale and Harvard. The Bowl was also the home of the NFL's New York Giants in 1973–74.

The Connecticut Huskies are the team of the University of Connecticut (UConn); they play NCAA Division I sports. Both the men's basketball and women's basketball teams have won multiple national championships; UConn became the first school in NCAA Division I history to have its men's and women's basketball programs win the national title in the same year.[213][214] The UConn women's basketball team holds the record for the longest consecutive winning streak in NCAA college basketball at 111 games, a streak that ended in 2017.[215] The UConn Huskies football team has played in the Football Bowl Subdivision since 2002, and has played in four bowl games.

New Haven biennially hosts "The Game" between the Yale Bulldogs and the Harvard Crimson, the country's second-oldest college football rivalry. Yale alumnus Walter Camp is deemed the "Father of American Football", and he helped develop modern football while living in New Haven.[216] Other Connecticut universities which feature Division I sports teams are Quinnipiac University, Fairfield University, Central Connecticut State University, Sacred Heart University, and the University of Hartford.

Etymology and symbols

The name "Connecticut" originated with the Mohegan word quonehtacut, meaning "place of long tidal river".[56] Connecticut's official nickname is "The Constitution State", adopted in 1959 and based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.[1] Connecticut is also unofficially known as "The Nutmeg State,"[1] whose origin is unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg, which was a very valuable spice in the 18th and 19th centuries. It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.[217] George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State"[1] because of the material aid that the state rendered to the American Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".[1]

According to Webster's New International Dictionary (1993), a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print but not in use, such as "Connecticotian" (Cotton Mather in 1702) and "Connecticutensian" (Samuel Peters in 1781). Linguist Allen Walker Read suggests the more playful term "connecticutie". "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,[217] as is "Yankee" The official state song is "Yankee Doodle". The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviation is CT.

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan, which is docked at Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.

Connecticut state insignia and historical figures
Source Sites, Seals & Symbols except where noted.
State aircraft Vought F4U Corsair
State hero Nathan Hale
State heroine Prudence Crandall
State composer Charles Edward Ives
State statues in Statuary Hall Roger Sherman and Jonathan Trumbull
State poet laureate Dick Allen[218]
Connecticut State Troubadour Kristen Graves
State composer laureate Jacob Druckman

Notable people

See also

References

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External links

Preceded by
Georgia
List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Ratified Constitution on January 9, 1788 (5th)
Succeeded by
Massachusetts
Bridgeport, Connecticut

Bridgeport is a historic seaport city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located in Fairfield County at the mouth of the Pequonnock River on Long Island Sound, 60 miles from Manhattan and 40 miles from the Bronx. It is bordered by the towns of Trumbull to the north, Fairfield to the west, and Stratford to the east.

As of 2017, Bridgeport had an estimated population of 146,579, which made it the largest city in Connecticut and the fifth-most populous in New England. The Greater Bridgeport area is the 48th-largest urban area in the United States.

The showman P. T. Barnum was a resident of the city and served as the town's mayor in the late 19th century. Barnum built four houses in Bridgeport, and housed his circus in town during winter. The first Subway restaurant opened in the North End section of the city in 1965. The Frisbie Pie Company was located here, and Bridgeport is credited as the birthplace of the Frisbee.After World War II, industrial restructuring and suburbanization caused the loss of many jobs and affluent residents, leaving Bridgeport struggling with problems of poverty and crime. In the 21st century, with the city being gentrified and other redevelopment, the city is attracting new residents and widespread interest. Bridgeport has become a destination for cultural and sporting events.

Connecticut Compromise

The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman, along with proportional representation of the states in the lower house, but required the upper house to be weighted equally among the states. Each state would have two representatives in the upper house.

Greenwich, Connecticut

Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171. It is the 10th largest municipality in Connecticut, and the largest that functions as a town (the remaining largest municipalities in the state function as cities).

The largest town on Connecticut's Gold Coast, Greenwich is home to many hedge funds and other financial service firms. Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as in the six-state region of New England. It is roughly 40 to 50 minutes by train from Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Greenwich 12th on its list of the "100 Best Places to Live in the United States" in 2005. The town is named after Greenwich, a Royal borough of London in the United Kingdom.

Hartford, Connecticut

Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960. The city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, and Stamford.Hartford was founded in 1635 and is among the oldest cities in the United States. It is home to the nation's oldest public art museum (Wadsworth Atheneum), the oldest publicly funded park (Bushnell Park), the oldest continuously published newspaper (the Hartford Courant), and the second-oldest secondary school (Hartford Public High School). It also is home to the Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family, among other historically significant sites. Mark Twain wrote in 1868, "Of all the beautiful towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief."

Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War. Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the nation, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. In sharp contrast, the Greater Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income.Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor economic partnership.

Hartford Whalers

The Hartford Whalers were an American professional ice hockey team based for most of its existence in Hartford, Connecticut. The club played in the World Hockey Association (WHA) from 1972 until 1979, and in the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1979 to 1997. Originally based in Boston, the team joined the WHA in the league's inaugural season, and was known as the New England Whalers throughout its time in the WHA. The Whalers moved to Hartford in 1974 and joined the NHL in the NHL–WHA merger of 1979.

In 1997, the Whalers franchise relocated to North Carolina, where it became the Carolina Hurricanes.

Joe Lieberman

Joseph Isadore Lieberman (; born February 24, 1942) is an American politician, lobbyist and attorney who served as a United States Senator from Connecticut from 1989 to 2013. A former member of the Democratic Party, he was its nominee for Vice President of the United States in the 2000 election. During his final term in office he was officially listed as an independent Democrat and caucused with and chaired committees for the Democratic Party.

Lieberman was elected as a "Reform Democrat" in 1970 to the Connecticut Senate, where he served three terms as Majority Leader. After an unsuccessful bid for the U.S. House of Representatives in 1980, he served as state Attorney General from 1983 to 1989. He defeated moderate Republican Lowell Weicker in 1988 to win election to the U.S. Senate, and was re-elected in 1994, 2000, and 2006. He was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in the 2000 United States presidential election, running with presidential nominee and then Vice President Al Gore, and becoming the first Jewish candidate on a major American political party presidential ticket.In the 2000 presidential election, Gore and Lieberman won the popular vote by a margin of more than 500,000 votes, but lost the deciding Electoral College to the Republican George W. Bush/Dick Cheney ticket 271–266. He also unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination in the 2004 presidential election.

During his Senate re-election bid in 2006, Lieberman lost the Democratic Party primary election, but won re-election in the general election as a third party candidate under the "Connecticut for Lieberman" party label. Never a member of that party, he remained a registered Democrat while he ran.Lieberman was officially listed in Senate records for the 110th and 111th Congresses as an "Independent Democrat", and sat as part of the Senate Democratic Caucus. However, after his speech at the 2008 Republican National Convention in which he endorsed John McCain for President, he no longer attended Democratic Caucus leadership strategy meetings or policy lunches. On November 5, 2008, he met with Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to discuss his future role with the Democratic Party. Ultimately, the Senate Democratic Caucus voted to allow him to keep chairmanship of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Subsequently, he announced that he would continue to caucus with the Democrats. Before the 2016 election, he endorsed Hillary Clinton for President.

As Senator, Lieberman introduced and championed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010 and legislation that led to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. During debate on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as the crucial 60th vote needed to pass the legislation, his opposition to the public option was critical to its removal from the resulting bill.

Katharine Hepburn

Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an American actress. Known for her fierce independence and spirited personality, Hepburn was a leading lady in Hollywood for more than 60 years. She appeared in a range of genres, from screwball comedy to literary drama, and she received a record four Academy Awards for Best Actress. In 1999, Hepburn was named by the American Film Institute one of the greatest female stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema.

Raised in Connecticut by wealthy, progressive parents, Hepburn began to act while studying at Bryn Mawr College. After four years in the theatre, favorable reviews of her work on Broadway brought her to the attention of Hollywood. Her early years in the film industry were marked with success, including an Academy Award for her third picture, Morning Glory (1933), but this was followed by a series of commercial failures that led her to be labeled "box office poison" in 1938. Hepburn masterminded her own comeback, buying out her contract with RKO Radio Pictures and acquiring the film rights to The Philadelphia Story, which she sold on the condition that she be the star. In the 1940s, she was contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where her career focused on an alliance with Spencer Tracy. The screen partnership spanned 25 years and produced nine movies.

Hepburn challenged herself in the latter half of her life, as she regularly appeared in Shakespearean stage productions and tackled a range of literary roles. She found a niche playing middle-aged spinsters, such as in The African Queen (1951), a persona the public embraced. Three more Oscars came for her work in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner (1967), The Lion in Winter (1968), and On Golden Pond (1981). In the 1970s, she began appearing in television films, which became the focus of her career in later life. She remained active into old age, making her final screen appearance in 1994 at the age of 87. After a period of inactivity and ill health, Hepburn died in 2003 at the age of 96.

Hepburn famously shunned the Hollywood publicity machine, and refused to conform to society's expectations of women. She was outspoken, assertive, athletic, and wore trousers before it was fashionable for women to do so. She was briefly married as a young woman, but thereafter lived independently. A 26-year affair with her co-star Spencer Tracy was hidden from the public. With her unconventional lifestyle and the independent characters she brought to the screen, Hepburn epitomized the "modern woman" in the 20th-century United States, and is remembered as an important cultural figure.

