Condemnations of 1210–1277

The Condemnations at the medieval University of Paris were enacted to restrict certain teachings as being heretical. These included a number of medieval theological teachings, but most importantly the physical treatises of Aristotle. The investigations of these teachings were conducted by the Bishops of Paris. The Condemnations of 1277 are traditionally linked to an investigation requested by Pope John XXI, although whether he actually supported drawing up a list of condemnations is unclear.

Approximately sixteen lists of censured theses were issued by the University of Paris during the 13th and 14th centuries.[1] Most of these lists of propositions were put together into systematic collections of prohibited articles.[1] Of these, the Condemnations of 1277 are considered particularly important by those historians who consider that they encouraged scholars to question the tenets of Aristotelian science.[2] From this perspective, some historians maintain that the condemnations had positive effects on the development of science, perhaps even representing the beginnings of modern science.[2]

Meeting of doctors at the university of Paris
A 16th-century miniature showing a meeting of doctors at the University of Paris.

Condemnation of 1210

The Condemnation of 1210 was issued by the provincial synod of Sens, which included the Bishop of Paris as a member (at the time Pierre II de la Chapelle).[3] The writings of a number of medieval scholars were condemned, apparently for pantheism, and it was further stated that: "Neither the books of Aristotle on natural philosophy or their commentaries are to be read at Paris in public or secret, and this we forbid under penalty of excommunication."[3] However, this had only local force, and its application was further restricted to the Arts faculty at the University of Paris.[3] Theologians were therefore left free to read the prohibited works, the titles of which were not even specified.[3] Alexander of Aphrodisias was probably among the Aristotelian commentators whose influence was targeted.[4]

The University of Toulouse (founded in 1229) tried to capitalise on the situation by advertising itself to students: "Those who wish to scrutinize the bosom of nature to the inmost can hear the books of Aristotle which were forbidden at Paris."[3] However, whether the prohibition had actually had an effect on the study of the physical texts in Paris is unclear.[3] English scholars, including Robert Grosseteste and Roger Bacon, studied at Paris, when they could have chosen to study at the University of Oxford, where the works could still be discussed in public.[3] It is assumed that at the least they continued to be read in Paris in private, and there are also signs that their discussion had become public by 1240.[3]

Condemnation of 1270

By 1270, the ban on Aristotle's natural philosophy was a dead letter.[5] Nevertheless, the Bishop of Paris, Étienne Tempier, convened a meeting of conservative theologians and in December 1270 banned the teaching of certain Aristotelian and Averroist doctrines at Paris.[6] Thirteen propositions were listed as false and heretical, some relating to Averroes' doctrine of the soul and the doctrine of monopsychism, and others directed against Aristotle's theory of God as a passive Unmoved Mover.[6] The banned propositions included:

Bnf lat16151 f22
Late 13th century French manuscript of Averroes' commentary on Aristotle's De Anima
  • "That there is numerically one and the same intellect for all humans".[6]
  • "That the soul separated [from the body] by death cannot suffer from bodily fire".[6]
  • "That God cannot grant immortality and incorruption to a mortal and corruptible thing".[6]
  • "That God does not know singulars" (i.e., individual objects or creatures).[6]
  • "That God does not know things other than Himself".[6]
  • "That human acts are not ruled by the providence of God".[7]
  • "That the world is eternal".[8]
  • "That there was never a first human".[8]

Those who "knowingly" taught or asserted them as true would suffer automatic excommunication, with the implied threat of the medieval Inquisition if they persisted.[6] It is not known which of these statements were "taught knowingly" or "asserted" by teachers at Paris,[8] although Siger of Brabant and his radical Averroist colleagues at the Faculty of Arts were targets.[5] Evidently, the radical masters had taught that Aristotle put forward controversial propositions — which according to the Averroists would have been true at least in philosophy, even if rejected in theology - the doctrine of two truths[9][10] — and questions such as free will and the immortality of the soul were doubtless subject to scholarly debate between masters and students.[8] However, it seems "inconceivable" that any teacher would deny God's Providence or present the Aristotelian "Unmoved Mover" as the true God.[8]

Condemnation of 1277

Plato Seneca Aristotle medieval
Devotional and Philosophical Writings, c. 1330. Prior to the condemnations, many scholars relied heavily on Aristotle (right).

