The Concierto de Aranjuez is a guitar concerto by the Spanish composer Joaquín Rodrigo. Written in 1939, it is by far Rodrigo's best-known work, and its success established his reputation as one of the most significant Spanish composers of the 20th century.
The Concierto de Aranjuez was inspired by the gardens at Palacio Real de Aranjuez, the spring resort palace and gardens built by Philip II in the last half of the 16th century and rebuilt in the middle of the 18th century by Ferdinand VI. The work attempts to transport the listener to another place and time through the evocation of the sounds of nature.
According to the composer, the first movement is "animated by a rhythmic spirit and vigour without either of the two themes... interrupting its relentless pace"; the second movement "represents a dialogue between guitar and solo instruments (cor anglais, bassoon, oboe, horn etc.)"; and the last movement "recalls a courtly dance in which the combination of double and triple time maintains a taut tempo right to the closing bar." He described the concerto itself as capturing "the fragrance of magnolias, the singing of birds, and the gushing of fountains" in the gardens of Aranjuez.
Rodrigo and his wife Victoria stayed silent for many years about the inspiration for the second movement, and thus the popular belief grew that it was inspired by the bombing of Guernica in 1937. In her autobiography, Victoria eventually declared that it was both an evocation of the happy days of their honeymoon and a response to Rodrigo's devastation at the miscarriage of their first pregnancy. It was composed in 1939 in Paris.
Rodrigo dedicated the Concierto de Aranjuez to Regino Sainz de la Maza.
In 1939, the Spanish Civil War had just ended, beginning (or continuing, depending on the part of Spain) the Spanish State of general Francisco Franco. A work premiered in Spain in this highly charged environment had to celebrate, or pretend to celebrate, or permit the interpretation that it was celebrating, the current political situation. The celebration of a palace and gardens of a sixteenth-century Habsburg king offered no ideological threat to the Francoist State, and was in harmony with its emerging policy of celebrating Spanish history, conservatively interpreted.
Composed in early 1939, in Paris, amid the tensions of the impending war, it was the first work Rodrigo wrote for guitar and orchestra. The instrumentation is unusual: rarely does the guitar face the forces of a full orchestra. Thus, the guitar is never overwhelmed.
The premiere of the Concierto de Aranjuez was held on 9 November 1940 at the Palau de la Música Catalana, in Barcelona. It was performed by guitarist Regino Sainz de la Maza with the Orquesta Filarmónica de Barcelona conducted by César Mendoza Lasalle.
On 11 December 1940 the concerto received its first performance in Madrid, at the Teatro Español de Madrid conducted by Jesús Arámbarri, with the same soloist. The United States premiere was given by Rey de la Torre on 19 November 1959, with the Cleveland Orchestra conducted by Robert Shaw.
This concerto is in three movements, Allegro con spirito, Adagio and Allegro gentile. The first and last movements are in D major, while the famous middle movement is in B minor. Along with the solo guitar, it is scored for an orchestra consisting of two flutes (one doubling on piccolo), two oboes (one doubling on cor anglais), two clarinets in B, two bassoons, two horns in F, two trumpets in C, and strings.
The first movement’s 40-measure introduction begins with the solo guitar strumming a three-measure theme in 6/8. The theme is made of tonic, supertonic, and dominant chords and features a flamenco-like hemiola rhythm. As it repeats several times, the tonic chord’s uppermost note gets higher, starting with the third, then using the fifth, the tonic, and the fifth again.
The second movement, the best-known of the three, is marked by its slow pace and quiet melody, introduced by the cor anglais, with a soft accompaniment by the guitar and strings. A feeling of quiet regret permeates the piece. Ornamentation is added gradually to the melody in the beginning. An off-tonic trill in the guitar creates the first seeds of tension in the piece; they grow and take hold, but relax back to the melody periodically. Eventually, a climactic build-up starts. This breaks back into the main melody, molto appassionato, voiced by the strings with accompaniment from the woodwinds. The piece finally resolves to a calm arpeggio from the guitar, though it is the strings in the background rather than the guitar’s final note that resolve the piece.
The third movement is in mixed metre, alternating between 2/4 and 3/4. At the beginning of the movement, four-measure phrases containing 9 beats in total are formed from one 3/4 measure followed by three 2/4 measures. As the movement progresses, the metre becomes more irregular.
The concerto was recorded for the first time in either 1947 or 1948 by guitarist Regino Sainz de la Maza with the Orquesta Nacional de España, conducted by Ataúlfo Argenta, on 78 rpm records. This recording was inducted into the Latin Grammy Hall of Fame. Narciso Yepes then made two early recordings of the Aranjuez, both also with Argenta - one in mono with the Madrid Chamber Orchestra (released between 1953 and 1955), and the second in stereo with the Orquesta Nacional de España (recorded in 1957 and released in 1959). Although Ida Presti gave the French premiere of the Concierto de Aranjuez in 1948, the first female guitarist to record the concerto was Renata Tarragó (1958 or 1959) - who played with fingertips rather than fingernails - accompanied by the Orquesta de Conciertos de Madrid, conducted by Odón Alonso. William Yeoman provides an interesting discographical survey of recordings of the concerto in Gramophone magazine.