New England

New England is a geographical region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts. The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts (the second-largest city in New England), Manchester, New Hampshire (the largest city in New Hampshire), and Providence, Rhode Island (the capital and largest city of Rhode Island).

In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years later, more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in America. In 1692, the town of Salem, Massachusetts and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history.In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship which was enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, and residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists. These confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, and was the first region of the U.S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Blackstone and Merrimack river valleys.

The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area. Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south.

Each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries. It maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are often contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, and isolation with immigration.

New Haven, Connecticut

New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010.New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is commonly known as the "Nine Square Plan". The central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre (6 ha) square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, and the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark.New Haven is the home of Yale University. As New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy. Health care (hospitals and biotechnology), professional services (legal, architectural, marketing, and engineering), financial services, and retail trade also contribute to the city's economic activity.

The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters, museums, and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees (including some large elms) that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City".

New London, Connecticut

New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States, located at the mouth of the Thames River in New London County, Connecticut. It was one of the world's three busiest whaling ports for several decades beginning in the early 19th century, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture. The city subsequently became home to other shipping and manufacturing industries, but it has gradually lost most of its industrial heart.

New London is home to the United States Coast Guard Academy, Connecticut College, Mitchell College, and The Williams School. The Coast Guard Station New London and New London Harbor is home port to the Coast Guard Cutter Chinook and the Coast Guard's tall ship Eagle. The city had a population of 27,620 at the 2010 census. The Norwich-New London metropolitan area includes 21 towns and 274,055 people.

P. T. Barnum

Phineas Taylor Barnum (; July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, politician, and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus (1871–2017). He was also an author, publisher, and philanthropist, though he said of himself: "I am a showman by profession… and all the gilding shall make nothing else of me". According to his critics, his personal aim was "to put money in his own coffers." He is widely credited with coining the adage "There's a sucker born every minute", although no evidence can be found of him saying this.

Barnum became a small-business owner in his early twenties and founded a weekly newspaper before moving to New York City in 1834. He embarked on an entertainment career, first with a variety troupe called "Barnum's Grand Scientific and Musical Theater", and soon after by purchasing Scudder's American Museum which he renamed after himself. He used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Fiji mermaid and General Tom Thumb. In 1850, he promoted the American tour of singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights. He suffered economic reversals in the 1850s due to bad investments, as well as years of litigation and public humiliation, but he used a lecture tour as a temperance speaker to emerge from debt. His museum added America's first aquarium and expanded the wax-figure department.

Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield, Connecticut. He spoke before the legislature concerning the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which abolished slavery and involuntary servitude: "A human soul, 'that God has created and Christ died for,' is not to be trifled with. It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab, or a Hottentot—it is still an immortal spirit". He was elected in 1875 as Mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut, where he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. He was also instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital, founded in 1878, and was its first president. Nevertheless, the circus business was the source of much of his enduring fame. He established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome", a traveling circus, menagerie, and museum of "freaks" which adopted many names over the years.

Barnum died of a stroke at his home residence in 1891 and was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, which he designed himself.

Paul Newman

Paul Leonard Newman (January 26, 1925 – September 26, 2008) was an American actor, film director, producer, race car driver, IndyCar owner, entrepreneur, and philanthropist. He won and was nominated for numerous awards, winning an Oscar for his performance in the 1986 film The Color of Money, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a Cannes Film Festival Award, an Emmy Award, and many others. Newman's other roles include the title characters in The Hustler (1961), Hud (1963), Harper (1966) and Cool Hand Luke (1967), as well as Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean (1972), The Sting (1973), Slap Shot (1977), and The Verdict (1982). He voiced Doc Hudson in the first installment of Disney-Pixar's Cars as his final acting performance, with voice recordings being used in Cars 3 (2017).

Newman won several national championships as a driver in Sports Car Club of America road racing, and his race teams won several championships in open-wheel IndyCar racing. He was a co-founder of Newman's Own, a food company from which he donated all post-tax profits and royalties to charity. As of January 2017, these donations have totaled over US$485 million. He was a co-founder of Safe Water Network, a nonprofit that develops sustainable drinking water solutions for those in need.In 1988, Newman founded the SeriousFun Children's Network, a global family of summer camps and programs for children with serious illness which has served 290,076 children since its inception.