The chain of events leading up to Bishop Tempier's condemnation of 1277 is still not entirely clear.[1] The Catholic Encyclopedia records that the theologians of the University of Paris had been very uneasy due to the antagonism that existed between Christian dogmas and certain Peripatetic doctrines.[11] According to the historian Edward Grant, the theologians desired to condemn Aristotle's teachings on the eternity of the world and the unicity of the intellect.[12]

On 18 January 1277, Pope John XXI instructed Bishop Tempier to investigate the complaints of the theologians. "Not only did Tempier investigate but in only three weeks, on his own authority, he issued a condemnation of 219 propositions drawn from many sources, including, apparently, the works of Thomas Aquinas, some of whose ideas found their way onto the list."[12] The list published on 7 March condemned a great number of "errors", some of which emanated from the astrology, and others from the philosophy of the Peripatetics.[11] These included:

  • 9. "That there was no first man, nor will there be a last; on the contrary, there always was and always will be generation of man from man."[13]
  • 49. "That God could not move the heavens with rectilinear motion; and the reason is that a vacuum would remain."[13]
  • 87. "That the world is eternal as to all the species contained in it; and that time is eternal, as are motion, matter, agent, and recipient; and because the world is from the infinite power of God, it is impossible that there be novelty in an effect without novelty in the cause."[13]

The penalty for anyone teaching or listening to the listed errors was excommunication, "unless they turned themselves in to the bishop or the chancellor within seven days, in which case the bishop would inflict proportionate penalties."[1] The condemnation sought to stop the Master of Arts teachers from interpreting the works of Aristotle in ways that were contrary to the beliefs of the Church. In addition to the 219 errors, the condemnation also covered Andreas Capellanus's De amore, and unnamed or unidentified treatises on geomancy, necromancy, witchcraft, or fortunetelling.[1]

The condemnation of 1277 was later partially annulled "insofar as the teachings of Thomas Aquinas would seem to be implied."[14][15]

Assessment

Saint Julien le Pauvre 03
Interior of the Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre, the former site of the School of Theology and Arts and later associated with the Faculty of Arts at the University of Paris

The long list has often been labelled as not being particularly organised, and that it is "broad in scope to the point of confusion."[1] However, the order on the roll has been attributed to factors such as the order in which the errors appeared in the examined works.[1] The list was reorganised shortly after 1277, possibly to facilitate its use in the academic community.[1] In the 20th century, the articles were once again reorganised by Pierre Mandonnet, numbering and distinguishing the 179 philosophical theses from the 40 theological ones.[1] The list was summarised into groupings and further explained by John F. Wippel.[1] It has also been emphasised by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy that "Tempier's theses express positions that cannot be maintained in light of revealed truth, and for this reason are each followed by the qualification 'error'."[1]

Another problem was that Tempier did not identify the targets of his condemnation, merely indicating that it was directed against unspecified members of the Arts Faculty in Paris.[1] Siger of Brabant and Boethius of Dacia have been singled out as the most prominent targets of the 1277 censure, even though their names are not found in the document itself, appearing instead in the rubrics of only two of the many manuscripts that preserve the condemnation.[1] These two scholars were important proponents of the Averroist movement. The ground-breaking study by the historian Roland Hissette has shown that many of the censured propositions appear to have come from Aristotle, from Arab philosophers, or from "the philosophers" (i.e. other Greek philosophers).[1]

The role that Pope John XXI played in the lead up to the condemnations is a more recent point of discussion. Because the papal letter preceded Tempier's condemnation by only about six weeks, the traditional assumption was that Tempier had acted on papal initiative, and in an overzealous and hasty way.[1] However, more than forty days after Tempier produced his list, another papal letter gives no indication that the Pope was as yet aware of Tempier's action, and seems to suggest otherwise.[1] It is therefore possible that Tempier had already been preparing his condemnations prior to receiving the Pope's first letter.[1] The Pope himself had not played any direct role in the condemnations, having merely requested an investigation, and one scholar has argued that there was "less than enthusiastic papal approval of the bishop of Paris' actions."[16]

Effects

Giovanni di Paolo St. Thomas Aquinas Confounding Averroës
Giovanni di Paolo's St. Thomas Aquinas Confounding Averroës. Tempier investigated the works of both Aquinas and Averroes.

