Confessor of the Faith

The title Confessor, the short form of Confessor of the Faith, is a title given by the Christian Church to a type of saint.

Western Christianity

The word confessor is derived from the Latin confiteri, to confess, to profess. Among the early church fathers, it was a title of honor, designating those individuals who had confessed Christ publicly in time of persecution and had been punished with imprisonment, torture, exile, or labour in the mines, remaining faithful until the end of their lives. The title thus distinguished them from the martyrs, who were so called because they underwent death for their faith. Among writers St. Cyprian is the first in whose works it occurs. [1]

In the Roman Catholic Church, the title is given to saints and blesseds who were not martyred. Historically, the title Confessor was given to those who had suffered persecution and torture for the faith but not to the point of martyrdom. As Christianity emerged as the dominant religion in Europe by the fifth century, persecutions became rare, and the title was given to male saints who lived a holy life and died in peace. Perhaps the best-known individual associated with the title is the English king St. Edward the Confessor. It is possible for Confessors to have another title or even two other titles, for example, Bishop and Confessor; Pope and Confessor; or Bishop, Confessor, and Doctor of the Church, among others: St Jerome is known as Priest, Confessor, Theologian, Historian and Doctor of the Church.

Eastern Christianity

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the title Confessor refers to a saint (male or female) who has witnessed to the faith and suffered for it (usually torture, but also other types of loss), but not to the point of death, and thus is distinguished from a martyr. Nikephoros I of Constantinople, who was banished to the monastery of Saint Theodore for his support of iconodules, is revered as a confessor.[2] A confessor who is also a priest or bishop may be referred to as hiero-confessor.

See also

References

  1. ^ Beccari, Camillo. "Confessor." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 3 June 2018
  2. ^ "Martyrs and Confessors", Orthodox Church in America

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Confessor". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Alexander Chira

Bishop Alexander Chira was a bishop of the Ruthenian Catholic Church. His immediate predecessor was Bishop Theodore G. Romzha. He is designated as a Confessor of the Faith.

Conf

Conf may stand for:

Configuration (disambiguation), a term with a number of meanings used in different fields.

conf.exe, the filename of Microsoft NetMeeting

Confessor of the faith, in the Christian Church; when the term Conf. follows the name of a Christian saint it denotes that the saint was a Confessor of the Faith.

Confessor

Confessor is a title used within Christianity in several ways.

Donatus of Arezzo

Saint Donatus of Arezzo (Italian: San Donato di Arezzo) is the patron saint of Arezzo, and considered a bishop of the city.A Passio of Donatus' life was written by a bishop of Arezzo, Severinus; it is of questionable historicity. He calls Donatus a martyr, though Donatus is described as a bishop and confessor of the faith in ancient sources rather than as a martyr. An early hagiography of Donatus was already known to Gregory the Great.According to tradition, Donatus was martyred on August 7, 362 during the reign of Julian the Apostate and was a native of Nicomedia.

Felix of Nola

Saint Felix of Nola (d. ca. 250) was a Christian presbyter at Nola near Naples in Italy. He sold off his possessions in order to give to the poor, but was arrested and tortured for his Christian faith during the persecution of the Roman emperor Decius (r. 249–51). He was believed to have died a martyr's death during the persecution of Decius or Valerian (ca. 253), but is now listed in the General Roman Calendar as a confessor of the faith, who survived his tortures.

George the Confessor

Saint George the Confessor (Greek: Ἅγιος Γεώργιος ὁ Ὁμολογητής), also known as Saint George of Antioch, was the Bishop of Antioch in Pisidia in the 8th century. He is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church and his feast day is 19 April.

Henry Martyn

Henry Martyn (18 February 1781 – 16 October 1812) was an Anglican priest and missionary to the peoples of India and Persia. Born in Truro, Cornwall, he was educated at Truro Grammar School and St John's College, Cambridge. A chance encounter with Charles Simeon led him to become a missionary. He was ordained a priest in the Church of England and became a chaplain for the British East India Company.

