Concepción (Spanish pronunciation: [kon.sepˈsjon] (listen); in full: Concepción de la Madre Santísima de la Luz, "Conception of the Blessed Mother of Light") is a Chilean city and commune belonging to the metropolitan area of Greater Concepción, it is one of the largest urban conurbations of Chile. It has a significant impact on domestic trade being part of the most heavily industrialized region in the country. Its location is in the called Zona Centro Sur (Central South Zone), in the geographic center of the country, and it is the capital of the Concepción Province and Bío Bío Region. It sits about 500 km south of Santiago, the country's capital.
Greater Concepción (Gran Concepción, including Talcahuano, San Pedro de la Paz, Hualpén, Chiguayante, Penco, Tomé, Lota, Coronel, Hualqui and Concepción) is the second-largest conurbation in the country, with 945,650 inhabitants (2012 census). Individually, it is the 11th largest commune in the country, with a population of 229,665.
La Concepción de María Purísima
del Nuevo Extremo (original name)
Collage from Concepción, Top: Skyline; Upper left: University of Concepción; Upper right: Store in downtown; Middle left: Ecuador Park; Middle center: Bonilla/Alonso de Ribera Highway; Middle right: University of Concepción clock tower; Lower left: Lautaro statue; Lower center: San Sebastián University; Bottom center: Court of Appeals; Bottom right: Biotrén.
Coat of arms
Location in the Bío Bío Region
Location in Chile
Biobío's Pearl, The University City, The cradle of Chilean rock
La Capital del Sur de Chile
The Capital of Southern Chile
|Coordinates (Alcalde's office): Coordinates:|
|Founded||October 5, 1550|
|Founded by||Pedro de Valdivia|
|• Alcalde||Álvaro Ortiz (DC)|
|• City and Commune||222 km2 (86 sq mi)|
|Elevation||12 m (39 ft)|
|• City and Commune||992,589|
|• Density||1,318/km2 (3,410/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC−4 (CLT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−3 (CLST)|
|Telephone prefix||56 + 41|
Concepción was founded by Pedro de Valdivia[FN 1] in 1550 north of the Bío Bío River, at the site which is today known as Penco. At that time it was given the name Concepción de María Purísima del Nuevo Extremo (Mary Immaculate Conception of the New End). The new settlement of Concepción was just a few kilometers north of La Frontera (The Frontier), the boundary between Spanish territory and the land of the Mapuche, an American Indian ethnic group that remained independent until the 1870s. The settlement was formally recognized by the Spanish authorities as a town two years later by a royal decree. It was given a coat-of-arms that is still in use today.
At the time of the Spanish arrival to the Concepción area chronicler Jerónimo de Vivar noted local Mapuches wore gold and silver bracelets and "sort of crowns". This is interpreted either as Incan gifts, war spoils from defeated Incas, or adoption of Incan metallurgy.
Although Concepción was a significant military settlement for the Captaincy General of Chile, it was overrun and destroyed by Mapuche armies in 1554, and once again after being refounded in 1555. Concepción was restored during the governorship of García Hurtado de Mendoza when he landed there and built a fort on the Alto de Pinto in 1557. The town was refounded once more on January 6, 1558, by captain Jerónimo de Villegas. It became the headquarters of the military forces engaged against the Mapuche in La Araucanía over the next two centuries, growing to a population of 10,000 despite a siege in 1564 and other attacks by the Mapuche. Concepción was the home of the Real Audiencia from 1565 to 1575.
Earthquakes and tsunamis, which razed the town in 1570, 1657, 1687, 1730 and 1751, led the authorities to move the town to its current site in the Valle de la Mocha, alongside the Bío Bío River; the old site lay empty until March 29, 1842, when the present town of Penco was founded.
The new site for the town of Concepción became the main town of the Intendancy of Concepción, whose jurisdiction extended from the Maule River to La Frontera. The first Intendant of Concepción was the Irishman Ambrose O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno, who later became Royal Governor of Chile and Viceroy of Peru.