Until asked to perform and interpret Concierto de Aranjuez in 1991, the Spanish flamenco guitarist Paco de Lucía was not proficient at reading musical notation, and José María Gallardo Del Rey advised and directed him musically. De Lucía claimed in Paco de Lucía-Light and Shade: A Portrait that he gave greater emphasis to rhythmical accuracy in his interpretation of the Concierto at the expense of the perfect tone preferred by classical guitarists. Composer Joaquín Rodrigo later declared that no one had ever played his composition in such a brilliant manner.
A number of musicians have since reinterpreted the work, usually the second movement, perhaps most famously jazz musician Miles Davis in the company of arranger Gil Evans. On the album Sketches of Spain (1960), Davis says: "That melody is so strong that the softer you play it, the stronger it gets, and the stronger you play it, the weaker it gets."
A Choral Christmas is an album by German cross-cultural new-age band Cusco. It was released in 1995.
The album was produced in collaboration with the Munich Opera Choir. The tracks feature a fusion of slow vocal melodies with music of late Middle Ages and Renaissance, and instrumentally reflect on their previous Concierto de Aranjuez album from 1986. Unlike any other Cusco album, the choirs are predominant in most tracks, the exceptions being the instrumental "Canon" and "Swan Lake / The Nutcracker". This album was also released on the Prudence label under the title A Cusco Christmas.Attitudes (Demis Roussos album)
Attitudes is the seventeenth solo album by Greek singer Demis Roussos, released in 1982.Carlos Bonell
Carlos Bonell (born London 1949) is an English Classical guitarist of Spanish origin. He has been described by Classical Guitar Magazine, UK as "one of the great communicators of the guitar world". He started to play at the age of five, learning to play Spanish folk music on the guitar from his father who was a keen amateur guitarist, while also studying the violin more formally at school. Carlos continued his studies at the Royal College of Music with John Williams, where upon completing his studies in 1972, he was appointed professor.
In 1973 he won the Greater London Arts Association Young Musicians' Scheme award and as a consequence gave more than fifty concerts in the south-east of England between 1973–74. His concerto debut in 1975 was with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Rafael Frühbeck de Burgos at the Royal Festival Hall, London in a performance of the Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo. His first solo LP recording, for the Enigma Classics label, recorded in 1975, was "Guitar Music of Spain". The following year Carlos recorded a Grammy nominated album with John Williams and Friends for CBS with the instrumentation of two guitars, marimba, xylophone and double bass. The group performed throughout the UK for several years.
His first performance in New York in 1978 was at the Mostly Mozart Festival in the Avery Fisher Hall. The New York Times wrote of his performance: “Carlos Bonell is a player of superb poetic gifts”.Concierto
Concierto is an album by the Jim Hall sextet, featuring Paul Desmond, Chet Baker, Ron Carter, Steve Gadd and Roland Hanna. It was produced by Creed Taylor for his CTI Records label and recorded at Van Gelder Studio in New Jersey on April 16 and 23, 1975. Concierto is named after the featured 19-minute jazz version of the classical piece for guitar, Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo.Concierto de Aranjuez (Dorothy Ashby album)
Concierto de Aranjuez is a studio album by jazz harpist Dorothy Ashby released via the Philips Records label in 1984. The record is her final album as a leader.Concierto de Aranjuez (Paco de Lucía album)
Concierto de Aranjuez is a 1991 album by Paco de Lucía. The first 3 tracks are his interpretation of Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez while tracks 4-6 are his interpretation of Isaac Albéniz's Iberia.Concierto de Aranjuez (disambiguation)
Concierto de Aranjuez is a composition for classical guitar and orchestra by Joaquín Rodrigo.
Concierto de Aranjuez may also refer to:
Concierto de Aranjuez, an album by the German band Cusco
Concierto de Aranjuez (Paco de Lucía album)
Concerto d'Aranjuez / Sounds of Spain, a 1967 album released by the Paris-based Swingle Singers (released as Spanish Masters in the U.S.)
Concierto de Aranjuez, a 1984 album by Dorothy AshbyCusco (band)
Cusco was a German cross-cultural new-age music band named after the Peruvian city of Cusco, which was once the capital of the Inca Empire. The band's music contains influences from music around the world, with an emphasis on South American flute sounds and melodies. Cusco's melodic and energetic music is a fusion of modern and ethnic styles with influences from classical music and rock music sensibilities. Most of the ethnic instruments were keyboard-generated, giving the sound of real quality.