Pierre Duhem considered that these condemnations "destroyed certain essential foundations of Peripatetic physics".[11] Although the Aristotelian system viewed propositions such as the existence of a vacuum to be ridiculously untenable, belief in Divine Omnipotence sanctioned them as possible, whilst waiting for science to confirm them as true.[11] From at least 1280 onward, many masters at Paris and Oxford admitted that the laws of nature are certainly opposed to the production of empty space, but that the realisation of such a space is not, in itself, contrary to reason.[11] These arguments gave rise to the branch of mechanical science known as dynamics.[11]

Pierre Duhem and Edward Grant state this caused a break from Aristotle's work and forced the teachers of the time to believe Aristotle's work imperfect. According to Duhem, "if we must assign a date for the birth of modern science, we would, without doubt, choose the year 1277 when the bishop of Paris solemnly proclaimed that several worlds could exist, and that the whole of heavens could, without contradiction, be moved with a rectilinear motion."[17]

Duhem's view has been extremely influential in the historiography of medieval science, and opened it up as a serious academic discipline.[1] "Duhem believed that Tempier, with his insistence of God's absolute power, had liberated Christian thought from the dogmatic acceptance of Aristotelianism, and in this way marked the birth of modern science."[1] The condemnations certainly had a positive effect on science, but scholars disagree over their relative influence.[2] Historians in the field no longer fully endorse his view that modern science started in 1277.[1] Edward Grant is probably the contemporary historian of science who comes closest to Duhem's vision.[1] What historians do agree upon is that the condemnations allowed science "to consider possibilities that the great philosopher never envisioned."[18] According to the historian of science Richard Dales, they "seem definitely to have promoted a freer and more imaginative way of doing science."[19]

Others point out that in philosophy, a critical and skeptical reaction followed on from the Condemnations 1277.[20] Since the theologians had asserted that Aristotle had erred in theology, and pointed out the negative consequences of uncritical acceptance of his ideas, scholastic philosophers such as Duns Scotus and William of Ockham (both Franciscan friars) believed he might also be mistaken in matters of philosophy.[20] The Scotist and Ockhamist movements set Scholasticism on a different path from that of Albert the Great and Aquinas, and the theological motivation of their philosophical arguments can be traced back to 1277.[21] They stressed the traditional Franciscan themes of Divine Omnipotence and Divine Freedom, which formed part of Ockham's first thesis.[22]

Ockham's second thesis was the principle of parsimony: also known as Ockham's razor.[23] This developed a new form of logic, based on an empiricist theory of knowledge. "While Scholastic in setting," as David Lindberg writes, it was "thoroughly modern in orientation. Referred to as the via moderna, in opposition to the via antiqua of the earlier scholastics, it has been seen as a forerunner of a modern age of analysis."[23] Other, even more skeptical thinkers in the mid-14th century included John of Mirecourt and Nicholas of Autrecourt.[24] It has been suggested that the new philosophy of nature that emerged from the rise of Skepticism following the Condemnations, contained "the seeds from which modern science could arise in the early seventeenth century."[25]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Hans Thijssen (2003-01-30). "Condemnation of 1277". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. University of Stanford. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  2. ^ a b c Woods, p 91-92
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Grant (1974), p 42
  4. ^ Théry, pp 7 ff.
  5. ^ a b Rubenstein, p 215
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Rubenstein, p 216
  7. ^ Rubenstein, p 216-217
  8. ^ a b c d e Rubenstein, p 217
  9. ^ Not to be confused with the Buddhist doctrine of two truths.
  10. ^ Etienne Gilson, Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938 (1966 Reprint), section on "Averroism"
  11. ^ a b c d e f Wikisource-logo.svg Duhem, Pierre (1913). "History of Physics". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  12. ^ a b Grant (1974)
  13. ^ a b c Grant (1974), p 48.
  14. ^ Grant (1974), p 47.
  15. ^ La condamnation parisienne de 1277, déc. 1999, David Piché
  16. ^ Dales (1980b), p 254; quoted by Woods, p 91
  17. ^ Duhem, II, p 412; transl. by Grant (1962), p 200, n. 8.
  18. ^ Woods, p 92
  19. ^ Dales (1980a), p 550; quoted by Woods, p 92
  20. ^ a b Lindberg, p107
  21. ^ Lindberg, p 107-108
  22. ^ Lindberg, p 108
  23. ^ a b Lindberg, p 109
  24. ^ Lindberg, p 110
  25. ^ Lindberg, p 111