When the First National Government Board met in Santiago on September 18, 1810, citizens of Concepción joined up. Concepción was used as the point of entry by the Spanish Army in the attempt by the Viceroyalty of Peru to re-conquer Chile. Concepción politicians and soldiers became a significant political force in the newly independent country.
On January 1, 1818, Ambrose O'Higgins's son, Bernardo O'Higgins, proclaimed and took the oath of the Chilean War of Independence in the main square of Concepción, which since then has been known as "Plaza de la Independencia". On February 20, 1835, the town again was largely destroyed by an earthquake and had to be rebuilt.
As of 2010, Concepción is the second largest city of Chile. The Universidad de Concepción, founded in 1919, became the first secular private university in Chile. The neighboring harbor of Talcahuano is the site of the largest naval base in Chile.
On February 27, 2010, an 8.8 magnitude earthquake struck the city of Concepción, killing more than 521 people and injuring thousands nationwide. Following the earthquake, geologists relying on global positioning satellite (GPS) data concluded that the city had been displaced roughly 3 meters (9.8 feet) to the west as a result of the event. The tsunami that followed missed the city.
After the 2010 Chile earthquake, a prison riot began in Concepción's El Manzano prison following a failed escape attempt by the internees. Different parts of the prison were set on fire and the riot was controlled only after the guards shot into the air and received help from military units. As of 5 March 2010, a Peruvian field hospital has been deployed to the city.
Like most of Chilean territory, the Concepción region is seismically active, with much of Concepción destroyed by a violent earthquake in 1939. An earthquake in 1953 damaged 15% of the town's buildings. Another major earthquake in 1960 had a nearby epicenter.[FN 2]
On February 27, 2010, an earthquake of 8.8 magnitude struck at 35.846°S, 72.719°W, 115 km (71 mi) NNE of the city. The United States Geological Survey said the earthquake struck at 0334 GMT on Saturday at a depth of 35 km (22 mi). The effects were felt as far away as São Paulo, Brazil—2,870 miles (4,620 km).
Concepción is known as "the university city" thanks to the numerous universities within the urban agglomeration, since one of the most important universities of the country were founded here, such as the Universidad de Concepción, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción and Universidad del Biobío. This city also has numerous headquarters for many other universities. In addition, this metropolis has a large educational offer, focused on institutes, centers of technical formation and the universities already mentioned above.
The University Pencopolitana whose name was Pontificia Universidad Pencopolitana de La Concepción (Pontifical Pencopolitana University of The Conception) was an old university founded though a decree of the Bishop of Concepción, delivered to the administration of the Society of Jesus which functioned between the years 1724 and 1767. In May 24 of 1751 an earthquake followed by a tsunami, ravaged the city causing serious damage, including the destruction of the library of the University and all of its funds. As a product of the fury of the waters, a rich collection of texts of the governance of southern Chile were lost, which resulted in a disaster for the culture and collective memory of the city. Due to the natural disasters, it was decided to relocate the city to the called Valle de la Mocha, location which currently holds. Slowly the seminar was revived in the new location, in a period of decline of academic activity in Chilean monastic universities after the creation of the Universidad de San Felipe, and even came to confer some degree before the Suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1767. The aforementioned University is considered to be the natural and legitimate predecessor of the Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción (UCSC), erected by the Archbishop of Concepción in 1991, from the Talcahuano Regional Headquarters of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
The image of the Pontifical University of Concepción Pencopolitana, is still valid, for His Majesty King Juan Carlos I of Spain in his 1990 speech on the occasion of his inauguration as Doctor Honoris Causa in the University of Chile, in Santiago de Chile, said: "The work of the Pontifical University Pencopolitana should not be ignored, even before the creation of the University of San Felipe" (Juan Carlos's account fails to acknowledge the existence of San Felipe's predecessor, the Dominican Universidad de Santo Tomás de Aquino, from the sixteenth century in Santiago).
