Congressional district

A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress. Countries with congressional districts include the United States, the Philippines, and Japan. A congressional district is based on population, which, in the United States, is taken using a census every ten years.

United States

Congressional districts

There are 435 congressional districts in the United States House of Representatives,[1] with each one representing approximately 747,000 people.[2] In addition to 270 congressional districts, the five inhabited U.S. territories and the federal district of Washington, D.C. each send a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives. The Census Bureau within the United States Department of Commerce conducts a decennial census whose figures are used to determine the number of Representatives that each state sends to Congress, and therefore the number of congressional districts within each state. The borders of those districts are set by the states, and within each state all districts are required to have approximately equal populations (see Wesberry v. Sanders). The 2012 elections were the first to be based on the congressional districts which were defined based on the 2010 Census data.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ See Public Law 62-5 of 1911, though Congress has the authority to change that number. The Reapportionment Act of 1929 capped the size of the House at 435.
  2. ^ Congressional Apportionment. 2010 Census Briefs U.S. Census.
  3. ^ "zipcodedownload.com". Retrieved 12 June 2013.
1858 and 1859 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 36th Congress were held during President James Buchanan's term at various dates in different states from August 1858 to November 1859.

Winning a plurality for the first time, Republicans benefited from multiple political factors. These included the implosion of the nativist American Party, sectional strife in the Democratic Party, Northern voter discomfort with the infamous March 1857 Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, political exposure of Democrats to chaotic violence in Kansas amid repeated attempts to impose legal slavery against the will of the majority of its settlers, and a decline in President Buchanan's popularity due to his perceived fecklessness. In Pennsylvania, his home state, Republicans made particularly large gains.

The pivotal Dred Scott decision was only the second time the Supreme Court had overturned law on Constitutional grounds. The decision created apprehension in the North, where slavery had ceased to exist, that a ruling in a different case widely expected to be heard by the Supreme Court would strike down any limitations on slavery anywhere in the United States.

Short of a majority, Republicans controlled the House with limited cooperation from smaller parties, which also opposed Democrats. Republicans were united in opposition to slavery in the territories and to fugitive slave laws. Republicans thus rejected the abrogation of the Missouri Compromise, key aspects of the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and the Dred Scott decision. Though not yet abolitionist, Republicans derived a primary partisan purpose from open hostility to slavery while furnishing a mainstream platform for abolitionism in its membership. None of the party's views or positions was new. However, their mutual catalysis by unification into a cohesive political vehicle, and the bold dismissal of the South, represented a new, disruptive political force.

Democrats remained divided and politically trapped. Fifteen Democratic Representatives publicly defied their party label. Of seven Independent Democrats, six represented districts in Southern states. Eight Northern Anti-Lecompton Democrats favored a ban on slavery in Kansas, effectively upholding the Missouri Compromise their party had destroyed several years earlier. The party lacked credible leadership. It continued to drift in a direction favorable to the interests of slavery despite both widening and intensifying opposition of Northern voters to the expansion of those interests. A damaging public perception also existed that President Buchanan had improperly influenced and endorsed the Dred Scott decision, incorrectly believing that it had solved his main political problem. Such influence would violate the separation of powers. The sensational gap between Democratic rhetoric and results was visible to voters. Defeat in the North and intra-party defection combined to make the Democratic Party both more Southern and more radical.

Democrats lost seats in some slave states as the disturbing turn of national events and surge in sectional tensions alarmed a significant minority of Southern voters. Southern politicians opposing both Democrats and extremism, but unwilling to affiliate with Republicans, ran on the Southern Opposition Party ticket (not to be conflated with the Opposition Party of 1854).For 11 states, this was the last full Congressional election until the Reconstruction. Twenty-nine elected Representatives quit near the end of the session following their states' secession from the Union, whose immediate motivation was the result of the election of 1860.

1860 and 1861 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 37th Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1860 to October 1861.

These elections spanned the Presidential election of 1860, won by Abraham Lincoln. Building on their successes in 1858, Republican candidates won increasing percentages in the House. After secessionist vacancies, their caucus of 108 amounted to 59% of the House, and with another 16% in the Unionist caucus, they had over a two-thirds super-majority to govern.Following Lincoln's election and before his inauguration, seven secessionist states declared rebellion and Jefferson Davis mobilized 100,000 troops in defense of the Confederacy. Lincoln responded with a call-up of 75,000 troops to reoccupy federal property in port cities. That motivated another four border states to declare secession, forming the Confederacy that fought the American Civil War.