References

  • Dales, Richard C. (1980a) "The De- Animation of the Heavens in the Middle Ages," Journal of the History of Ideas 41 : 531-50
  • Dales, Richard C. (1980b) The Intellectual Life of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Washington, DC: University Press of America.
  • Duhem, Pierre. (1906-1913) Etudes sur Leonard de Vinci Paris: A. Hermann, II.
  • Grant, Edward. (1962) "Late Medieval Thought, Copernicus, and the Scientific Revolution", Journal of the History of Ideas, XXIII, n. 8.
  • Grant, Edward. (1974) A Source Book in Medieval Science. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Lindberg, David C. (1980) Science in the Middle Ages. Chicago History of Science & Medicine; ISBN 0-226-48233-2; ISBN 978-0-226-48233-0
  • Rubenstein, Richard E. (2004) Aristotle's Children: How Christians, Muslims, and Jews Rediscovered Ancient Wisdom and Illuminated the Middle Ages. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; ISBN 0-15-603009-8; ISBN 978-0-15-603009-0
  • Théry, G. (1926) Autour du décret de 1210: II, Alexandre d'Aphrodise. Aperçu sur l'influence de sa noétique. Kain, Belgium.
  • Woods, Thomas. (2005) How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Washington, DC: Regnery; ISBN 0-89526-038-7

External links

Aristotelianism

Aristotelianism ( ARR-i-stə-TEE-lee-ə-niz-əm) is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. This school of thought is in the modern sense of philosophy, covering existence, ethics, mind and related subjects. In Aristotle's time, philosophy included natural philosophy, which preceded the advent of modern science during the Scientific Revolution. The works of Aristotle were initially defended by the members of the Peripatetic school and later on by the Neoplatonists, who produced many commentaries on Aristotle's writings. In the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna and Averroes translated the works of Aristotle into Arabic and under them, along with philosophers such as Al-Kindi and Al-Farabi, Aristotelianism became a major part of early Islamic philosophy.

Moses Maimonides adopted Aristotelianism from the Islamic scholars and based his famous Guide for the Perplexed on it and that became the basis of Jewish scholastic philosophy. Although some of Aristotle's logical works were known to western Europe, it was not until the Latin translations of the 12th century that the works of Aristotle and his Arabic commentators became widely available. Scholars such as Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas interpreted and systematized Aristotle's works in accordance with Christian theology.

After retreating under criticism from modern natural philosophers, the distinctively Aristotelian idea of teleology was transmitted through Wolff and Kant to Hegel, who applied it to history as a totality. Although this project was criticized by Trendelenburg and Brentano as non-Aristotelian, Hegel's influence is now often said to be responsible for an important Aristotelian influence upon Marx. Postmodernists, in contrast, reject Aristotelianism's claim to reveal important theoretical truths. In this, they follow Heidegger's critique of Aristotle as the greatest source of the entire tradition of Western philosophy.

Recent Aristotelian ethical and "practical" philosophy, such as that of Gadamer and McDowell, is often premissed upon a rejection of Aristotelianism's traditional metaphysical or theoretical philosophy. From this viewpoint, the early modern tradition of political republicanism, which views the res publica, public sphere or state as constituted by its citizens' virtuous activity, can appear thoroughly Aristotelian.