Meanwhile, the University of Chile imparted into one of the schools in the city, a course of law, which allowed to obtain a law degree. Among his students was Henry Urrutia Manzano, who decades later occupied the presidency of the Supreme Court of Chile.
Only years after, the university began to receive state support, becoming part of the traditional universities, becoming one of three most important universities in the country, and the most importance at the regional level.
The city is served by Carriel Sur International Airport in Talcahuano.
The climate of Concepción is classified as Köppen Csb, with a dry summer nadir in February. The cool waters of the Pacific Ocean help to maintain mild temperatures throughout the year. Temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F) or fall below 0 °C (32.0 °F). In the six-month period between May and October, the city receives approximately 83% of its total annual precipitation, which totals 1,130 mm (44 in). The wettest month since records began in 1912 was June 2000 with 565.7 millimetres (22.3 in), whilst all months from November to April have been rainless on occasions. The maritime cooling brings much cooler temperatures than nearby inland areas on the same parallel in Argentina, where average summer highs match Concepción's all-time records. Summer temperatures for the 36 degrees latitude are rarely as cool as they are in Concepción, and on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, similar or hotter summer temperatures are found much further from the equator. However, this moderation is evident for the entire Chilean Pacific so is not unique for Concepción. Similar cool-summer mediterranean climate tendencies are found on the West Coast of North America on similar parallels, even though Concepción tends to have slightly wetter winters than San Francisco for example. Conversely, record winter nighttime temperatures in Concepcion are significantly more moderate than temperatures recorded on the Argentine Atlantic coast at the same latitude, where temperatures below −10 °C (14 °F) have occurred.
As might be expected for such a large urban area heavily dependent on wood-burning for heat and diesel for transport, the air in Concepción is the third-most polluted in Chile, after Santiago and Temuco.
|Source: 1970–1992, 2002, 2006–2012|
According to data collected on 2002 in the Census of the National Institute of Statistics, the township has an area of 221.6 km2 (86 sq mi) and a population of 216,061 inhabitants, of whom 103,860 are men and 112,201 are women.
Conception is home to 11.61% of the total population of the region. 1.88% (4,058 persons) is for rural population and 98.12% (212,003) to urban population.
The Concepción commune population declined sharply because in 1996 it was divided, creating Chiguayante and San Pedro de la Paz. In these communes the population has grown quickly since they have become bedroom communities of Concepción, i.e. residential cities that do not have a center with many shops, such as Concepcion.
It is projected that by 2009 an estimated population of 227,768 inhabitants live in the commune.
There is a significant percentage of foreign residents in the city, the most numerous are the Spanish, Italian and US expatriate communities. There are also smaller segments of German, French, British, Dutch, Greek, Portuguese, Croatian, Scandinavian, Arab and Australian descendants in a city settled by waves of immigration.
To an outsider, there may be confusion between the demonyms of the inhabitants of Concepción and the nearby city of Penco. Due to the previous location of Concepción being where Penco currently stands, inhabitants of Concepción are called penquistas while inhabitants of Penco are known as pencones.
Concepción is one of the most active cities in Chilean rock music and many famous rock groups in Chile started up in Concepción. Concepción has the second largest concentration of universities in Chile, and is home to three major universities. Concepción currently has four traditional universities:
Concepción is considered to be the "capital of Chilean rock", since numerous bands of this genre have been founded in this city, such as the internationally recognized bands Los Tres and Los Bunkers, and the now missing Emociones Clandestinas and Santos Dumont, or heavier rock bands such as Machuca. Also, known musicians have declared that their first massive presentations have been in this city, as is the case of Los Prisioneros.
Concepción is also known as "the university city", for the number of universities that exist and which also represent an alternative to various regions of Chile. This is why there is a feedback effect in Concepción, due to that the city is formed by many young adults coming from other places of Chile. This makes the city to be characterized by a youth culture such as music, art, social demands, etc.
Concepción is home of three professional football teams:
Basketball is also played at a high professional level. The most notable team is:
Historically characterized by a strong manufacturing industry, Concepción has also been a major center for distribution and services and the financial basis of the regional economy.