Martyn arrived in India in April 1806, where he preached and occupied himself in the study of linguistics. He translated the whole of the New Testament into Urdu, Persian and Judaeo-Persic. He also translated the Psalms into Persian and the Book of Common Prayer into Urdu. From India, he set out for Bushire, Shiraz, Isfahan, and Tabriz.

Martyn was seized with fever, and, though the plague was raging at Tokat, he was forced to stop there, unable to continue. On 16 October 1812 he died. He was remembered for his courage, selflessness and his religious devotion. In parts of the Anglican Communion he is celebrated with a Lesser Festival on 19 October.

John Almond (monk)

John Almond (1537 – 18 April 1585) was a Cistercian monk. He is commemorated as a Confessor of the Faith in the Roman Catholic Church, and his name has been included in the supplementary process of the English Martyrs.He came from Cheshire, and was a monk in the time of Henry VIII, but neither his abbey nor his fate during and after its suppression have been identified.He died in prison at Hull Castle on 18 April 1585, having been imprisoned there since 1579.

Lampsacus

Lampsacus (; Ancient Greek: Λάμψακος, romanized: Lampsakos) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad. An inhabitant of Lampsacus was called a Lampsacene. The name has been transmitted in the nearby modern town of Lapseki.

List of Confessors

The Confessor (short for Confessor of the Faith) is a title bestowed by the Christian Church. Those so honored include:

Basil the Confessor (died 750), Eastern Orthodox saint and monk

Saint Chariton, 3rd-4th-century saint

Edward the Confessor (1003/1005–1066), one of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England, Roman Catholic saint

Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1497–1546), early champion of the Protestant Reformation

George the Confessor (died 814), Bishop of Antioch in Pisidia

George the Standard-Bearer (died 821), Archbishop of Mytilene

Isaac of Dalmatia (died 383 or 396), Orthodox saint, monk and founder of a monastery

Jacob of Nisibis (died 4th century), Bishop of Nisibis

Luka (Voyno-Yasenetsky) (died 1961), Eastern Orthodox saint and bishop

Maximus the Confessor (c. 580–662), Byzantine civil servant, Christian monk, theologian and scholar

Michael of Synnada (died 826), Catholic and Orthodox saint, bishop of Synnada

Nicetas of Medikion, (died 824), iconophile monk and Orthodox saint

Saint Nicetas the Patrician (761/62–836), iconophile monk and Orthodox saint

Paphnutius of Thebes (died 4th century), bishop and saint

Paul I of Constantinople (died c. 350), bishop of Constantinople, Roman Catholic and Orthodox saint

Samuel the Confessor (597–693), Coptic Orthodox saint, founder of a monastery

Theophanes the Confessor (c. 758/760–817/818), Byzantine aristocrat, monk and chronicler, Roman Catholic and Orthodox saint

Martyr of charity

In the Catholic Church, a martyr of charity is someone who dies as a result of a charitable act or of administering Christian charity. While a martyr of the faith, which is what is usually meant by the word "martyr" (both in canon law and in lay terms), dies through being persecuted for being a Catholic or for being a Christian, a martyr of charity dies through practicing charity motivated by Christianity. This is an unofficial form of martyrdom; when the Pope Paul VI beatified Maximilian Kolbe he gave him that honorary title (in 1982, when Kolbe was canonized by Pope John Paul II that title was still not given official canonical recognition; instead, John Paul II overruled his advisory commission, which had said Kolbe was a Confessor, not a Martyr, ruling that the systematic hatred of the Nazis as a group toward the rest of humanity was in itself a form of hatred of the faith). Earlier martyrs of charity who were canonized were recognized as "Confessor of the Faith" (meaning someone who suffered in some recognized way- usually by some form of persecution, ostracization, exile, etc.- for the Catholic faith, but who did not have to be killed for it) rather than martyrs.

May 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

May 10 – Eastern Orthodox Church calendar – May 12

All fixed commemorations below celebrated on May 24 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.For May 11th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on April 28.