The most famous contemporary Aristotelian philosopher is Alasdair MacIntyre. Especially famous for helping to revive virtue ethics in his book After Virtue, MacIntyre revises Aristotelianism with the argument that the highest temporal goods, which are internal to human beings, are actualized through participation in social practices. He juxtaposes Aristotelianism with the managerial institutions of capitalism and its state, and with rival traditions — including the philosophies of Hume and Nietzsche — that reject Aristotle's idea of essentially human goods and virtues and instead legitimate capitalism. Therefore, on MacIntyre's account, Aristotelianism is not identical with Western philosophy as a whole; rather, it is "the best theory so far, [including] the best theory so far about what makes a particular theory the best one." Politically and socially, it has been characterized as a newly "revolutionary Aristotelianism". This may be contrasted with the more conventional, apolitical and effectively conservative uses of Aristotle by, for example, Gadamer and McDowell. Other important contemporary Aristotelian theorists include Fred D. Miller, Jr. in politics and Rosalind Hursthouse in ethics.

Catholic Church and science

The relationship between the Catholic Church and science is a widely debated subject. Historically, the Catholic Church has often been a patron of sciences. It has been prolific in the foundation of schools, universities and hospitals, and many clergy have been active in the sciences. Historians of science such as Pierre Duhem credit medieval Catholic mathematicians and philosophers such as John Buridan, Nicole Oresme, and Roger Bacon as the founders of modern science. Duhem found "the mechanics and physics, of which modern times are justifiably proud, to proceed by an uninterrupted series of scarcely perceptible improvements from doctrines professed in the heart of the medieval schools." Yet, the conflict thesis and other critiques emphasize historical or contemporary conflict between the Catholic Church and science, citing in particular the trial of Galileo as evidence. For its part, the Catholic Church teaches that science and the Christian faith are complementary, as can be seen from the Catechism of the Catholic Church which states in regards to faith and science:

Though faith is above reason, there can never be any real discrepancy between faith and reason. Since the same God who reveals mysteries and infuses faith has bestowed the light of reason on the human mind, God cannot deny himself, nor can truth ever contradict truth. ... Consequently, methodical research in all branches of knowledge, provided it is carried out in a truly scientific manner and does not override moral laws, can never conflict with the faith, because the things of the world and the things of faith derive from the same God. The humble and persevering investigator of the secrets of nature is being led, as it were, by the hand of God in spite of himself, for it is God, the conserver of all things, who made them what they are.

Catholic scientists, both religious and lay, have led scientific discovery in many fields. From ancient times, Christian emphasis on practical charity gave rise to the development of systematic nursing and hospitals and the Church remains the single largest private provider of medical care and research facilities in the world. Following the Fall of Rome, monasteries and convents remained bastions of scholarship in Western Europe and clergymen were the leading scholars of the age – studying nature, mathematics, and the motion of the stars (largely for religious purposes). During the Middle Ages, the Church founded Europe's first universities, producing scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albert the Great, Roger Bacon, and Thomas Aquinas, who helped establish the scientific method.During this period, the Church was also a great patron of engineering for the construction of elaborate cathedrals. Since the Renaissance, Catholic scientists have been credited as fathers of a diverse range of scientific fields: Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) pioneered heliocentrism, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) prefigured the theory of evolution with Lamarckism, Friar Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) pioneered genetics, and Fr Georges Lemaître (1894-1966) proposed the Big Bang cosmological model. The Jesuits have been particularly active, notably in astronomy. Church patronage of sciences continues through institutions like the Pontifical Academy of Sciences (a successor to the Accademia dei Lincei of 1603) and Vatican Observatory (a successor to the Gregorian Observatory of 1580).

Condemnation

Condemnation may refer to:

Damnation, the antithesis of salvation

The act of deeming a house or property as uninhabitable and scheduled for destruction

The act of sentencing a person to capital punishment

"Condemnation" (song), a 1993 song by Depeche Mode

Condemnation (novel), a 2003 fantasy novel by Richard Baker

Double truth

Double-truth theory is the view that religion and philosophy, as separate sources of knowledge, might arrive at contradictory truths without detriment to either.