Prescott Bush

Prescott Sheldon Bush (May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was an American banker and politician. After working as a Wall Street executive investment banker, he represented Connecticut in the United States Senate from 1952 to 1963. A member of the Bush family, he was the father of President George H. W. Bush, who was also the Vice President prior to his presidency, and the paternal grandfather of President George W. Bush and Governor Jeb Bush.

Born in Columbus, Ohio, Bush graduated from Yale College and served as an artillery officer during World War I. After the war, he worked for several companies, becoming a minor partner of the A. Harriman & Co. investment bank in 1931. He also served as high-ranking official with the United States Golf Association. Bush settled in Connecticut in 1925.

Bush won election to the Senate in a 1952 special election, narrowly defeating Democratic nominee Abraham Ribicoff. In the Senate, Bush staunchly supported President Dwight D. Eisenhower and helped enact legislation to create the Interstate Highway System. Bush won re-election in 1956 but declined to seek re-election in 1962, retiring from the Senate the following year.

Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting

The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting occurred on December 14, 2012, in Newtown, Connecticut, United States, when 20-year-old Adam Lanza fatally shot 20 children between six and seven years old, and six adult staff members. Before driving to the school, he shot and killed his mother at their Newtown home. As first responders arrived at the school, Lanza committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.

The incident was the deadliest mass shooting at either a high school or grade school in U.S. history and the fourth-deadliest mass shooting by a single person in U.S. history. The shooting prompted renewed debate about gun control in the United States, including proposals to make the background-check system universal, and for new federal and state gun legislation banning the sale and manufacture of certain types of semi-automatic firearms and magazines with more than ten rounds of ammunition.

A November 2013 report issued by the Connecticut State Attorney's office concluded that Lanza acted alone and planned his actions, but provided no indication why he did so, or why he targeted the school. A report issued by the Office of the Child Advocate in November 2014 said that Lanza had Asperger's syndrome and as a teenager suffered from depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, but concluded that they had "neither caused nor led to his murderous acts." The report went on to say, "his severe and deteriorating internalized mental health problems ... combined with an atypical preoccupation with violence ... (and) access to

deadly weapons ... proved a recipe for mass murder".

Seth MacFarlane

Seth Woodbury MacFarlane (; born October 26, 1973) is an American actor, voice artist, animator, filmmaker, and singer, working primarily in animation and comedy, as well as live-action and other genres. MacFarlane is the creator of the TV series Family Guy (1999–2003, 2005–present) and The Orville (2017–present), and co-creator of the TV series American Dad! (2005–present) and The Cleveland Show (2009–2013). He also wrote, directed, and starred in the films Ted (2012), its sequel Ted 2 (2015), and A Million Ways to Die in the West (2014).

MacFarlane is a graduate of the Rhode Island School of Design, where he studied animation. Recruited to Hollywood, he was an animator and writer for Hanna-Barbera for several television series, including Johnny Bravo, Cow and Chicken, Dexter's Laboratory, I Am Weasel, and Larry & Steve. He made several guest appearances on TV series such as Gilmore Girls, The War at Home and FlashForward. In 2008, he created his own YouTube series titled Seth MacFarlane's Cavalcade of Cartoon Comedy. He won several awards for his work on Family Guy, including four Primetime Emmy Awards and an Annie Award. In 2009, he won the Webby Award for Film & Video Person of the Year. He occasionally speaks at universities and colleges throughout the United States, and is an active supporter of gay rights.

MacFarlane has performed as a singer at several venues, including Carnegie Hall and the Royal Albert Hall. MacFarlane has released four studio albums, in the same vein of his musical idol Frank Sinatra, beginning with Music Is Better Than Words in 2011. He has been nominated for four Grammy Awards for his musical work.

MacFarlane hosted the 85th Academy Awards in 2013 and was also nominated for Best Original Song for the song "Everybody Needs a Best Friend" from Ted.

MacFarlane served as executive producer of the Neil deGrasse Tyson-hosted Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, an update of the 1980s Cosmos series hosted by Carl Sagan. MacFarlane was instrumental in providing funding for the series, as well as securing studio support for it from other entertainment executives.

Stamford, Connecticut

Stamford () is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643. As of 2017, according to the Census Bureau, the population of Stamford had risen to 131,000, making it the third-largest city in the state (behind Bridgeport and New Haven) and the seventh-largest city in New England. Approximately 30 miles (50 kilometers) from Manhattan, Stamford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro area which is a part of the Greater New York metropolitan area.

Stamford is home to four Fortune 500 Companies, nine Fortune 1000 Companies, and 13 current 100 Companies, as well as numerous divisions of large corporations. This gives Stamford the largest financial district in the New York metropolitan region outside New York City itself and one of the largest concentrations of corporations in the United States.