Trade in the city is concentrated in the Plaza Independencia (Independence Square), the pedestrian street Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga (built in 1981), and along the major avenues. One such avenue is the Diego Barros Arana street which has developed into the commercial center of the city and the region was until 1907 even known as "calle Comercio" ("Commerce Street"). New commercial centers are being developed around the old central station and the new civic district as a part of the Chilean bicentennial (September 18, 2010). A considerable percentage of local trade is taking place in settlements around the city, in communes such as Hualpén, Talcahuano and San Pedro de la Paz, where there are bustling shopping centers, such as Mall Plaza del Trébol, and where there is a constant commercial development.
Other commercial spots, related to food, are the Vega Monumental and Mercado Central de Concepción (Central Market of Concepción) places offering various services and agricultural and livestock products.
As a commune, Concepción is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The municipal building (alcaldía) is located at O'Higgins Nº 525 . The 2016–2020 Mayor is Alvaro Ortiz Vera (Christian Democratic Party), who was first elected in 2012. The communal council has 10 seats, which are currently occupied (2016–2020) by three for Christian Democratic Party, two for National Renewal, two for Independent Democrat Union, one for Communist Party, one for Socialist Party, and one for Radical Party. The following members is:
|1||Fabiola Troncoso Alvarado||Christian Democratic|
|2||Yanina Contreras Álvarez||National Renewal|
|3||Jaime Monjes Farias||Christian Democratic|
|4||Emilio Armstrong Delpin||I.D.U.|
|5||Christian Paulsen Espejo-Pando||I.D.U.|
|6||Joaquin Eguiluz Herrera||National Renewal|
|7||Alex Iturra Jara||Communist|
|8||Boris Negrete Canales||Christian Democratic|
|9||Patricia Garcia Mora||Socialist|
|10||Ricardo Trostel Provoste||Radical|
Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Concepción is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Gaston Saavedra (PS), José Miguel Ortiz (PDC), Jaime Toha (PS), Felix Gonzalez (PEV), Enrique Van Rysselberghe (UDI), Sergio Bobadilla (UDI), Francesca Muñoz (RN) and Leonidas Romero (RN), as part of the 21th electoral district (Concepción Province without Lota). The commune is represented in the Senate by Alejandro Navarro Brain (MAS) and Jacqueline Van Rysselberghe (UDI) as part of the 12th senatorial constituency (Biobío-Costa).
The following cities have sister city associations with Concepción.
Playa Blanca (comuna de Coronel, corresponde a la representación del Centro Geográfico de Chile Continental. El Hito corresponde a una estructura monolítica de hormigón de tan solo 2,5 metros de altura, y posee una forma de flecha que indica la orientación Norte-Arica y Sur-Punta Arenas.
The 1991 Copa América football tournament was hosted by Chile, from July 6 to 21. It was organized by CONMEBOL and all ten member nations participated.
This was the last time that the tournament consisted of only CONMEBOL member nations. In subsequent tournaments, at least two nations from outside CONMEBOL have been invited to bring the total number of participants to twelve.
Argentina won the Copa América for the 13th time, their first since 1959.Adelqui Migliar
Adelqui Migliar (5 August 1891 – 6 August 1956), also known as Adelqui Millar, was a Chilean film actor, director, writer and producer. He appeared in 31 silent films between 1916 and 1928. He also directed 24 films between 1922 and 1954.
He was born in Concepción, Chile, and lived and worked in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. He died in Santiago, Chile.Adrián García
Adrián Alonso García Sobarzo (born May 25, 1978) is a former professional from Chile.
García was born in Concepción, Chile. He achieved a career-high singles ranking of World No. 103 in September 2004.C.D. Arturo Fernández Vial
Club Deportivo Corporación Arturo Fernandez Vial is a football club in Chile, from the Concepción area, in the Bio-Bio Region. The team was founded on June 3, 1903, and they currently play in the third level of Chilean football, the Segunda División.