Eternity of the world

The question of the eternity of the world was a concern for both ancient philosophers and the medieval theologians and philosophers of the 13th century. The question is whether the world has a beginning in time, or whether it has existed from eternity. The problem became a focus of a dispute in the 13th century, when some of the works of Aristotle, who believed in the eternity of the world, were rediscovered in the Latin West. This view conflicted with the view of the Catholic church that the world had a beginning in time. The Aristotelian view was prohibited in the Condemnations of 1210–1277.

Index of medieval philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in medieval philosophy.

Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin al-Qushayri

Abhinavagupta

Abner of Burgos

Abraham bar Hiyya

Abraham ibn Daud

Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī

Abu Rayhan Biruni

Abu Yaqub Sijistani

Acharya Hemachandra

Active intellect

Actus et potentia

Actus primus

Actus purus

Adalbertus Ranconis de Ericinio

Adam de Buckfield

Adam de Wodeham

Adam of Łowicz

Adam Parvipontanus

Adam Pulchrae Mulieris

Adelard of Bath

Adi Shankara

Ahmad Sirhindi

Al-Farabi

Al-Ghazali

Al-Jahiz

Al-Kindi

Al-Shahrastani

Al Amiri

Alain de Lille

Albert of Saxony (philosopher)

Albertus Magnus

Alcuin

Alessandro Achillini

Alexander Bonini

Alexander Neckam

Alexander of Hales

Alfred of Sareshel

Alhazen

Altheides

Amalric of Bena

André of Neufchâteau

Anselm of Canterbury

Anselm of Laon

Antonio Beccadelli

Arab transmission of the Classics to the West

Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī

Auctoritates Aristotelis

Augustine Eriugena

Augustine of Hippo

Averroes

Averroism

Avicenna

Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani

Barlaam of Seminara

Bartholomew of Bologna (philosopher)

Bartolommeo Spina

Basilios Bessarion

Bernard of Chartres

Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Trilia

Bernard Silvestris

Berthold of Moosburg

Boethius

Boetius of Dacia

Bonaventure

Brethren of Purity

Brunetto Latini

Byzantine philosophy

Byzantine rhetoric

Cahal Daly

Caigentan

Cardinal virtues

Carolus Sigonius

Catherine of Siena

Celestial spheres

Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)

Choe Chung

Christine de Pizan

Condemnations of 1210–1277

Consolation of Philosophy

Constantine of Kostenets

Contra principia negantem disputari non potest

Convivio

Cosmographia (Bernard Silvestris)

Credo ut intelligam

Cristoforo Landino

Daniel of Morley

Dante Alighieri

David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas

De divisione naturae

Demetrius Chalcondyles

Denis the Carthusian

Divine apathy

Doctrine of the Mean

Dōgen

Dominicus Gundissalinus

Duns Scotus

Dynamics of the celestial spheres

Early Islamic philosophy

Elia del Medigo

Ethica thomistica

Étienne Tempier

Eustratius of Nicaea

Euthymius of Athos

Everard of Ypres

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

Federico Cesi

Five wits

Francesco Filelfo

Francis of Marchia

Francis of Mayrone

Francis Robortello

Francisco de Vitoria

Francisco Suárez

Franciscus Bonae Spei

Fujiwara Seika

Gabriel Biel

Galileo Galilei

Garlandus Compotista

Gasparinus de Bergamo

Gaunilo of Marmoutiers

Gemistus Pletho

George of Trebizond

Gerard of Abbeville

Gerard of Bologna

Gerard of Brussels

Gerard of Cremona

Gerardus Odonis

Gersonides

Gilbert de la Porrée

Giles of Lessines

Giles of Rome

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Godfrey of Fontaines

Gonsalvus of Spain

Great chain of being

Gregor Reisch

Gregory of Rimini

Grzegorz of Stawiszyn

Guarino da Verona

Guido Terrena

Guillaume Pierre Godin

Guru Nanak Dev

Haecceity

Haribhadra

Hayy ibn Yaqdhan

Henry Aristippus

Henry Harclay

Henry of Ghent

Herman of Carinthia

Hermannus Alemannus

Hervaeus Natalis

Heymeric de Campo

Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi

Hisdosus

Hōnen

How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?

