In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism. Those being confirmed are known as confirmands. In some denominations, such as the Anglican Communion[1] and Methodist Churches,[2] confirmation bestows full membership in a local congregation upon the recipient. In others, such as the Roman Catholic Church, Confirmation "renders the bond with the Church more perfect",[3] because, while a baptized person is already a member,[4] "reception of the sacrament of Confirmation is necessary for the completion of baptismal grace".[5]

Roman Catholics, Eastern Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Churches view confirmation as a sacrament.[6] In the East it is conferred immediately after baptism. In the West, this practice is usually followed when adults are baptized, but in the case of infants not in danger of death it is administered, ordinarily by a bishop, only when the child reaches the age of reason or early adolescence. Among those Catholics who practice teen-aged confirmation, the practice may be perceived, secondarily, as a "coming of age" rite.[7][8]

In traditional Protestant denominations, such as the Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist and Reformed Churches, confirmation is a rite that often includes a profession of faith by an already baptized person. It is also required by most Protestant denominations for full membership in the respective Church, in particular for traditional Protestant churches,[9] in which it is also recognized secondarily as a coming of age ceremony.

Confirmation is not practiced in Baptist, Anabaptist and other groups that teach believer's baptism. Thus, the sacrament or rite of confirmation is administered to those being received from those aforementioned groups, in addition to those converts from non-Christian religions.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints Church do not practice infant baptism, but baptize only after the "age of accountability" is reached. Confirmation occurs either immediately following baptism, or on the following Sunday. The baptism is not considered complete or fully efficacious until confirmation is received.[10]

There is an analogous ceremony also called confirmation in Reform Judaism. It was created in the 1800s by Israel Jacobson.[11]

A woodcut depicting the confirmation of Lutheran youth

Scriptural foundation

The roots of confirmation are found in the Church of the New Testament. In the Gospel of John 14, Christ speaks of the coming of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles (John 14:15–26). Later, after his Resurrection, Jesus breathed upon them and they received the Holy Spirit (John 20:22), a process completed on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1–4). That pentecostal outpouring of the Spirit was the sign of the messianic age foretold by the prophets (Cf. Ezek 36:25-27; Joel 3:1-2). Its arrival was proclaimed by Apostle Peter. Filled with the Holy Spirit the apostles began to proclaim "the mighty works of God." (Acts 2:11; Cf. 2:17-18) After this point, the New Testament records the apostles bestowing the Holy Spirit upon others through the laying on of hands.

Three texts make it certain that a laying on of hands for the imparting of the Spirit — performed after the water-bath and as a complement to this bath — existed already in the earliest apostolic times. These texts are: Acts 8:4-20 and 19:1-7, and Hebrews 6:1-6. In the Acts of the Apostles 8:14–17 different "ministers" are named for the two actions. It is not deacon Philip, the baptiser, but only the apostles who were able to impart the pneuma through the laying on of hands.

Now when the apostles in Jerusalem heard that Samaria had accepted the word of God, they sent them Peter and John, who went down and prayed for them, that they might receive the holy Spirit, for it had not yet fallen upon any of them; they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid hands on them and they received the holy Spirit.

Further on in the text, connection between the gift of the Holy Spirit and the gesture of laying on of hands appears even more clearly. Acts 8:18-19 introduces the request of Simon the magician in the following way: "When Simon saw that the Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands..." In Acts 19, baptism of the disciples is mentioned in quite general terms, without the minister being identified. If we refer to 1 Cor 1:17 we may presume that Paul left the action of baptising to others. But then Acts 19:6 expressly states that it was Apostle Paul who laid his hands upon the newly baptised. Hebrews 6:1-6 distinguishes "the teaching about baptisms" from the teaching about "the laying on of hands". The difference may be understood in the light of the two passages in Acts 8 and 19.[12]

Christian denominational views

Roman Catholic Church

Firmung 1679
German wood cut depicting Confirmation service (1679)

In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, Confirmation, known also as Chrismation,[13] is one of the seven sacraments instituted by Christ for the conferral of sanctifying grace and the strengthening of the union between individual souls and God.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church in its paragraphs 1302–1303 states:

It is evident from its celebration that the effect of the sacrament of confirmation is the special outpouring of the Holy Spirit as once granted to the apostles on the day of Pentecost.

From this

  • it roots us more deeply in the divine filiation which makes us cry, "Abba! Father!" (Romans 8:15);
  • it unites us more firmly to Christ;
  • it increases the gifts of the Holy Spirit in us;
  • it renders our bond with the Church more perfect;
  • it gives us a special strength of the Holy Spirit to spread and defend the faith by word and action as true witnesses of Christ, to confess the name of Christ boldly, and never to be ashamed of the Cross:

Recall then that you have received the spiritual seal, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of right judgment and courage, the spirit of knowledge and reverence, the spirit of holy fear in God's presence. Guard what you have received. God the Father has marked you with his sign; Christ the Lord has confirmed you and has placed his pledge, the Spirit, in your hearts.

In the Latin (i.e., Western) Catholic Church, the sacrament is customarily conferred only on persons old enough to understand it, and the ordinary minister of confirmation is a bishop. "If necessity so requires", the diocesan bishop may grant specified priests the faculty to administer the sacrament, although normally he is to administer it himself or ensure that it is conferred by another bishop.[14] In addition, the law itself confers the same faculty on the following:

within the confines of their jurisdiction, those who in law are equivalent to a diocesan Bishop (for example, a vicar apostolic);

in respect of the person to be confirmed, the priest who by virtue of his office or by mandate of the diocesan Bishop baptises an adult or admits a baptized adult into full communion with the catholic Church;

in respect of those in danger of death, the parish priest or indeed any priest.[14]

"According to the ancient practice maintained in the Roman liturgy, an adult is not to be baptized unless he receives Confirmation immediately afterward, provided no serious obstacles exist."[15] Administration of the two sacraments, one immediately after the other, to adults is normally done by the bishop of the diocese (generally at the Easter Vigil, since "the baptism of adults, at least of those who have completed their fourteenth year, is to be referred to the Bishop, so that he himself may confer it if he judges this appropriate"[16] But if the bishop does not confer the baptism, then it devolves on the priest whose office it then is to confer both sacraments, since, "in addition to the bishop, the law gives the faculty to confirm to the following ... priests who, in virtue of an office which they lawfully hold, baptize an adult or a child old enough for catechesis or receive a validly baptized adult into full communion with the Church ..."[17]

In Eastern Catholic Churches, the usual minister of this sacrament is the parish priest, using olive oil consecrated by a bishop (i.e., chrism), and administering the sacrament immediately after baptism. This corresponds exactly to the practice of the early Church, when at first those receiving baptism were mainly adults, and of the non-Roman Catholic Eastern Churches.