The band was led by founders Michael Holm (Lothar Bernhard Walter; 1943–) and Kristian Schultze (1945–2011). Michael Holm, already a successful vocal artist, sought to make a musical tribute to ancient cultures. He and Kristian Schultze, formerly a member of the jazz band Passport, shared musical and historical interests. In 1979, they formed Cusco, and released their first album in 1980. They eventually signed with Higher Octave Music, releasing their first album on that label in 1988. Their albums consistently reached very high peaks on the instrumental/new age music sales charts. They were nominated for a Grammy award three times.Cusco's music is frequently used as pre-show background music in Epcot prior to IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth, and has been used as bumper music for the popular American syndicated radio program Coast to Coast AM, as well as several television advertisements, including a Bud Ice beer commercial. Additionally, Cusco composed and performed symphonic new age music for the German television special Sielmann 2000. Until his death in 2011, Schultze resided in Weilheim in Oberbayern, Germany; Holm still lives there.Joaquín Rodrigo
Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre, 1st Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez (Spanish: [xoaˈkin roˈðɾiɣo]; 22 November 1901 – 6 July 1999), commonly known as Joaquín Rodrigo, was a Spanish composer and a virtuoso pianist.
Rodrigo's music is among the most popular music of the 20th century. In particular, his Concierto de Aranjuez is considered one of the pinnacles of Spanish music and of the guitar concerto repertoire.Latin Grammy Hall of Fame
The Latin Grammy Hall of Fame is a hall of fame established by the Latin Recording Academy to recognize "early recordings of lasting qualitative or historical significance that were released more than 25 years ago". LARAS is also the same organization that distributes the Latin Grammy Awards. The albums and songs are picked by a panel of recording-arts professionals, such as musicologists and historians, and selected from all major categories of Latin music.The first inductions were made in 2001 to honor 17 recordings. These included Santana's cover of Tito Puente's "Oye Como Va", Javier Solís's rendition of "Sabor a Mí" and the 1948 performance of Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez by Regino Sainz de la Maza and the Orquesta Nacional de España. The inductions have each occurred six years apart from one another.
"La Bamba" by Ritchie Valens and Chega de Saudade by João Gilberto were also inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2000. Getz/Gilberto by Stan Getz and João Gilberto won the Grammy Award for Album of the Year at the 7th Annual Grammy Awards in 1965. "El Manisero (The Peanut Vendor)" by Don Azpiazu and Cuban Jam Sessions in Miniature/Descargas by Cachao were inducted into the National Recording Registry in 2005 and 2012 respectively. "Eres Tú" by Mocedades placed second on the 1973 Eurovision Song Contest. Brazilian musician Antônio Carlos Jobim is the artist with the most works inducted into the Latin Grammy Hall of Fame with four recordings.Miles Davis at Carnegie Hall
Miles Davis at Carnegie Hall is a live album by American jazz musician Miles Davis. Subtitled The Legendary Performances of May 19, 1961, it was released by Columbia Records as CL 1812 in monaural and CS 8612 as "electronically re-channeled for stereo."This live performance features Davis with his regular quintet and also accompanied by Gil Evans and his 21-piece orchestra. The orchestra is heard on several selections drawn from Miles Ahead as well as a complete reading of the adagio movement from Concierto de Aranjuez as recorded on Sketches of Spain.
The concert begins with the orchestra playing the Gil Evans introduction to "So What", which is performed by the quintet, and then segues directly into the only recording of an Evans arrangement of "Spring is Here".Moksha Records
Moksha Recordings is an English electronic music record company. They mainly release alternative electronic music, an example of this would be S.O.L Arranguez (1996), which uses the classical guitar and vocals from Concierto de Aranjuez mixed with modern house music. They have also released music for big bands like The Shamen and Kosheen. The record company was founded in 1986 by Charles Cosh and is still going today.Orange juice (disambiguation)
Orange juice usually refers to the fruit juice obtained from squeezing orange.
Orange Juice may also refer to:
Orange Juice (band), a Scottish post-punk bandThe Orange Juice, a 1984 albumOrange Juice, a 2004 J-ska album from Yum!Yum!ORANGE
Oran "Juice" Jones (born 1957), an American R&B singer
Concierto de Aranjuez, a composition for classical guitar and orchestraPetar Čulić
Petar Čulić (born June 26, 1986 in Split, Croatia) is a classical guitarist.
He finished his master's degree at the Split music Academy in the class of prof. Goran Listeš, and continued to study at the Koblenz Guitar Academy with Hubert Käppel. He won 23 first prizes on national and international competitions and had more than 1000 performances all around the world.
He plays the Concierto de Aranjuez by J. Rodrigo, the most famous guitar concierto.