Hugh of Saint Victor

Hugh of St Cher

Hylomorphism

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn al-Rawandi

Ibn Arabi

Ibn Bajjah

Ibn Hazm

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Masarrah

Ibn Taymiyyah

Ibn Tufail

Immanuel the Roman

Insolubilia

Intellectualism

Intelligible form

Ioane Petritsi

Ippen

Isaac Abrabanel

Isaac Israeli ben Solomon

Isagoge

Isotta Nogarola

Jacob ben Nissim

Jacopo Zabarella

Jakub of Gostynin

Jan Szylling

Jayatirtha

Jean Buridan

Jean Capréolus

Jedaiah ben Abraham Bedersi

Jien

Jinul

Jiva Goswami

Jocelin of Soissons

Johannes Scotus Eriugena

John Argyropoulos

John Blund

John de Sècheville

John Dumbleton

John Halgren of Abbeville

John Hennon

John Italus

John Major (philosopher)

John of Damascus

John of Głogów

John of Jandun

John of Mirecourt

John of Paris

John of Salisbury

John of St. Thomas

John Pagus

John Peckham

Joseph Albo

Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta

Judah ben Moses Romano

Judah Halevi

Julius Caesar Scaliger

Kitabatake Chikafusa

Kwon Geun

Lambert of Auxerre

Lambertus de Monte

Leo the Mathematician

Leon Battista Alberti

Leonardo da Vinci

List of scholastic philosophers

Madhusūdana Sarasvatī

Madhvacharya

Maimonides

Manuel Chrysoloras

Marcus Musurus

Marsilio Ficino

Marsilius of Inghen

Marsilius of Padua

Matheolus Perusinus

Matthew of Aquasparta

Medieval philosophy

Meister Eckhart

Michael of Ephesus

Michael of Massa

Michael Psellos

Michał Falkener

Miskawayh

Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in

Moralium dogma philosophorum

Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi

Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Myōe

Nahmanides

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

Nasir Khusraw

Neo-medievalism

Niccolò Machiavelli

Nichiren

Nicholas of Autrecourt

Nicholas of Kues

Nicole Oresme

Nikephoros Choumnos

Odo of Châteauroux

Omar Khayyám

Oxford Calculators

Oxford Franciscan school

Palla Strozzi

Paolo da Pergola

Passive intellect

Patriarch Gennadios II of Constantinople

Paul of Venice

Peripatetic axiom

Peter Abelard

Peter Aureol

Peter Ceffons

Peter Crockaert

Peter de Rivo

Peter Helias

Peter Lombard

Peter of Auvergne

Peter of Capua

Peter of Corbeil

Peter of Poitiers

Peter of Spain (author)

Peter Olivi

Petrarch

Petrus Aureolus

Petrus Ramus

Photios I of Constantinople

Pierre d'Ailly

Pierre de Bar

Pietro Alcionio

Pietro d'Abano

Policraticus

Porphyrian tree

Praepositinus

Primum movens

Problem of universals

Proslogion

Qotb al-Din Shirazi

Quiddity

Quinque viae

R. De Staningtona

Rabia al-Adawiyya

Radulfus Ardens

Radulphus Brito

Ralph of Longchamp

Ralph Strode

Ramanuja

Ramism

Ramon Llull

Remigius of Auxerre

Renaissance

Renaissance humanism

Renaissance philosophy

Richard Brinkley

Richard Kilvington

Richard of Campsall

Richard of Middleton

Richard of Saint Victor

Richard Rufus of Cornwall

Richard Swineshead

Richard Wilton

Robert Alyngton

Robert Cowton

Robert Grosseteste

Robert Holcot

Robert Kilwardby

Robert of Melun

Robert Pullus

Rodolphus Agricola

Roger Bacon

Roland of Cremona

Roscelin of Compiègne

Roscellinus

Rota Fortunae

Scholasticism

School of Saint Victor

Scotism

Sensus communis

Sentences

Seosan

Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi

Shinran

Siger of Brabant

Simon of Faversham

Simon of Tournai

Solomon ibn Gabirol

Sophismata

Sperone Speroni

Stephen of Alexandria

Substantial form

Sum of Logic

Summa

Summa contra Gentiles

Summa Theologica

Summum bonum

Supposition theory

Synderesis

Temporal finitism

Term logic

Theodore Metochites

Thierry of Chartres

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas Bradwardine

Thomas Gallus

Thomas of Sutton

Thomas of Villanova

Thomas of York (Franciscan)