The practice of the Eastern Churches gives greater emphasis to the unity of Christian initiation. That of the Latin Church more clearly expresses the communion of the new Christian with the bishop as guarantor and servant of the unity, catholicity and apostolicity of his Church, and hence the connection with the apostolic origins of Christ's Church.[13]

Rite of Confirmation in the West

The main reason why the West separated the sacrament of confirmation from that of baptism was to re-establish direct contact between the person being initiated with the bishops. In the Early Church, the bishop administered all three sacraments of initiation (baptism, confirmation and Eucharist), assisted by the priests and deacons and, where they existed, by deaconesses for women's baptism. The post-baptismal Chrismation in particular was reserved to the Bishop. When adults no longer formed the majority of those being baptized, this Chrismation was delayed until the bishop could confer it. Until the 12th century, priests often continued to confer confirmation before giving Communion to very young children.[18]

After the Fourth Lateran Council, Communion, which continued to be given only after confirmation, was to be administered only on reaching the age of reason. Some time after the 13th century, the age of confirmation and Communion began to be delayed further, from seven, to twelve and to fifteen.[19] In the 18th c. in France the sequence of sacraments of initiation was changed. Bishops started to impart Confirmation only after the first Eucharistic communion. The reason was no longer busy calendar of the bishop, but bishop's will to give adequate instruction to the youth. The practice lasted until pope St. Leo XIII in 1897 asked to restore the primary order and to celebrate confirmation back at the age of reason. That didn't last long. In 1910 his successor, pope St. Pius X, showing concern for the easy access to the Eucharist for children, in his Letter Quam Singulari lowered the age of first communion to seven. That was the origin of the widespread custom in parishes to organise the First Communion for children at 2nd grade and confirmation in middle or high school.[20]

The 1917 Code of Canon Law, while recommending that confirmation be delayed until about seven years of age, allowed it be given at an earlier age.[21] Only on 30 June 1932 was official permission given to change the traditional order of the three sacraments of Christian initiation: the Sacred Congregation for the Sacraments then allowed, where necessary, that confirmation be administered after first Holy Communion. This novelty, originally seen as exceptional, became more and more the accepted practice. Thus, in the mid-20th century, confirmation began to be seen as an occasion for professing personal commitment to the faith on the part of someone approaching adulthood.

However, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1308 warns: "Although Confirmation is sometimes called the 'sacrament of Christian maturity,' we must not confuse adult faith with the adult age of natural growth, nor forget that the baptismal grace is a grace of free, unmerited election and does not need 'ratification' to become effective."[22]

On the canonical age for confirmation in the Latin or Western Catholic Church, the present (1983) Code of Canon Law, which maintains unaltered the rule in the 1917 Code, lays down that the sacrament is to be conferred on the faithful at about the age of discretion (generally taken to be about 7), unless the Episcopal Conference has decided on a different age, or there is a danger of death or, in the judgement of the minister, a grave reason suggests otherwise (canon 891 of the Code of Canon Law). The Code prescribes the age of discretion also for the sacraments of Penance[23] and first Holy Communion.[24]

In some places the setting of a later age, e.g. mid-teens in the United States, early teens in Ireland and Britain, has been abandoned in recent decades in favor of restoring the traditional order of the three sacraments of Christian initiation,[25][26][27][20] Even where a later age has been set, a bishop may not refuse to confer the sacrament on younger children who request it, provided they are baptized, have the use of reason, are suitably instructed and are properly disposed and able to renew the baptismal promises (letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments published in its 1999 bulletin, pages 537–540).

Effects of confirmation

The Roman Catholic Church and some Anglo-Catholics teach that, like baptism, confirmation marks the recipient permanently, making it impossible to receive the sacrament twice. It accepts as valid a confirmation conferred within churches, such as the Eastern Orthodox Church, whose Holy Orders it sees as valid through the apostolic succession of their bishops. But it considers it necessary to administer the sacrament of confirmation, in its view for the only time, to Protestants who are admitted to full communion with the Catholic Church.

One of the effects of the sacrament is that "it gives us a special strength of the Holy Spirit to spread and defend the faith by word and action as true witnesses of Christ, to confess the name of Christ boldly, and never to be ashamed of the Cross" (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1303).[22] This effect was described by the Council of Trent as making the confirmed person "a soldier of Christ".[28]

The same passage of the Catechism of the Catholic Church also mentions, as an effect of confirmation, that "it renders our bond with the Church more perfect". This mention stresses the importance of participation in the Christian community.

The "soldier of Christ" imagery was used, as far back as 350, by St Cyril of Jerusalem.[29] In this connection, the touch on the cheek that the bishop gave while saying "Pax tecum" (Peace be with you) to the person he had just confirmed was interpreted in the Roman Pontifical as a slap, a reminder to be brave in spreading and defending the faith: "Deinde leviter eum in maxilla caedit, dicens: Pax tecum" (Then he strikes him lightly on the cheek, saying: Peace be with you). When, in application of the Second Vatican Council's Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy,[30] the confirmation rite was revised in 1971, mention of this gesture was omitted. However, the French and Italian translations, indicating that the bishop should accompany the words "Peace be with you" with "a friendly gesture" (French text) or "the sign of peace" (Italian text), explicitly allow a gesture such as the touch on the cheek, to which they restore its original meaning. This is in accord with the Introduction to the rite of confirmation, 17, which indicates that the episcopal conference may decide "to introduce a different manner for the minister to give the sign of peace after the anointing, either to each individual or to all the newly confirmed together."

Eastern Churches

Baptism at a Georgian church
Chrismation of a newly baptized infant at a Georgian Orthodox church

The Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches refer to this sacrament (or, more properly, Sacred Mystery) as Chrismation, a term which Roman Catholics also use; for instance, in Italian the term is cresima. Eastern Christians link Chrismation closely with the Sacred Mystery of baptism, conferring it immediately after baptism, which is normally on infants.

