Concordia Association

The Concordia Association (Chinese: 滿洲國協和會; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó Xiéhehuì; Wade–Giles: Man3-chou1-kuo2 Hsieh2-ho-hui4 Japanese Hepburn: Manshū-koku Kyōwakai) was a political party in Manchukuo. Established to promote the ideals of Pan-Asianism and the creation of a multi-ethnic nation-state and to create a structure which would gradually replace military rule over Manchukuo with civilian control, the party was unable to fulfill its promise, and was eventually subverted into an instrument of totalitarian state-control by the Japanese Kwantung Army.

Concordia Association of Manchukuo

滿洲國協和會
Mǎnzhōuguó Xiéhehuì
Manshū-koku Kyōwakai
LeaderPuyi
Founded1931
Dissolved1945
HeadquartersManchukuo
IdeologyMonarchism
Manchurian nationalism
Pan-Asianism
Anti-communism
Totalitarianism
Personalism
Political positionFar-right
Manchukuo Concordia Association
Meeting of the Concordia Association

Background

The name "Concordia Association" came from the concept of the "concord of nationalities" (民族協和 mínzú xiéhe) promoted by the Pan-Asian movement. By granting different peoples or nationalities their communal rights and limited self-determination under a centralized state structure, Manchukuo attempted to present itself as a nation-state in the mode of the Soviet "union of nationalities". Political theorist Tominaga Tadashi, author of Manshū no Minzoku ("Nationalities of Manchuria"), wrote extensively about Soviet policies towards national self-determination. The Concord of Nationalities policy was promoted as a policy that fulfilled the goals of federalism and protected minority rights, while at the same time it strengthened central state control to avoid the separatism that had weakened the old Russian Empire.

Development

After its establishment, Manchukuo was effectively run by the Japanese Kwantung Army along totalitarian lines. A Legislative Council existed primarily as a formality to rubber-stamp decrees issued by the General Affairs State Council via the figurehead emperor, Puyi.

ManStamp Women
Manchukuo commemorative stamp promoting ideals of Concord of Nationalities

Although not officially a one-party state, political dissent was severely punished, and the only officially sanctioned political party was the Concordia Association. However, émigré nationalities were permitted to form political associations, primarily to promote their various agendas towards their home countries. These included a variety of White Russian parties supporting either a fascism or a restoration of the Romanov dynasty and a number of Zionist movements for Jewish refugees.

The structure of the Concordia Association was reorganized to mimic the Japanese Taisei Yokusankai which was founded in 1940. All government officials and bureaucrats, including teachers, as well as important figures in society were members. All youth between the ages of sixteen and nineteen were automatically enrolled beginning in 1937; and by 1943, Association membership included about 10% of the population of Manchukuo.

In theory, the Concordia Association would ultimately replace the Kwantung Army as the political power in Manchukuo: however, by the mid-1930s, the Kwantung Army ordered the Association "purged" of its original leadership for alleged leftist tendencies. The Association was thus subverted into means of extending mobilization and surveillance rather than providing national ethnic, cultural, and occupational representation in government.

After the purge, Concordia Association came to closely resemble contemporary “totalitarian parties” in Europe. Like its fascist counterparts, it was corporatist, anti-communist, anticapitalist, and sought to overcome class divisions by organizing people through both occupational and ethnic communities, while promoting a dirigiste economy. The Association was distinctive in representing Asian communities—Mongols, Manchus, Hui Muslims, Koreans, Japanese and White Russian émigrés, as well as the majority Chinese—and their traditions. This commitment often meant supporting the religious leadership among these peoples: Mongol lamas, Manchu shamans, Muslim ahongs, Buddhist monks, and Confucian moralists. The regime's control of local society was enhanced by the work of association units established within Manchu villages, Hui mosques, and the Chinese community self-surveillance system (baojia).

Japanese ideologists like Tachibana saw no contradiction between the goals of republicanism, equality, and modernization, on the one hand, and the "Eastern" values of community, solidarity, and the moral state, on the other. In practice, however, the very different programs and interests pursued by military and the pan-Asianists led to many tensions and resulted in a polarized rather than harmonious society. Mongol youth demanded modern education and the elimination of the power of the lamas; Chinese supporters were divided between monarchists who favored the restoration of the emperor and republicans who opposed it. Before these tensions could be overcome and a truly independent state created, the Japanese military derailed the process by plunging Manchukuo into the Second Sino-Japanese War.

References

  • Beasley, W.G. (1991). Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822168-1.
  • Dower, John (1987). War Without Mercy, Race and Power in the Pacific War. Pantheon. ISBN 0-394-75172-8.
  • Stoler, Ann (2007). Imperial Formations. School for Advanced Research Press. ISBN 1-930618-73-5.
  • Young, Louise (1999). Japan's Total Empire: Manchuria and the Culture of Wartime Imperialism. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21934-1.
  • Young, Morgan (1999). Imperial Japan 1926-1938. Borah Press. ISBN 1-4067-1127-6.

External links

Concordia

Concordia is the Latin word for "harmony," literally "with (one) heart." It may refer to:

Concordia (mythology), the Roman goddess of harmony

Dragomir Krančević

Dragomir Krančević (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгомир Кранчевић, Hungarian: Dragomir Krancsevics; 4 October 1847, Pančevo, Banat Military Frontier, Austrian Empire – 19 May 1929, Vienna, Austria) was a Serbian violinist in Austria-Hungary.