Medikion monastery

The Monastery of Saint Sergios of Medikion (Greek: Μονή Αγίου Σεργίου του Μηδικίου), commonly simply known as the Medikion monastery (Μονή Μηδικίου; Turkish: Medikion manastırı), and later as the Monastery of the Holy Fathers (Greek: Μονή των Πατέρων) is a ruined Byzantine-era monastery near modern Tirilye in Turkey (medieval Trigleia in Bithynia). It is best known for the role its founders played in opposing Byzantine Iconoclasm.

The only remnants of the monastery complex is the perimeter wall (peribolos), which has a fortress-like appearance with its high walls and solid door. Above the entrance, there is a heavily damaged inscription on which only the date 1801 is legible. The historian Adolphe Hergès, in his Les monastères de Bithynie, indicates that the name Medikios may derive from the name for "cloverleaf" and that the church was referred to in more recent times by the people as "Pateron", that is, "Fathers".

Tryphon E. Evangelides and W.M. Ramsay dated the monastery's construction to 810, but Hergès preferred a date around 780. This is now the accepted date. The founder of the monastery was Nikephoros, who restored a ruined church dedicated to Saint Michael and built the monastery around it. Nikephotos served as its first abbot until his death and in 813. Nikephoros participated in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, where he indicates the monastery full original name as "Saint Sergios of Medikion". After Nikephoros's death, his pupil Niketas became the abbot. Niketas was persecuted with the beginning of the second Iconoclasm under Leo V (r. 813–820). He died in 824, and is celebrated by the Orthodox Church as an iconodule Confessor of the Faith. Both Nikephoros and Niketas were buried at the narthex of the monastery's church of Saint Michael.The history of the monastery is only intermittently known thereafter. The monastery was given as a grant to Michael Psellos in the mid-11th century, by which time it was known as the "Monastery of the Holy Fathers", indicating a cult around the two founding hegoumenoi. The monastery disappears from literary sources thereafter.The monastery burned down in 1800, and was rebuilt in 1801, but was in a derelict condition during a visit by Frederick William Hasluck early in the 20th century. Hasluck described the katholikon as "magnificent", and wrote that it was ornamented with originally arched and black and white mosaics in the courtyard. Pancenko, who came here in 1910, drew the attention to the old icons and likened it to "a museum where Greek Church pictures are exhibited". Evangelides (1889) defined the church as a large rectangle and he added: "It has no roof and columns, it is almost like a large inn deserted by its owner...".

Nicetas the Patrician

Saint Nicetas the Patrician (Greek: Νικήτας Πατρίκιος, Niketas Patrikios; 761/62 – 6 October 836) was a Byzantine monk and a fervent opponent of Byzantine Iconoclasm. He is usually identified with Nicetas Monomachos (Νικήτας Μονομάχος), was a eunuch official and general from Paphlagonia active at the turn of the 9th century.

He is honoured as a saint and a Confessor of the Faith by the Orthodox Church. His feast day is on 13 October.

Order of Saint Basil the Great

The Order of Saint Basil the Great (O.S.B.M. Latin: Ordo Sancti Basilii Magni, Portuguese: Ordem de São Basílio Magno, Ukrainian: Чин Святого Василія Великого, Chyn Sviatoho Vasyliia Velykoho) also known as the Basilian Order of Saint Josaphat is a monastic religious order of the Greek Catholic Churches that is present in many countries and that has its Mother House in Rome (Santi Sergio e Bacco degli Ucraini). The order received approbation on August 20, 1631 and was based at the Holy Trinity monastery in Vilnius. Its monks, brothers, and priests work primarily with Ukrainian Catholics and are also present in other Greek-Catholic churches in central and eastern Europe.

In 16th century on efforts of Metropolitan of Kiev Josyf Veliamyn Rutsky and Archbishop of Polotsk Josaphat Kuntsevych the monastic order was revived on territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Following the World War II, the order was completely eliminated by the Russian Orthodox from its original territory and forced into exile. With fall of the Soviet Union, it was reestablished again in modern Ukraine as part of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.