Thomas Wilton

Thomism

Thought of Thomas Aquinas

Timeline of Niccolò Machiavelli

Ulrich of Strasburg

University of Constantinople

Univocity

Urso of Calabria

Vācaspati Miśra

Vijnanabhiksu

Vincent Ferrer

Vital du Four

Voluntarism (metaphysics)

Voluntarism (theology)

Walter Burley

Walter Chatton

Walter of Bruges

Walter of Mortagne

Walter of St Victor

Walter of Winterburn

Wang Yangming

William Crathorn

William de la Mare

William of Alnwick

William of Auvergne (bishop)

William of Auxerre

William of Champeaux

William of Conches

William of Falgar

William of Heytesbury

William of Lucca

William of Moerbeke

William of Ockham

William of Saint-Amour

William of Sherwood

William of Ware

Works by Thomas Aquinas

Yi Hwang

Yohanan Alemanno

Zhang Zai

Zhu Xi

Recovery of Aristotle

The "Recovery of Aristotle" (or Rediscovery) refers to the copying or re-translating of most of Aristotle's books (of ancient Greece), from Greek or Arabic text into Latin, during the Middle Ages, of the Latin West. The Recovery of Aristotle spanned about 100 years, from the middle 12th century into the 13th century, and copied or translated over 42 books (see: Corpus Aristotelicum), including Arabic texts from Arabic authors, where the previous Latin versions had only two books in general circulation: Categories and On Interpretation (De Interpretatione). Translations had been due to several factors, including limited techniques for copying books, lack of access to the Greek texts, and few people who could read ancient Greek, while the Arabic versions were more accessible. The recovery of Aristotle's texts is considered a major period in mediaeval philosophy, leading to Aristotelianism. Because some of Aristotle's newly translated views discounted the notions of a personal God, immortal soul, or creation, various leaders of the Catholic Church were inclined to censor those views for decades, such as lists of forbidden books in the Condemnations of 1210–1277 at the University of Paris. Meanwhile, Thomas Aquinas (c.1225–1274), at the end of that time period, was able to reconcile the viewpoints of Aristotelianism and Christianity, primarily in his work, Summa Theologica (1265–1274).

Toledo School of Translators

The Toledo School of Translators (Spanish: Escuela de Traductores de Toledo) is the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic.

The School went through two distinct periods separated by a transitional phase. The first was led by Archbishop Raymond of Toledo in the 12th century, who promoted the translation of philosophical and religious works, mainly from classical Arabic into Latin. Under King Alfonso X of Castile during the 13th century, the translators no longer worked with Latin as the final language, but translated into a revised version of Castilian. This resulted in establishing the foundations of the modern Spanish language.

University of Paris

The University of Paris (French: Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (French: [sɔʁbɔn]), was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe. Officially chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was later often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257.Internationally highly reputed for its academic performance in the humanities ever since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured ever since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty, scientists, and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins (18, rue de Poissy 75005), Hotel de Cluny (6, Place Paul Painleve 75005), College Sainte Barbe (4, rue Valette 75005), College d'Harcourt (44 Boulevard Saint-Michel 75006), and Cordeliers (21, Rue Ecole de Medecine 75006).In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold. A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities (French: Faculté des Lettres), the Faculty of Law (later including Economics), the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology (closed in 1885).

In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University (Paris I; law); University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle; and Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris IV; humanities).From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions (COMUE) that later were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur". As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, and so on.In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University. In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are also expected to merge.

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