The French composer Colette Mourey wrote a piece for guitar solo named Sonata Appassionata, Hommage à Petar Culic, so Petar Čulić got his hommage at the early age of 24.Renata Tarragó
Renata Tarragó Fábregas (23 October 1927 – 2 August 2005), a Catalan guitarist and vihuelist, was a teacher and performer, both as a solo artist and an accompanist. She was the first female guitarist to record Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez, and was the editor of the first published edition of the Concierto de Aranjuez score.Sketches of Spain
Sketches of Spain is an album by Miles Davis, recorded between November 1959 and March 1960 at the Columbia 30th Street Studio in New York City. An extended version of the second movement of Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez (1939) is included, as well as a piece called "Will o' the Wisp", from Manuel de Falla's ballet El amor brujo (1914–1915). Sketches of Spain is regarded as an exemplary recording of Third Stream, a musical fusion of jazz, European classical, and styles from world music.Spanish jazz
Jazz in Spain began with an interest in Dixieland or New Orleans jazz. In that time it evolved into other styles often influenced by visiting Americans. In 1947 Don Byas introduced Tete Montoliu to bebop and later efforts to fuse jazz with flamenco occurred. Catalan and Galician music is also an influence in some regions.
Still, jazz in Spain initially suffered from many difficulties. One example being that the cultural, political, and economic climate was unsuitable for the creativity and freedom required of a jazz movement. This predates Francisco Franco's regime to some extent, but his rule placed far more restraints on jazz, due in part to his regime's restrictions and in part due to Spain being isolated on various cultural fronts, preferring an inward-looking, more easily digested form of culture. Thus, a particularly fruitful period for jazz in general – the period spanning the 1940s, 1950s and the early 1960s – passed almost unnoticed in Spain. The return to democracy, and the development of the economy, has allowed for there to be an increased jazz scene in the last twenty years.One particular feature of live jazz in Spain is the multitudinous attendance at outdoor jazz festivals, the first of which, the Donostia-San Sebastian Jazz Festival dates back to 1966. It would not be until the mid-1970s, however, that major international figures would attend the festival, including, over the years, Charles Mingus, Tete Montoliu, Ella Fitzgerald, Oscar Peterson, Dizzy Gillespie, Herbie Hancock, Lionel Hampton, John Lee Hooker, Sonny Rollins, B.B. King, Woody Herman, Freddie Hubbard, Weather Report, Gato Barbieri, Art Blakey, Mercer Ellington, McCoy Tyner, Chick Corea, Clark Terry, and Miles Davis.
The festival held in Vitoria-Gasteiz, set up in 1977, also attracts major international names.
In a related vein Spanish classical or folk music has been an influence on jazz musicians both inside and outside Spain. Concierto de Aranjuez by Joaquín Rodrigo has been interpreted by Miles Davis.Łukasz Kuropaczewski
Łukasz Kuropaczewski was born in Poland, in 1981. He started playing the guitar at the age of 10. Since 1992 his musical education was conducted by Professor Piotr Zaleski from Poland. In 2003 Łukasz entered the Peabody Conservatory of Music of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, USA, where he is still studying under the tutelage of Manuel Barrueco.
Mr. Kuropaczewski has toured in Europe, USA, Canada, South America and Japan. He has appeared in music centers in Poland, Czech Republic, Belarus, Germany, France, Spain, Hungary, Canary Islands, Iceland, Greece, England, Japan, Panama, Canada and the USA.
He has performed as a soloist in such halls and festivals as: National Philharmony Hall, National Polish Radio Hall in Warsaw, Poland; Royal Festival Hall in London, England; Cactus Pear Music Festival in San Antonio, TX, USA; Manuel Barrueco Masterclass in Baltimore, USA; Nurtingen Guitar Festival in Nurtingen, Germany; Gitarren Konzerte Ansbach in Ansbach, Germany; and the International Guitar Festival in Tychy, Poland.
As a chamber musician he has performed with a number of Polish Orchestras, which include National Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra. He performed the "Concierto de Aranjuez" with this orchestra conducted by British conductor Mark Fitz-Gerald on a special "Last Night of the Proms" concert in Cracow, Poland. He has also performed Vivaldi Concerti and Boccherini Quintets with several string quartets. He has collaborated with musicians from Poland, Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, Cleveland Orchestra and San Antonio Symphony Orchestra. Lukasz also maintains a duo partnership with
a virtuoso flutist Anastasia Petanova and the Baltimore Symphony Assistant Concertmaster Igor Yuzefovich.
Kuropaczewski has recorded four CDs. "Łukasz Kuropaczewski - Recital", "Kuropaczewski plays Spanish Music", "Concierto de Aranjuez", "Łukasz Kuropaczewski: Portrait".
In addition to his concert schedule he is also a teacher, giving classes worldwide, and assisting Barrueco at the Peabody Conservatory, where he teaches guitar lessons and the repertorie class.