The Sacred Tradition of the Orthodox Church teaches that the Apostles themselves established the practice of anointing with chrism in place of the laying on of hands when bestowing the sacrament. As the numbers of converts grew, it became physically impossible for the apostles to lay hands upon each of the newly baptized. So the Apostles laid hands upon a vessel of oil, bestowing the Holy Spirit upon it, which was then distributed to all of the presbyters (priests) for their use when they baptized.[31] This same chrism is in use to this day, never being completely depleted but newly consecrated chrism only being added to it as needed (this consecration traditionally is performed only by the primates of certain autocephalous churches on Great Thursday) and it is believed that chrism in use today contains some small amount of the original chrism made by the apostles.

When Roman Catholics and traditional Protestants, such as Lutherans, Anglicans and Methodists, convert to Orthodoxy, they are often admitted by Chrismation, without baptism; but, since this is a matter of local episcopal discretion, a bishop may require all converts to be admitted by baptism if he deems it necessary. Depending upon the form of the original baptism, some Protestants must be baptized upon conversion to Orthodoxy. A common practice is that those persons who have been previously baptized by triple immersion in the name of the Trinity do not need to be baptized. However, requirements will differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and some traditional Orthodox jurisdictions prefer to baptize all converts. When a person is received into the church, whether by Baptism or Chrismation, they will often take the name of a saint, who will become their patron saint. Thenceforward, the feast day of that saint will be celebrated as the convert's name day, which in traditional Orthodox cultures is celebrated in lieu of one's birthday.

The Orthodox rite of Chrismation takes place immediately after baptism and clothing the "newly illumined" (i.e., newly baptized) in their baptismal robe. The priest makes the sign of the cross with the chrism (also referred to as Myrrh) on the brow, eyes, nostrils, lips, both ears, breast, hands and feet of the newly illumined, saying with each anointing: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit. Amen." Then the priest will place his epitrachelion (stole) over the newly illumined and leads them and their sponsors in a procession, circling three times around the Gospel Book, while the choir chants each time: "As many as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. Alleluia" (Galatians 3:27).

The reason the Eastern Churches perform Chrismation immediately after baptism is so that the newly baptized may receive Holy Communion, which is commonly given to infants as well as adults.

An individual may be baptized in extremis (in a life-threatening emergency) by any baptized member of the church; however, only a priest or bishop may perform the Mystery of Chrismation. If someone who has been baptized in extremis survives, the priest then performs the Chrismation.

The Roman Catholic Church does not confirm converts to Catholicism who have been Chrismated in a non-Catholic Eastern church, considering that the sacrament has been validly conferred and may not be repeated.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church the sacrament may be conferred more than once and it is customary to receive returning or repentant apostates by repeating Chrismation.[32][33]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

When discussing confirmation the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses the term "ordinance" owing to their origins in a Protestant environment, but the actual doctrine describing their ordinances and their effects is sacramental.[34] Church ordinances are understood as administering Grace and must be conducted by clergy members who are properly ordained[35] through Apostolic Succession reaching back through Peter to Christ, although the line of authority differs from Catholics & Eastern Orthodox.[36][37] Baptism by water is understood as representing the death of the old person and their resurrection from that death into a new life in Christ.[38] Through baptism by water, sin and guilt are washed away as the old sinner dies and the new child of Christ emerges. Confirmation is understood as being the baptism by fire wherein the Holy Spirit enters into the confirmant, purges them of the effects of the sin from their previous life (the guilt and culpability of which were already washed away), and introduces them into the Church as a new person in Christ. Through confirmation, the confirmant receives the Gift of the Holy Ghost, granting the individual the permanent companionship of the Holy Ghost as long as the person does not willfully drive Him away through sin.[10]

The ceremony is significantly simpler than in Catholic or Eastern Orthodox Churches and is as follows:[39]

The clergyman lays his hands upon the confirmant's head & States the person's full name.
The clergyman states that the ordinance is performed by the authority of the Melchizedek Priesthood.
The clergyman confirms the person a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
The clergyman bestows the gift of the Holy Ghost by saying, "Receive the Holy Ghost."
The clergyman gives a priesthood blessing as the Spirit directs.
The clergyman closes in the name of Jesus Christ.

Other actions typically associated with confirmation in Catholicism or Eastern Orthodoxy, such as the reception of a Christian name, anointing of body parts with Chrism, and the clothing of the confirmant in a white garment or chiton are conducted separately as part of a ceremony called the Initiatory.

Lutheran Churches

Confirmation in the lutheran church
A stained glass representation of a Lutheran Confirmation

Lutheran confirmation is a public profession of faith prepared for by long and careful instruction. In English, it is called "affirmation of baptism", and is a mature and public profession of the faith which "marks the completion of the congregation's program of confirmation ministry".[40] The German language also uses for Lutheran confirmation a different word (Konfirmation) from the word used for the sacramental rite of the Catholic Church (Firmung).[41]

Lutheran churches do not treat confirmation as a dominical sacrament of the Gospel, considering that only Baptism and the Eucharist can be regarded as such. Some popular Sundays for this to occur are Palm Sunday, Pentecost and Reformation Sunday (last Sunday in October).

Anglican Communion

Anglican confirmation in Helsinki
David Hamid, suffragan bishop in Europe, administering an Anglican Confirmation in Helsinki

Article 25 of The 16th Century 39 Articles lists confirmation among those rites "commonly called Sacraments" which are "not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel" (a term referring to the dominical sacraments, i.e. baptism and the Holy Eucharist), because they were not directly instituted by Christ with a specific matter and form, and they are not generally necessary to salvation.[42] The language of the Articles has led some to deny that confirmation and the other rites are sacraments at all. Others maintain that "commonly called Sacraments" does not mean "wrongly called Sacraments".

Many Anglicans, especially Anglo-Catholics, count the rite as one of seven sacraments. This is the official view in several Anglican Provinces. While most provinces of the Anglican Communion do not make provision for ministers other than bishops to administer confirmation, presbyters can be authorized to do so in certain South Asian provinces, which are united churches.[43] Similarly, the American Episcopal Church recognizes that "those who have previously made a mature public commitment in another Church may be received by the laying on of hands by a Bishop of this Church, rather than confirmed."[44] Furthermore, at its General Convention in 2015 a resolution advancing presbyteral confirmation was referred to committee for further review.[45]

It should be noted that "[t]he renewal of the baptismal vows, which is part of the Anglican Confirmation service, is in no way necessary to Confirmation and can be done more than once. [...] When Confirmation is given early, candidates may be asked to make a fresh renewal of vows when they approach adult life at about eighteen." [46] The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of England employs the phrase "ratify and confirm" with respect to these vows which has led to the common conception of confirmation as the renewal of baptismal vows. While such a view closely aligns to the doctrine of confirmation held by Lutherans, the dominant Anglican position is perhaps better evidenced in the attempt to replace "ratify and confirm" with "ratify and confess" in the proposed Prayer Book revision of 1928, which was defeated in the House of Commons June 14 of that year. It must be acknowledged that Anglicanism includes a range of approaches to the theology of confirmation.