Arturo Fernandez Vial identifies itself since its beginning with the national corporation of railroad workers, and it was the most popular team in southern Chile. Its traditional rival is Deportes Concepcion. Also, the team's "hinchada" (die-hard supporters) are known as La Furia Guerrera.C.D. Concepción
Deportes Concepción is a Chilean football club based in the city of Concepción, Biobio Region. They currently play at the fourth tier of the Chilean League system, the Tercera División.
The club was founded in 1966, by the organizations of several amateur clubs such as Galvarino, Liverpool, Juvenil Unido, Santa Fe and Club Lord Cochrane. The club is one of the most popular in the VIII region of Chile, their main rivals are Fernández Vial and Huachipato. The club played their home games at Estadio Ester Roa in Concepción, Chile, which seats 30,448 people.Catholic University of the Most Holy Conception
The Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion (Spanish: Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción) is a university in Chile. It is part of the Chilean Traditional Universities.Concepción Chile Temple
The Concepción Chile Temple is a temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) in Concepción, Chile. The intent to construct the temple was announced by church president Thomas S. Monson on October 3, 2009, during the church's semi-annual general conference. The temple was announced concurrently with the Brigham City Utah, Fort Lauderdale Florida, Fortaleza Brazil and Sapporo Japan temples; at the time, the announcement brought the total number of temples worldwide to 151. It is the second temple constructed in Chile, along with the Santiago Chile Temple which was dedicated in 1983.
On October 17, 2015, Walter F. González presided at a groundbreaking to signify beginning of construction. Following construction, a public open house was held from September 15 through October 13, 2018, excluding Sundays. The temple was dedicated on October 28, 2018 by Russell M. Nelson.Estadio Ester Roa
Estadio Alcaldesa Ester Roa Rebolledo is a multi-purpose stadium in Concepción, Chile. It is used mostly for football matches. The stadium was built in 1962, as Estadio Regional, with an original capacity of 35,000 people. In 2015, it was completely renovated with new seats and a roof; currently has a capacity of 30,448 seats.
Until 2010 it was known as Estadio Municipal de Concepción. The stadium took its new name, Ester Roa Rebolledo, who was a former Concepción city mayor.
The stadium was being renovated by Spanish company COPASA, but in May 2014, after continuing delays, the contract was terminated. In September 2014 the municipality of Concepción hired Chilean company Claro Vicuña Valenzuela to finish the works. The stadium was not completed in time to host two 2015 Copa América group stage matches, which were moved to Santiago's Estadio Monumental David Arellano. It was finally reopened on 25 June 2015, in time to host three Copa América matches.
The Ester Roa is currently the home stadium for Universidad de Concepción, Fernández Vial and Deportes Concepcion; Huachipato and Lota Schwager has also played some important home games at the stadium.
The highest ever recorded attendance was 43,340 in November 12, 1967 at the Primera Division match between Huachipato and Colo-Colo.
The stadium is also occasionally used for music concerts and athletics tournaments.Gabriel Vargas (footballer)
Gabriel Alejandro Vargas Venegas (born 8 December 1983) is a Chilean footballer, who currently plays as striker for Curicó Unido.
He began on the youth squad of Deportes Concepción and debuted in 2002. In 2006, he played for Puerto Montt. In 2007, Vargas played for Cobresal where he was one of the team's leading goal scorers for the year. In the 2007 Clausura tournament, Vargas scored 11 goals.
In 2008, he moved to U. de Concepción. Then he moved to Universidad de Chile, to play 2010 Apertura and 2010 Copa Libertadores.Gerardo Navarrete
Gerard Ignacio Navarrete Barrientos (born 14 July 1994) is a Chilean footballer who plays for Coquimbo Unido as a midfielder.Gonzalo Garrido
Gonzalo Andrés Garrido Zenteno is a Chilean road bicycle racer. He competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the Men's road race. He is a five-time National Champion.Greater Concepción
Gran Concepción is the second largest conurbation in Chile, after Greater Santiago, with 945,650 inhabitants according to the 2012 pre census.Ignacio Urrutia Manzano
Ignacio Urrutia Manzano (July 1, 1879 – February 8, 1951) was a Chilean politician. He served twice as President of the Senate of Chile and minister.