Beside the Order of Saint Basil the Great, there is a smaller order of Studite Monks that was revived at the end of 19th century by Metropolitan of Galicia Andrey Sheptytsky and is based in the Univ Lavra.

Romulus of Fiesole

Saint Romulus of Fiesole (Italian: San Romolo) is venerated as the patron saint of Fiesole, Italy. Romulus was probably a local deacon, priest, or bishop of the 1st century.According to tradition, he was a disciple of Saint Peter and had been converted to Christianity by the apostle. This tradition states that Romulus became the first bishop of Fiesole and was martyred during the reign of Domitian along with four companions: Carissimus, Dulcissimus, Marchis(i)anus, and Crescentius.He was not named as a bishop or martyr in documents dating from 966; however, a document from 1028 names him as such. From then on, Romulus was considered a martyred bishop of Fiesole, and his companions were named as Carissimus, Dulcissimus, Marchis(i)anus (Marchiziano), and Crescentius. Their feast day was listed as July 6 in the 1468 Florentine edition of the Martyrology of Usuard, and in the 16th century, his name began to appear in the Roman Martyrology, where he was named as a disciple of Saint Peter.As Antonio Borrelli remarks, sometime between the end of the 10th century and the beginning of the eleventh, Romulus was "upgraded" from being considered a Confessor of the Faith to a martyr, possibly by a local abbot named Teuzo.An 11th-century legend associated with him, considered "worthless", makes him an illegitimate son of a woman named Lucerna, who had a child with her father's slave, who was named Cyrus. Like the Romulus of ancient Roman legend, this Romulus was also abandoned and suckled by a she-wolf. He was captured, baptized and raised by Saint Peter and Peter's companion Justin. Romulus then evangelized much of central Italy and was put to death by the governor Repertian.The most ancient image depicting Romulus is the 1440 polyptych in Fiesole Cathedral, where he is represented with Saints Alexander, Peter and Donatus.

Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh

The Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh (Russian: Суро́жская епа́рхия) is a diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC). Since 18 December 2018, the diocese is part of the Patriarchal Exarchate in Western Europe.

The diocese has for its territory the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. Its name is taken from an ancient see in the Crimea that no longer has a bishop. The patron saint of the diocese is St Stephen of Sourozh, an eighth-century Archbishop of Sourozh (today Sudak) and Confessor of the Faith during the Iconoclastic Controversy.Founded in October 1962, the diocese was headed by Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) until his death in 2003.On 6 October 2006, the Holy Synod announced that Archimandrite Elisey (Ganaba), head of the Russian Spiritual Mission in Jerusalem, was to be consecrated Bishop of Bogorodsky, assistant bishop of the Diocese of Korsun, with responsibility for the administration of the Diocese of Sourozh. Additionally, since the adoption of its new statutes in 2010, the Diocese was placed under the direct and personal spiritual and administrative authority of the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Since 18 December 2018, the Diocese of Sourozh is part of the Patriarchal Exarchate in Western Europe.

Sisters of the Holy Faith

The Sisters of the Holy Faith is a Roman Catholic religious congregation, originally for the care of Catholic orphans. It now works broadly in the areas of education and faith development.

Torquatus of Acci

Saint Torquatus (Spanish: San Torcuato) is venerated as the patron saint of Guadix, Spain. Tradition makes him a Christian missionary of the 1st century, during the Apostolic Age. He evangelized the town of Acci, identified as Guadix, and became its first bishop.

He is one of the group of Seven Apostolic Men (siete varones apostólicos), seven Christian clerics ordained in Rome by Saints Peter and Paul and sent to evangelize the Hispania. Besides Torquatus, this group includes Sts. Hesychius, Caecilius, Ctesiphon, Euphrasius, Indaletius, and Secundius (Isicio, Cecilio, Tesifonte, Eufrasio, Hesiquio y Segundo).

It is not certain whether Torquatus was a martyr or confessor of the faith.

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