Methodist Churches

In the Methodist Church, as with the Anglican Communion,[47] Confirmation is defined by the Articles of Religion as one those "Commonly called Sacraments but not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel",[48][49][50] also known as the "five lesser sacraments".[51] The Methodist theologian John William Fletcher stated that "it was a custom of the Apostles and elders in the primitive Church, adopted by our own church, to pray that young Believers might be filled with the Spirit through the laying on of hands."[52] As such, the Methodist Worship Book declares that

In Confirmation, those who have been baptized declare their faith in Christ and are Strengthened by the Holy Spirit for continuing discipleship. Confirmation reminds us that we are baptized and that God continues to be at work in our lives: we respond by affirming that we belong to Christ and to the whole People of God. At a Service of Confirmation, baptized Christians are also received into membership of the Methodist Church and take their place as such in a local congregation.[53]

By Water and Spirit, an official United Methodist publication, states that "it should be emphasized that Confirmation is what the Holy Spirit does. Confirmation is a divine action, the work of the Spirit empowering a person 'born through water and the Spirit' to 'live as a faithful disciple of Jesus Christ'."[54] As with its Anglican patrimony, in Methodism, confirmation is a means of grace.[55] Furthermore, confirmation is the individual's first public affirmation of the grace of God in baptism and the acknowledgment of the acceptance of that grace by faith.[56] For those baptized as infants, it often occurs when youth enter their 6th through 8th grade years, but it may occur earlier or later.[57] For youth and adults who are joining the Church, "those who are baptized are also confirmed, remembering that our ritual reflects the ancient unity of baptism, confirmation (laying on of hands with prayer), and Eucharist."[58] Candidates to be confirmed, known as confirmands, take a class which covers Christian doctrine, theology, Methodist Church history, stewardship, basic Bible study and other topics.[59]

Presbyterian and Reformed Churches

The Presbyterian Church in America has a process of confirmation, but it is not necessarily public, and depends on the congregation as to the nature of confirmation. In practice, many churches do require and offer classes for Confirmation.[60]

The PC(USA) has a confirmation process. This is a profession of faith that "seeks to provide youth with a foundational understanding of our faith, tradition and Presbyterian practices".[61]

Confirmation name

In many countries, it is customary for a person being confirmed in some dioceses of Roman Catholic Church and in some Anglican dioceses to adopt a new name, generally the name of a biblical character or saint, thus securing an additional patron saint as protector and guide. This practice is not mentioned in the official liturgical book of the rite of confirmation and is not in use in Spanish and French-speaking lands, nor in Italy or the Philippines. Although some insist on the custom,[62] it is discouraged by others and in any case is only a secondary aspect of confirmation.[63]

As indicated by the different senses of the word "christening", baptism and the giving of a personal name have traditionally been linked. At confirmation, in which the intervention of a godparent strengthens a resemblance with baptism, it became customary to take a new name, as was also the custom on other occasions, in particular that of religious profession. King Henry III of France (1551–1589) was christened Edouard Alexandre in 1551, but at confirmation received the name Henri, by which he afterwards reigned. Today usually no great use is made of the confirmation name, although some treat it as an additional middle name. For example, A Song of Ice and Fire author George R. R. Martin was born George Raymond Martin, but added his confirmation name Richard as a second middle name. However, even after the English Reformation, the legal system of that country admitted the lawfulness of using one's confirmation name in, for instance, purchasing land.[64]

Repetition of the sacrament or rite

The Catholic Church sees confirmation as one of the three sacraments that no one can receive more than once (see sacramental character). It recognizes as already confirmed those who enter the Catholic Church after receiving the sacrament, even as babies, in the churches of Eastern Christianity, but it confers the sacrament (in its view, for the first and only time) on those who enter the Catholic Church after being confirmed in Protestant or Anglican churches, seeing these churches as lacking properly ordained ministers.

In the Anglican Communion, a person who was previously confirmed in another denomination by a bishop or priest recognized as validly ordained is "received" rather than confirmed again. Some dioceses of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America recognize non-episcopal Confirmations as well and these individuals are received into the Anglican Communion rather than re-confirmed.[65] In other dioceses, confirmations of those Christian denominations are recognized if they have a valid apostolic succession in the eyes of the Anglican Communion (e.g. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, Roman Catholic Church, etc.).[66]

Eastern Orthodox churches occasionally practise what is seen by other Christians as "re-Chrismation", in that they usually chrismate/confirm — and sometimes rebaptize — a convert, even one previously confirmed in other churches. The justification is that the new Chrismation (or baptism) is the only valid one, the earlier one being administered outside of the Church and hence being little more than a symbol. The Eastern Orthodox will also chrismate an apostate from the Orthodox Church who repents and re-enters communion. According to some interpretations, the Eastern churches therefore view confirmation/Chrismation as a repeatable sacrament. According to others, the rite is understood as "part of a process of reconciliation, rather than as a reiteration of post-baptismal chrismation".[67]

Analogous ceremonies in non-Christian practice


Jewish Confirmation c1900
Jewish confirmation c. 1900

In the late 1800s Reform Judaism developed a separate ceremony, called confirmation, loosely modeled on Christian Confirmation ceremonies. This occurred because, at the time, Reform Jews believed that it was inappropriate for Bar/Bat mitzvah age children to be considered mature enough to understand what it means to be religious. It was held that children of this age were not responsible enough to understand what it means to observe religious practices. As such, the reform rite of confirmation was originally a replacement for the Bar/Bat mitzvah ceremony, held at age 16. In later decades, the Reform movement modified this view, and now much of Reform Judaism in the United States encourages children to celebrate becoming Bar/Bat mitzvah at the traditional age, and then has the confirmation at the later age as a sign of a more advanced completion of their Jewish studies.

Today, many Reform Jewish congregations hold confirmation ceremonies as a way of marking the biblical festival of Shavuot and the decision of young adults to embrace Jewish study in their lives and reaffirm their commitment to the Covenant. The confirmands represent "the first fruits of each year's harvest. They represent the hope and promise of tomorrow."[68] Confirmation is typically held in tenth grade after a year of study, but some synagogues celebrate it in other years of high school.