Seceding states cancelled elections to Federal office, and all but a few of their Representatives departed. Twenty-three representatives to U.S. 37th Congress came from five slave-holding states represented in the Confederacy: Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and Louisiana. The rebellion left seventeen vacancies in those states. Meanwhile for the duration of the conflict those same five states sent full delegations to the Confederate Congress even though over half their Congressional districts were federally occupied or disrupted by the end of 1862.Overwhelmingly, seceding states had Democratic representation, so despite losing seats to Democrats in the North, this state-by-state mass departure left Republicans with a clear House majority. Remaining Representatives of all parties were united in support for the Union. Representatives opposing Democrats but not wishing to affiliate with Republicans, and wishing to emphasize support for the Union and opposition to secession, coalesced as the Unionist Party. Many of these Unionists were from Southern states. The nativist American Party disappeared, with its remaining support usually absorbed by Unionists.

1894 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1894 comprised a significant realigning election — a major Republican landslide that set the stage for the decisive election of 1896. The elections of members of the United States House of Representatives in 1894 came in the middle of President Grover Cleveland's second term. The nation was in its deepest economic depression ever following the Panic of 1893, so economic issues were at the forefront. In the spring, a major coal strike damaged the economy of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic. It was accompanied by violence; the miners lost and many moved toward the Populist party. Immediately after the coal strike concluded, Eugene V. Debs led a nationwide railroad strike, called the Pullman Strike. It shut down the nation's transportation system west of Detroit for weeks, until President Cleveland's use of federal troops ended the strike. Debs went to prison (for disobeying a court order). Illinois's Governor John Peter Altgeld, a Democrat, broke bitterly with Cleveland.

The fragmented and disoriented Democratic Party was crushed everywhere outside the South, losing more than half its seats to the Republican Party. Even in the South, the Democrats lost seats to Republican-Populist electoral fusion in Alabama, Texas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The Democrats ultimately lost 127 seats in the election while the Republicans gained 130 seats (after the resolution of several contested elections). This is the largest swing in the history of the House of Representatives, and also makes the 1894 election the single largest midterm election victory in the entire history of the United States. (A political party would not suffer triple-digit losses again until 1932.)

The main issues revolved around the severe economic depression, which the Republicans blamed on the conservative Bourbon Democrats led by Cleveland. Cleveland supporters lost heavily, weakening their hold on the party and setting the stage for an 1896 takeover by the silverist wing of the party. The Populist Party ran candidates in the South and Midwest, but generally lost ground, outside Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas where state-level fusion with the Republicans was successful despite Populist and Republican antagonism at the national level. The Democrats tried to raise a religious issue, claiming the GOP was in cahoots with the American Protective Association. The allegations seem to have fallen flat as Catholics moved toward the GOP.

1895 United States House of Representatives elections

There were seven special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1895, during 53rd United States Congress and the 54th United States Congress.

1913 United States House of Representatives elections

There were five special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1913, during the 62nd United States Congress and 63rd United States Congress.

1917 United States House of Representatives elections

There were eight special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1917, during the 64th United States Congress and 65th United States Congress.

1918 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1918 United States House of Representatives elections were held November 5, 1918, which occurred in the middle of President Woodrow Wilson's second term.

With the country in World War I (contrary to previous promises by Wilson), and Wilson's personal popularity ebbing, the Republicans gained 25 seats and took over control of the House from Wilson's Democrats. Internal divide among Democratic leadership over aspects related to payment of the war also decreased the unity of the party, which had been the organization's strength during the decade. The Progressive Party also disappeared, with its former members generally becoming Democrats. Minnesota's Farmer–Labor Party, a descendant of populism, also gained its very first seat.

Frederick H. Gillett (R-Massachusetts) became Speaker, and previous speaker Champ Clark (D-Missouri) became Minority Leader.

1928 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1928 United States House of Representatives elections was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1928 which coincided with the election of President Herbert Hoover.