University of Connecticut

The University of Connecticut (UConn) is a public land grant, National Sea Grant and National Space Grant research university in Storrs, Connecticut, United States. It was founded in 1881.

The primary 4,400-acre (17.8 km2) campus is in Storrs, Connecticut, approximately a half hour's drive from Hartford and 90 minutes from Boston. It is a flagship university that is ranked as the best public national university in New England and is tied for No. 18 in Top Public Schools and No. 56 in National Universities in the 2018 U.S. News & World Report rankings. UConn has been ranked by Money Magazine and Princeton Review top 18th in value. The university is designated "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education classifying the student body as "More Selective", its most selective admissions category. The university has been recognized as a Public Ivy, defined as a select group of publicly-funded universities considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.UConn is one of the founding institutions of the Hartford, Connecticut/Springfield, Massachusetts regional economic and cultural partnership alliance known as New England's Knowledge Corridor. UConn was the second U.S. university invited into Universitas 21, an elite international network of 24 research-intensive universities, who work together to foster global citizenship. UConn is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. UConn was founded in 1881 as the Storrs Agricultural School, named after two brothers who donated the land for the school. In 1893, the school became a land grant college. In 1939, the name was changed to the University of Connecticut. Over the next decade, social work, nursing and graduate programs were established, while the schools of law and pharmacy were also absorbed into the university. During the 1960s, UConn Health was established for new medical and dental schools. John Dempsey Hospital opened in Farmington in 1975.

Competing in the American Athletic Conference as the Huskies, UConn has been particularly successful in their men's and women's basketball programs. The Huskies have won 21 NCAA championships. The UConn Huskies are the most successful women's basketball program in the nation, having won a record 11 NCAA Division I National Championships (tied with the UCLA Bruins men's basketball team) and a women's record four in a row (2013–2016), plus over 40 conference regular season and tournament championships. UConn also owns the two longest winning streaks of any gender in college basketball history.

Westport, Connecticut

Westport is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast. It is 29 miles (47 km) northeast of New York City. The town had a population of 26,391 according to the 2010 U.S. Census, and is ranked 22nd among America's 100 Richest Places as well as second in Connecticut, with populations between 20,000 and 65,000.

Yale University

Yale University is a private research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. It is a member of the Ivy League.

Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers. It moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Originally restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph.D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research.

Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut and forest and nature preserves throughout New England. The university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States.Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. Almost all members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.

As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 20 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U.S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university.

Connecticut state symbols
Flag of Connecticut
Seal of Connecticut
Living insignia
BirdAmerican robin
FishAmerican shad
FlowerMountain laurel
InsectEuropean mantis
MammalSperm whale
TreeCharter Oak, a white oak
Inanimate insignia
DanceSquare dance
FossilDinosaur tracks
MineralGarnet
Motto
ShellEastern oyster
ShipUSS Nautilus (SSN-571), Freedom Schooner Amistad
SloganFull of Surprises
Song
TartanConnecticut State Tartan
State route marker
Connecticut state route marker
State quarter
Connecticut quarter dollar coin
Released in 1999
Lists of United States state symbols
Connecticut River Watershed
Housatonic River Watershed
Hudson River Watershed
Long Island Sound
Pawcatuck River Watershed
Thames River Watershed
Mountains of Connecticut
Hanging Hills
Metacomet Ridge
Taconic Mountains
Others
Waterbodies of Connecticut
Canals, Coves, Estuaries,
Harbors, and Rivers
Lakes and Ponds
Reservoirs
Islands and peninsulas of Connecticut
Islands
Peninsulas
Connecticut Racial Breakdown of Population
Racial composition 1990 [120] 2000 [121] 2010[118]
White 87.0% 81.6% 77.6%
Black 8.3% 9.1% 10.1%
Asian 1.5% 2.4% 3.8%
Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
-
Other race 2.9% 4.3% 5.6%
Two or more races 2.2% 2.6%
Connecticut state symbols
Flag of Connecticut
Seal of Connecticut
Living insignia
BirdAmerican robin
FishAmerican shad
FlowerMountain laurel
InsectEuropean mantis
MammalSperm whale
TreeCharter Oak, a white oak
Inanimate insignia
DanceSquare dance
FossilDinosaur tracks
MineralGarnet
Motto
ShellEastern oyster
ShipUSS Nautilus (SSN-571), Freedom Schooner Amistad
SloganFull of Surprises
Song
TartanConnecticut State Tartan
State route marker
Connecticut state route marker
State quarter
Connecticut quarter dollar coin
Released in 1999
Lists of United States state symbols
 State of Connecticut
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