Confirmation, in the context of Reform Judaism, was mentioned officially for the first time in an ordinance issued by the Jewish consistory of the kingdom of Westphalia at Cassel in 1810. There it was made the duty of the rabbi "to prepare the young for confirmation, and personally to conduct the ceremony." At first only boys were confirmed, on the Sabbath ("Shabbat") that they celebrated becoming Bar Mitzvah; the ceremony was performed at the home or in the schoolroom. In Berlin, Jewish girls were confirmed for the first time in 1817, in Hamburg in 1818.

Confirmation was at first excluded from the synagogue, because, like every innovation, it met with stern opposition from more traditional rabbis. Gradually, however, it found more favor; Hebrew school classes were confirmed together, and confirmation gradually became a solemn and celebration at the synagogue. In 1822 the first class of boys and girls was confirmed at the Hamburg Temple, and in 1831 Rabbi Samuel Egers, a prominent traditional rabbi of his time, began to confirm boys and girls at the synagogue of Brunswick. While in the beginning some Shabbat, frequently during Chanukah or Passover, was selected for confirmation, it became increasingly customary, following the example of Egers, to perform the ceremony during the biblical festival of Shavuot ("Feast of Weeks"). It was felt that Shavuot was well suited for the rite, as it celebrated the occasion when the Israelites on Mount Sinai declared their intention to accept the yoke of God's Law, so those of every new generation should follow the ancient example and declare their willingness to be faithful to the Sinaitic covenant transmitted by their ancestors.

Confirmation was introduced in Denmark as early as 1817, in Hamburg 1818, and in Hessen and Saxony in 1835. The Prussian government, which showed itself hostile to the Reform movement, prohibited it as late as 1836, as did Bavaria as late as 1838. It soon made its way, however, into all progressive congregations of Germany. In 1841 it was introduced in France, first in Bordeaux and Marseilles, then in Strasburg and Paris, under the name "initiation religieuse". The first Israelitish synod in 1869 at Leipsic adopted a report on religious education, the 13th section of which contains an elaborate opinion on confirmation, recommending the same to all Jewish congregations. In America the annual confirmation of boys and girls was first resolved upon by the congregation of Temple Emanu-El of New York in 1847. The ceremony soon gained so firm a foothold in America that soon there was no progressive Jewish congregation in which it did not occur during Shavuot.

Secular confirmations

Several secular, mainly Humanist, organizations direct civil confirmations for older children, as a statement of their life stance that is an alternative to traditional religious ceremonies for children of that age.

Some atheist regimes have as a matter of policy fostered the replacement of Christian rituals such as confirmation with non-religious ones. In the historically Protestant German Democratic Republic (East Germany), for example, "the Jugendweihe (youth dedication) gradually supplanted the Christian practice of Confirmation."[69] A concept that first appeared in 1852, the Jugendweihe is described as "a solemn initiation marking the transition from youth to adulthood that was developed in opposition to Protestant and Catholic Churches' Confirmation."[70]