The strength of the U.S. economy resulted in Hoover's Republican Party victory in the election, helping them to scoop up 32 House seats, almost all from the opposition Democratic Party, thus increasing their majority. The big business-supported wing of the Republican Party continued to cement control. Republican gains proved even larger than anticipated during this election cycle, as an internal party feud over the Prohibition issue weakened Democratic standing. Losses of several rural, Protestant Democratic seats can be somewhat linked to anti-Catholic sentiments directed toward the party's presidential candidate, Al Smith.

1935 United States House of Representatives elections

There were seven special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1935, during the 74th United States Congress, sorted here by election date.

1940 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1940 United States House of Representatives elections coincided with President Franklin D. Roosevelt's re-election to an unprecedented third term. His Democratic Party narrowly gained seats from the opposition Republican Party, cementing their majority. However, the election gave firm control of the US House of Representatives and Senate to the New Dealers once again, as Progressives dominated the election.The upswing in the economy that occurred following the Recession of 1937-38 encouraged voters that the New Deal plan had been working. This allowed the Democrats to stabilize their support.

As of 2018, this is the last time the House of Representatives was made up of six parties.

1944 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1944 United States House of Representatives elections were elections for the United States House of Representatives in 1944 that coincided with President Franklin D. Roosevelt's re-election to a record fourth term.

Roosevelt's popularity allowed his Democratic Party to gain a total of twenty seats from the Republican and minor parties, cementing the Democratic majority. Also, Americans rallied behind allied success in World War II, and in turn voted favorably for the administration's course of action.

As of 2018, this is the last time the House of Representatives was made up of four parties.

1989 United States House of Representatives elections

In 1989 there were eight special elections to the United States House of Representatives.

1991 United States House of Representatives elections

In 1991 there were six special elections to the United States House of Representatives.

Massachusetts's 11th congressional district

Massachusetts Congressional District 11 is an obsolete congressional district in eastern Massachusetts. It was eliminated in 1993 after the 1990 U.S. Census. Its last Congressman was Brian Donnelly; its most notable were John Quincy Adams following his term as president, eventual president John F. Kennedy and Speaker of the House Tip O'Neill.

Michigan's 13th congressional district

Michigan's 13th congressional district is a United States congressional district in Wayne County, Michigan. It is currently represented by Democrat Rashida Tlaib.

The district includes portions of Detroit and some of its suburbs and was the only congressional district in Michigan to be contained within a single county in the 2012 redistricting.

District boundaries were redrawn in 1993, and 2003 due to reapportionment following the censuses of 1990 and 2000.

A special election was held on November 6, 2018, following the resignation of Rep. John Conyers. Brenda Jones won the special election to fill the remainder of Conyers term in the 115th Congress. Democrat Rashida Tlaib won the regular election for the term in the 116th Congress.

Michigan's 1st congressional district

Michigan's 1st congressional district is a United States Congressional district containing the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan and 16 counties of Northern Michigan in the Lower Peninsula. The district is represented by Republican Jack Bergman.

Michigan's 3rd congressional district

Michigan's 3rd congressional district is a United States Congressional district in Western Michigan. From 2003 to 2013 it consisted of the counties of Barry, Ionia, and all except the northwest portion of Kent. The district was extended to Battle Creek after redistricting in 2012.

The district is currently represented by Republican Justin Amash, one of the youngest members of the House. In the 2010 General Election, Amash, then a State Representative, defeated Democrat Pat Miles to take the seat he currently holds.

New York's 14th congressional district

New York's 14th congressional district is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives located in New York City, represented by Democrat Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.

The district includes the eastern part of The Bronx and part of north-central Queens. The Queens portion includes the neighborhoods of Astoria, College Point, Corona, East Elmhurst, Elmhurst, Jackson Heights, and Woodside. The Bronx portion of the district includes the neighborhoods of City Island, Country Club, Van Nest, Morris Park, Parkchester, Pelham Bay, Schuylerville, and Throggs Neck. Roughly half of the population of the district is of Hispanic or Latino heritage, making it one of the more Latino districts in New York. Before redistricting for the 2012 election, much of the area was in New York's 7th congressional district.

From 2003 to 2013, the district encompassed much of what is now New York's 12th congressional district, including Central Park and the East Side of Manhattan; all of Roosevelt Island; and the neighborhoods of Astoria, Long Island City, and Sunnyside in Queens.

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