Flag of Manchukuo

The flag of the Empire of Manchuria had a mustard yellow field with four horizontal stripes of different colors in the upper-left corner. The colors of the flag were based on the colors on the Five Races Under One Union flags used by the Beiyang government and the Empire of China. The flag is also similar to the flag used by the Fengtian clique. The flag was first established in Announcement of National Flag on March 1, 1932.

Manchukuo

Manchukuo (traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó; Japanese: 満州国; rōmaji: Manshūkoku; "State of Manchuria"; in other Axis languages: Italian: Manciukuò and German: Mandschukuo) was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic, but in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy. It had limited international recognition and was under the de facto control of Japan.

The area, collectively known as Manchuria, was the homeland of the Manchus, including the emperors of the Qing dynasty. In 1931, the region was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident and a pro-Japanese government was installed one year later with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and later emperor. Manchukuo's government was dissolved in 1945 after the surrender of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II. The territories formally claimed by Manchukuo were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945, and then formally transferred to Chinese administration in the following year.Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo, whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. The population of Koreans increased during the Manchukuo period, and there were also Japanese, Mongols, White Russians and other minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there. The southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula was ruled by Japan as the Kwantung Leased Territory.

One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows (at least nominally) democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.

Politics of Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. The Manchukuo regime was established four months after the Japanese withdrawal from Shanghai with Puyi as the nominal but powerless head of state to add some semblance of legitimacy, as he was a former emperor and an ethnic Manchu.

Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–1940)

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: 中華民國臨時政府; simplified Chinese: 中华民国临时政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Línshí Zhèngfǔ, or Japanese: Chūka Minkoku Rinji Seifu) was a Chinese puppet state of the Empire of Japan that existed from 1937 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It had been formed largely on the initiative of Imperial Japanese Army commanders in north China, before securing approval from Japanese government authorities in Tokyo. Thus the Provisional Government had nominal authority in Japanese occupied zones in north China, while to the south the Central China Expeditionary Army established the Reformed Government of the Republic of China in 1938, which had authority in the Yangtze River area. Both essentially served as a local organ of the Japanese military authorities, due to the presence and extensive powers of Japanese advisors within the Provisional Government over native Chinese bureaucrats, and because it never made any attempt to secure international recognition, even from Japan.

Right-wing dictatorship

A right-wing dictatorship (sometimes also referred to as a rightist dictatorship) is an authoritarian (or sometimes totalitarian) regime whose policy could be called right-wing. "There are various definitions of the term "rightist", the most common being "conservative" or "reactionary". Those are often to some degree pro-market in economic matters and conservative in social ones. The term fascist dictatorship is sometimes erroneously used interchangeably with right-wing dictatorship. It is commonly accepted that Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy were ruled by fascist governments at some points of their history, but how it refers to other right-wing regimes is a question of further debate. The Estado Novo in Portugal was a right-wing dictatorship which was corporatist in nature. Most South American dictatorships during the second half of the 20th century were right-wing: Pinochet, the Brazilian Military Government, etc. There have also been a number of military dictatorships installed by anti-communists which were generally conservative and rightist.

Ruan Zhenduo

Ruan Zhenduo (simplified Chinese: 阮振铎; traditional Chinese: 阮振鐸; pinyin: Ruǎn Zhènduó; Wade–Giles: Juan Chen-to; Hepburn: Gen Shintaku; 1893–1973), was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently served in a number of Cabinet-level positions in the Empire of Manchukuo.

Standard Club

The Standard Club is a private country club, founded as the Concordia Association in 1867. Originally located in Atlanta, Georgia, United States, the club is now located in the northern suburb of Johns Creek.

Zhang Jinghui

Zhang Jinghui (Chang Ching-hui; simplified Chinese: 张景惠; traditional Chinese: 張景惠; pinyin: Zhāng Jǐnghuì; Wade–Giles: Chang1 Ching3-hui4; Hepburn: Chō Keikei); (1871 – 1 November 1959) was a Chinese general and politician during the Warlord era. He is noted for his role in the Japanese puppet regime of Manchukuo in which he served as its second and final Prime Minister.

Zhang Yanqing (politician)

Zhang Yanqing (simplified Chinese: 张燕卿; traditional Chinese: 張 燕卿; pinyin: Zhāng Yànqīng; Wade–Giles: Chang Yen-ch'ing; Hepburn: Chō Enkei; 1898–1951), was a politician in the early Republic of China who subsequently served as Foreign Minister in the Cabinet of the Empire of Manchukuo. His father, Zhang Zhidong was an important official in the late Qing Empire and his brother, Zhang Renli was an official in the Reorganized National Government of China.

Zheng Xiaoxu

Zheng Xiaoxu (Cheng Hsiao-hsu; simplified Chinese: 郑孝胥; traditional Chinese: 鄭孝胥; pinyin: Zhèng Xiàoxū; Wade–Giles: Cheng4 Hsiao4-hsu1; Hepburn: Tei Kōsho) (2 April 1860 – 28 March 1938) was a Chinese statesman, diplomat and calligrapher. He served as the first Prime Minister of Manchukuo.

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