See also


  1. ^ "ORDER OF SERVICE for the Reception of Baptized Persons into the Full Membership of the Church commonly called CONFIRMATION". Society of Archbishop Justus. 1950. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  2. ^ Iovino, Joe (23 October 2015). "Beyond baptism: What confirmation means to United Methodists". United Methodist Church. Retrieved 7 June 2017. At confirmation, we declare our faith publicly and become full members of the church.
  3. ^ Cf. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1303
  4. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church – IntraText". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  5. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1285 Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "What is Confirmation?". Oregon Catholic Press. 2018.
  7. ^ "Sign in – Google Accounts". Archived from the original on 29 April 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Dada, Adelowo, E. (23 August 2014). Perspectives in Religious Studies: Volume II. HEBN Publishers. p. 209. ISBN 9789780814465. Confirmation in the Anglican Communion is the laying on of hands (of the Bishop) upon those who are baptised and have come to years of discretion. In this case, it involves those baptised both at infancy and adulthood. It is the attainment of this status, among other conditions, that determines, in the Anglican Church, full membership of the Church and eligibility to be admitted to the Lord's Table, and to enjoy certain rights of the Church.
  10. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "What is a Confirmation?". 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  12. ^ B. Neunheuser OSB (1964). Baptism and Confirmation. The Herder History of Dogma. Freiburg – London: Herder – Burns & Oates. pp. 42–52.
  13. ^ a b "Catechism of the Catholic Church – IntraText". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  14. ^ a b "Code of Canon Law: text – IntraText CT". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  15. ^ Christian Initiation of Adults, 34
  16. ^ "Code of Canon Law: text – IntraText CT". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  17. ^ Rite of Confirmation, 7
  18. ^ Ronald Minnerath, "L'ordine dei Sacramenti dell'iniziazione", in L'Osservatore Romano, 2007-05-23
  19. ^ Kay Lynn Isca, Catholic Etiquette (Our Sunday Visitor 1997 ISBN 0-87973-590-2), p. 91
  20. ^ a b Samuel J. Aquila. "Confirmation as a Sacrament of Initiation". L'Osservatore Romano. 2012 (14), April 4th: 5. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  21. ^ canon 788 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law
  22. ^ a b "Catechism". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  23. ^ "Code of Canon Law: text – IntraText CT". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  24. ^ "Code of Canon Law: text – IntraText CT". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  25. ^ "The Restored Order of Sacraments of Initiation". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  26. ^ Confirmation before communion, Liverpool decides Archived 11 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Interchurch Families Archived 3 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "THE CATECHISM OF TRENT: The Sacraments -- Confirmation". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  29. ^ Sullivan, Tom. "Sacrament of Confirmation (What is it all about?)". EWTN. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  30. ^ Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy Sacrosanctum Concilium Archived 21 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Pomazansky, Protopresbyter Michael (1973). Orthodox Dogmatic Theology. Platina, California: Saint Herman of Alaska Brotherhood (published 1984). p. 272. LCCN 84-051294.
  32. ^ [1] "Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America — The Stand of the Orthodox Church on Controversial Issues", Retrieved 2011-12-28
  33. ^ [2] "St Nicholas Russian Orthodox Church, McKinney, Texas — Chrismation and special circumstances", Retrieved 2011-12-28
  34. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ "Lesson 5: Performing Priesthood Ordinances". 2011-01-07. Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  40. ^ Lutheran Book of WorshipMinisters Desk Edition, p.324
  41. ^ The German-language Wikipedia article linked to the present one in English concerns Firmung, the sacrament of confirmation, distinct from the Lutheran ceremony; a separate article, Konfirmation, describes the history and practice of the non-sacramental ceremony in use in Lutheran and other Protestant Churches in place of the Catholic sacrament.
  42. ^ The 39 Articles Archived 25 June 2007 at WebCite
  43. ^ "e.g. The Church of South India, Book of Common Worship (2004)" (PDF). Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  44. ^ "Canons of the General Convention 2015, Title I, Canon 17, Section 1(c)" (PDF). Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  45. ^ "Journal of the 78th General Convention, 371". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  46. ^ "The Christian Faith: Ch 56- Confirmation". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  47. ^ "Baptism and Confirmation". The Methodist Church in Britain. 2014. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017. There is no obvious difference in understanding, for example, between the Methodist Church and the Church of England about Confirmation itself.
  48. ^ Pruitt, Kenneth (22 November 2013). "Where The Line Is Drawn: Ordination and Sexual Orientation in the UMC". Rethink Bishop. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014. Sacraments for the UMC include both Baptism and Eucharist. The Roman Catholic and Orthodox traditions count five more, which many Protestants, including the UMC, acknowledge as sacramental: Confession/Absolution, Holy Matrimony, Confirmation/Chrismation, Holy Orders/Ordination, and Anointing/Unction.
  49. ^ Thompson, Andrew C. (1 October 2010). Generation Rising: A Future with Hope for The United Methodist Church. Abingdon Press. p. 93. ISBN 9781426731242. Meanwhile, we can also say that confirmation is sacramental: it is a means of grace (if not an actual sacrament) in which God has been known to show up--and thus it has importance for both our justification and sanctification.
  50. ^ Bicknell, E. J. (1 January 2008). A Theological Introduction to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England, Third Edition. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 359. ISBN 9781556356827. Then it proceeds Those five, commonly called Sacraments, that is to say Confirmation, Penance, Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for the Sacraments of the Gospel. We notice that the Article does not deny to them the name sacraments. 'Commonly called' is not in the language of the Prayer-Book necessarily derogatory. We find, e.g. 'The Nativity of our Lord, or the Birth-day of Christ, commonly called "Christmas day".' All that the Article insists is that these rites are not to be counted equal to the other two.
  51. ^ Blunt, John Henry (1891). Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology. Longmans, Green & Co. p. 670.
  52. ^ Wood, Laurence W. (23 September 2002). The Meaning of Pentecost in Early Methodism. Scarecrow Press. p. 339. ISBN 9781461673200.
  53. ^ "Baptism and Confirmation". The Methodist Church in Britain. 2014. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
  54. ^ "By Water and the Spirit: A United Methodist Understanding of Baptism". The Book of Resolutions of The United Methodist Church. The United Methodist Church. 2008.
  55. ^ An Anglican-Methodist Covenant. Church House Publishing. 2001. p. 41. ISBN 9781858522180. Fundamentally, however, as our liturgies show, confirmation is regarded by both churches as a means of grace within the total process of Christian initiation. For both churches, confirmation includes the reaffirmation of the baptismal promises by the candidate, accompanied by the prayer with the laying on of hands that God will strengthen the candidate in his or her discipleship through the work of the Holy Spirit.
  56. ^ We Believe. Bristol House. 2007. ISBN 978-1885224064.
  57. ^ "At what age are children confirmed?". United Methodist Church. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  58. ^ "What Is the Appropriate Age for Baptism and for Confirmation?". The General Board of Discipleship of The United Methodist Church. 1996. What if a youth or adult has not been baptized? Can he or she be part of the "confirmation preparation"? Yes, the unbaptized can share in the same experiences. By Water and the Spirit puts it this way: Youth who were not baptized as infants share in the same period of preparation for profession of Christian faith. For them, it is nurture for baptism, for becoming members of the Church, and for confirmation. Those who are baptized are also confirmed, remembering that our ritual reflects the ancient unity of baptism, confirmation (laying on of hands with prayer), and Eucharist. "The ritual of the baptismal covenant included in The United Methodist Hymnal makes clear that the first and primary confirming act of the Holy Spirit is in connection with and immediately follows baptism." (By Water and the Spirit) Missing or empty |url= (help)
  59. ^ We Believe. Bristol House. 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2014. Confirmation classes provide a great opportunity to give students a broad view of basic Christian beliefs including the characteristics of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit; the importance and nature of the Bible; the need to trust in Jesus Christ for salvation; and the significance of the church. We Believe Student includes these topics as well as general church history and the responsibilities of discipleship and church membership. It offers students a basic but thorough understanding of what it means to be a Christian in the United Methodist tradition.
  60. ^ "Is confirmation part of the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) doctrine?". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  61. ^ "Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) – Resources – We Believe – Professing Our Faith: A Confirmation Curriculum Sample Package". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  62. ^ Fred T. Mercadante, Senior High Ministry That Works! (Bayard 2008 ISBN 978-1-58595-704-0), Appendix L
  63. ^ David Philippart, Clip Notes for Church Bulletins, Volume 2 (Liturgy Training Publications 2003 ISBN 978-1-56854-275-1) Copyright 2001 Archdiocese of Chicago Liturgy Training Publications
  64. ^ "Herbert Thurston, "Christian Names" in ''The Catholic Encyclopedia'' 1911. Retrieved 26 July 2011". 1911-10-01. Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  65. ^ "Confirmation". Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Retrieved 20 September 2016. In some dioceses, those who have already made a mature Christian commitment in another denomination are recognized as members of the one holy catholic and apostolic church, and received into the fellowship of the Episcopal Church and the Anglican Communion.
  66. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Madison, Alabama: St. Matthew's Episcopal Church. Archived from the original on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016. If, however, you have been Confirmed in either the Roman Catholic Church or Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (ELCA), you may choose to be "received" by the bishop instead. This is because the Episcopal Church recognizes that the bishops in these churches have valid Apostolic Succession dating back to the time of the Apostles, and that Confirmations performed in these churches are considered valid.
  67. ^ "Baptism and "Sacramental Economy" – An Agreed Statement of The North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation – A. Inconsistencies in the Reception of Adults into Ecclesial Communion". Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  68. ^ Knoebel, Gates of the Seasons, 77
  69. ^ Country-data. com, Germany: Religion Based on the Country Studies Series by Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress
  70. ^ Jugendweihe from the German-language Wikipedia (in German)

External links

Academic tenure

A tenured appointment is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discontinuation. Tenure is a means of defending the principle of academic freedom, which holds that it is beneficial for society in the long run if scholars are free to hold and examine a variety of views.