He was born in Concepcion, the son of Luis Urrutia Rozas and of Aurora Manzano Benavente. He completed his studies in his native city, and then attended the Naval Academy, where he became a naval officer. As such, he was sent to supervise the construction of several ships that were being built at the Armstrong shipyards in Newcastle upon Tyne. He eventually returned to Chile on board the recently completed "Esmeralda". He retired from the navy in 1906 while at the same time renouncing his pension. He married Luzmila de la Sotta Benavente and together they had seven children.
He started his political career as mayor of the city of Parral. He joined the Liberal Party and was elected a deputy for "Loncomilla, Linares and Parral" (1926-1930) and was reelected for the same constituency (1930-1934). President Juan Esteban Montero appointed him Minister of War and Navy, position he held between April 8 and June 4, 1932. His political career was put on hold by the collapse of the second administration of President Montero and the dissolution of the National Congress by a Government Junta; due to the advent of the Socialist Republic of Chile.
He was elected a Senator for "Talca and Maule" (1933-1941) and President of the Senate on May 31, 1933. He was reelected as president of the Senate in 1935. He died in Parral on February 8, 1951 at the age of 71.José A. Santos
José Adeón Santos León (born April 26, 1961, in Concepción, Chile) is a retired Chilean thoroughbred jockey who has been honored by the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in the United States.Klaus Junge
Klaus Junge (1 January 1924 at Concepción, Chile – 17 April 1945, at Welle, Germany) was one of the youngest German chess masters. In several tournaments during the 1940s he held his own among the world's leading players. An officer in the Wehrmacht, he died during the Battle of Welle shortly before the end of World War II.Osvaldo González
Osvaldo Alexis González Sepúlveda (born August 10, 1984 in Concepción, Chile) is a Chilean footballer. He currently plays for Mexican club Toluca.Patricio Jerez Aguayo
Patricio Felipe Jerez Aguayo (born June 29, 1987 in Concepción, Chile) is a Chilean footballer currently playing for Deportes Temuco of the Chilean Primera División.Radio Bío-Bío
Radio Bío-Bío is a (mostly) news Chilean radio with broad coverage in Chile.
The station was founded in 1966, in Concepción. In the 1990s it began to expand across the country. First were the stations in southern Chile: Temuco, Osorno and Puerto Montt, and Santiago in 1997.
Radio Bio-Bio today operates on 40 frequencies around the nation, with 8 autonomous stations nationwide. It is the only completely independent station, not belonging to political, religious or economic groups.
One of the main stations is operated in Lonquimay in the Cordillera of the Andes in the Araucanía Region. Established in 1995 in an isolated area, Bío Bío Lonquimay is a radio service for a mainly indigenous community.Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Concepción
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Concepción (Latin: Sanctissimae Conceptionis) is an archdiocese located in the city of Concepción in Chile.
|Climate data for Concepción, Chile (Carriel Sur International Airport) 1981–2010, extremes 1966–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||34.1
|Average high °C (°F)||22.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.5
|Average low °C (°F)||10.9
|Record low °C (°F)||0.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||15.7
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||2.6||2.6||3.7||7.6||14.5||16.1||15.3||13.5||10.2||7.6||4.8||3.5||102.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||75||77||80||83||87||88||86||85||82||81||78||76||82|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||334.8||271.2||248.0||183.0||136.4||108.0||133.3||155.0||192.0||238.7||282.0||331.7||2,614.1|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||10.8||9.6||8.0||6.1||4.4||3.6||4.3||5.0||6.4||7.7||9.4||10.7||7.2|
|Source #1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (precipitation days and humidity 1970–2000)|
|Source #2: Universidad de Chile (sunshine hours only)|
|Culture & Sports|
Chilean cities with a population of over 150,000 (2017 census)