The modern conception of tenure in US higher education originated with the American Association of University Professors' (AAUP) 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure. Jointly formulated and endorsed by the AAUP and the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), the 1940 Statement is endorsed by over 250 scholarly and higher education organizations and is widely adopted into faculty handbooks and collective bargaining agreements at institutions of higher education throughout the United States. This statement holds that, "The common good depends upon the free search for truth and its free exposition" and stresses that academic freedom is essential in teaching and research in this regard.

Advice and consent

Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts. It describes either of two situations: where a weak executive branch of a government enacts something previously approved of by the legislative branch or where the legislative branch concurs and approves something previously enacted by a strong executive branch.


Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name. Beati is the plural form, referring to those who have undergone the process of beatification.


A CAPTCHA (, an acronym for "completely automated public Turing test to tell computers and humans apart") is a type of challenge–response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.The term was coined in 2003 by Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper, and John Langford. The most common type of CAPTCHA (displayed as Version 1.0) was first invented in 1997 by two groups working in parallel. This form of CAPTCHA requires that the user type the letters of a distorted image, sometimes with the addition of an obscured sequence of letters or digits that appears on the screen. Because the test is administered by a computer, in contrast to the standard Turing test that is administered by a human, a CAPTCHA is sometimes described as a reverse Turing test.This user identification procedure has received many criticisms, especially from people with disabilities, but also from other people who feel that their everyday work is slowed down by distorted words that are difficult to read. It takes the average person approximately 10 seconds to solve a typical CAPTCHA.

Cabinet of Donald Trump

This article lists the members of President Donald Trump's Cabinet. Trump assumed office on January 20, 2017, and the president has the authority to nominate members of his Cabinet to the United States Senate for confirmation under Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution.

Before confirmation and during congressional hearings, a high-level career member of an executive department heads this pre-confirmed cabinet on an acting basis. The Cabinet's creation is part of the transition of power following the 2016 United States presidential election.

This page documents the confirmation process for any successful or unsuccessful Cabinet nominees of Donald Trump's administration. They are listed in order of creation of the Cabinet position (also used as the basis for the United States presidential line of succession).

Circular reporting

Circular reporting or false confirmation is a situation in source criticism where a piece of information appears to come from multiple independent sources, but in reality comes from only one source. In many cases, the problem happens mistakenly through sloppy intelligence gathering practices. However, at other times the situation can be intentionally contrived by the original source as a way of reinforcing the widespread belief in its information.This problem occurs in a variety of fields, including intelligence gathering, journalism, and scholarly research. It is of particular concern in military intelligence because the original source has a higher likelihood of wanting to pass on misinformation, and because the chain of reporting is more prone to being obscured. The case of the 2002 Niger uranium forgeries was a classic instance of circular reporting by intelligence agencies.

Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses. It is a type of cognitive bias and a systematic error of inductive reasoning. People display this bias when they gather or remember information selectively, or when they interpret it in a biased way. The effect is stronger for emotionally charged issues and for deeply entrenched beliefs. Confirmation bias is of particular current interest because of the increasing polarisation between left-wing and right-wing political viewpoints, and the gullible acceptance of the current rapid spread of fake news.People also tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search, interpretation and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization (when a disagreement becomes more extreme even though the different parties are exposed to the same evidence), belief perseverance (when beliefs persist after the evidence for them is shown to be false), the irrational primacy effect (a greater reliance on information encountered early in a series) and illusory correlation (when people falsely perceive an association between two events or situations).

A series of psychological experiments in the 1960s suggested that people are biased toward confirming their existing beliefs. Later work re-interpreted these results as a tendency to test ideas in a one-sided way, focusing on one possibility and ignoring alternatives. In certain situations, this tendency can bias people's conclusions. Explanations for the observed biases include wishful thinking and the limited human capacity to process information. Another explanation is that people show confirmation bias because they are weighing up the costs of being wrong, rather than investigating in a neutral, scientific way. However, even scientists can be prone to confirmation bias.Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in political and organizational contexts.

Confirmation in the Catholic Church

Confirmation is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church. It is the one of the three sacraments of initiation into the Catholic Church, the other two being Baptism and Holy Communion.According to Catholic doctrine, the Sacrament of Confirmation enables the faithful to be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit, strengthening them in their Christian life.

Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin philosophiae doctorem or doctorem philosophiae) is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most English-speaking countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are usually required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields.

Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated "Dr" or "Dr.") or, in non-English-speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil" (depending on the awarding institution). It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.The specific requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. During the studies that lead to the degree, the student is called a doctoral student or PhD student; a student who has completed all of their coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes known as a doctoral candidate or PhD candidate (see: all but dissertation). A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions, or may be granted a master's degree en route to the doctoral degree. Sometimes this status is also colloquially known as "Ph.D. ABD", meaning "All But Dissertation."A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university. Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) for music performers and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) for professional educators. In 2005 the European Universities Association defined the Salzburg Principles, ten basic principles for third-cycle degrees (doctorates) within the Bologna Process. These were followed in 2016 by the Florence Principles, seven basic principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic Research.In the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/sciences) other than theology, law, and medicine (the so-called professional, vocational, or technical curriculum) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy".

Juncker Commission

The Juncker Commission is the European Commission in office since 1 November 2014 and is due to serve until 2019. Its president is Jean-Claude Juncker, who presides over 27 other commissioners (one from each of the states composing the European Union, except Luxembourg, which is Juncker's state). In July 2014, Juncker was officially elected to succeed José Manuel Barroso, who completed his second five-year term in that year.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1960–1979

This is a complete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1960–1979. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1980–1999

This is a complete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1980–1999. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

List of federal judges appointed by Donald Trump

This is a comprehensive list of all Article III and Article IV United States federal judges appointed by Donald Trump during his presidency, as well as a partial list of Article I federal judicial appointments, excluding appointments to the District of Columbia judiciary.As of March 13, 2019, the United States Senate has confirmed 91 Article III judges nominated by President Trump, including 2 Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, 36 judges for the United States Courts of Appeals, 53 judges for the United States District Courts, and 0 judges for the United States Court of International Trade. There are currently 62 nominations to Article III courts awaiting Senate action, including 6 for the Courts of Appeals, 54 for the District Courts, and 2 for the Court of International Trade. There are currently 9 vacancies on the U.S. Courts of Appeals, 129 vacancies on the U.S. District Courts, 3 vacancies on the U.S. Court of International Trade, and 15 announced federal judicial vacancies that will occur before the end of Trump's first term (1 for the Courts of Appeals, 13 for District Courts and 1 for the Court of International Trade). Trump has not made any recess appointments to the federal courts.

In terms of Article I courts, as of March 5, 2019, the Senate has confirmed 7 judges nominated by Trump, including 2 for the United States Tax Court, 4 for the United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims, and 1 for the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces. There are currently 9 nominations to Article I courts awaiting Senate action, including 4 for the United States Court of Federal Claims, 4 for the Tax Court, and 1 for the United States Court of Military Commission Review. Trump designated Susan G. Braden and Margaret M. Sweeney as chief judges of the Court of Federal Claims.

In terms of Article IV territorial courts, Trump has not made any appointments or elevated any judges to the position of chief judge.

Political appointments by Donald Trump

This is a list of political appointments of current officeholders made by the 45th President of the United States, Donald Trump.

Links to lists of announced positions from which candidates have withdrawn or appointees who have resigned or have been terminated, as well as lists of appointments to other independent agencies and of holdovers from previous administrations are below.

As of 2016, there were around 4,000 political appointment positions which the incoming Trump administration needed to review, and fill or confirm, of which 1,212 required Senate confirmation. The Washington Post has identified 705 key positions requiring U.S. Senate confirmation. As of September 7, 2018, 364 of Trump's nominees for key positions had been confirmed, 181 were awaiting confirmation, and 7 had been announced but not yet formally nominated, a total of 552 positions. Trump has said he intends not to fill many of the positions. The rules of the Senate require that when the term of the Senate expires (in the case of the 115th Congress, at noon on January 3, 2019), nominations then pending lapse and are returned to the president, who can resubmit them to the new Congress.All members of the Cabinet require confirmation by the United States Senate following nomination by the President prior to taking office. The Vice-Presidency is exceptional in that the position requires election to office pursuant to the United States Constitution. Although some positions are of Cabinet-level rank, non-cabinet members within the Executive Office of the President, such as White House Chief of Staff, National Security Advisor, and White House Press Secretary, do not hold constitutionally created positions and most do not require Senate confirmation for appointment. Persons appointed on an acting basis do not require Senate confirmation before they begin to act in their position, even if a permanent appointment to that position would require confirmation. Appointments to judgeships on federal courts and of ambassadors require nomination by the president and confirmation by the Senate. Acting appointments to these positions are not permissible.

Sacraments of the Catholic Church

There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church. Sacraments are visible rites seen as signs and efficacious channels of the grace of God to all those who receive them with the proper disposition. The sevenfold list of sacraments is often organized into three categories: the sacraments of initiation (into the Church, the body of Christ), consisting of Baptism, Confirmation, and the Eucharist; the sacraments of healing, consisting of Reconciliation and Anointing of the Sick; and the sacraments of service: Holy Orders and Matrimony.

Sex reassignment surgery

Sex reassignment surgery or SRS (also known as gender reassignment surgery and by numerous other names) is a surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender. It is part of a treatment for gender dysphoria in transgender people.

Professional medical organizations have established Standards of Care that apply before someone can apply for and receive reassignment surgery, including psychological evaluation, and a period of real-life experience living in the desired gender.

Feminization surgeries are surgeries that result in anatomy that is typically gendered female. These surgeries include vaginoplasty, feminizing augmentation mammoplasty, orchiectomy, facial feminization surgery, reduction thyrochondroplasty (tracheal shave), and voice feminization surgery among others.

Masculinization surgeries are surgeries that result in anatomy that is typically gendered male. These surgeries include chest masculinization surgery (top surgery), metoidioplasty, phalloplasty, scrotoplasty, and hysterectomy.

In addition to SRS, patients may need to follow a lifelong course of masculinizing or feminizing hormone replacement therapy.

United States congressional hearing

A United States congressional hearing is the principal formal method by which United States congressional committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking.

Whether confirmation hearings (a procedure unique to the Senate), legislative, oversight, investigative, or a combination of these, all hearings share common elements of preparation and conduct. Hearings usually include oral testimony from witnesses and questioning of the witnesses by members of Congress. George B. Galloway termed congressional hearings a goldmine of information for all the public problems of the United States. A leading authority on U.S. government publications has referred to the published hearings as "the most important publications originating within Congress." The Senate Library in a similar vein noted "Hearings are among the most important publications originating in Congress." Hearings were not published generally until the latter part of the 19th century, except some early hearings (generally of special investigative committees) were published in the series that are part of the Serial Set. Published hearings did not become available for purchase from the United States Government Printing Office until 1924 and were not distributed to depository libraries until 1938. Unlike the documents and reports that are compiled in the Serial Set "hearings do not constitute a real series" although in the modern era a trend toward uniformity of numbering has resulted in all Senate hearings and prints for each Congressional Session (commencing with the 98th Congress in 1983) being assigned a unique numerical designation (in the style of what one scholar dubbed a "combination code") published on the cover and title page (e.g. S. HRG. 110-113; S. PRT. 110-13). A growing number of House Committees are assigning numerical or alphabetical designations for their publications (e.g. 110-35, 110-AA).

The Law Library of Congress in a collaborative pilot project with Google is undertaking the digitizing of the Library's entire collection of printed hearings (constituting approximately 75,000 volumes). As of 2010 three collections (on the decennial Census, FOIA and Immigration) have been selectively compiled as a test. It is hoped the project will eventually provide full-text access of the entire collection which will be posted online by Google and the Library. ProQuest offers subscriptions to a database of digitized hearings (published and unpublished) covering 1824 to the present.


Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).

Verificationism thus rejects as cognitively "meaningless" statements specific to entire fields such as metaphysics, spirituality, theology, ethics and aesthetics. Such statements may be meaningful in influencing emotions or behavior, but not in terms of truth value, information or factual content. Verificationism was a central thesis of logical positivism, a movement in analytic philosophy that emerged in the 1920s by the efforts of a group of philosophers who sought to unify philosophy and science under a common naturalistic theory of knowledge.

Zulu people

The Zulu (; Zulu: amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Small numbers also live in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Tanzania and Mozambique.

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