Concentrate

A concentrate is a form of substance which has had the majority of its base component (in the case of a liquid: the solvent) removed. Typically, this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension, such as the removal of water from fruit juice. One benefit of producing a concentrate is that of a reduction in weight and volume for transportation, as the concentrate can be reconstituted at the time of usage by the addition of the solvent.

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A container of vanilla concentrate

Soft drink concentrates

The process of concentrating orange juice was patented in 1948.[1] It was originally developed to provide World War II troops with a reliable source of vitamin C.[2] [3] Today, the majority of retailed orange juice is made from reconstituted orange juice concentrate.

Most sodas and soft drinks are produced as highly concentrated syrups and later diluted with carbonated water directly before consumption or bottling. Such concentrated syrups are sometimes retailed to the end-consumer because of their relatively low price and considerable weight savings. Condensed milk is also produced for transport weight savings and resistance to spoilage.

Most juice and soda concentrates have a long shelf-life due to high sugar content and/or added preservatives.

References

  1. ^ "Orange Juice Patent" (PDF).
  2. ^ "Minute Maid Concentrated Orange Juice Can". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2017-06-18.
  3. ^ "CREC History". www.crec.ifas.ufl.edu. Retrieved 2017-06-18.
Andrei Tarkovsky

Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (Russian: Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский, IPA: [ɐnˈdrʲej ɐrˈsʲenʲjɪvʲɪtɕ tɐrˈkofskʲɪj]; 4 April 1932 – 29 December 1986) was a Russian filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director. His work is characterized by unconventionally long takes, sparse dramatic structure, poetic imagery, and spiritual and metaphysical themes. He has been called a progenitor of slow cinema. Director Ingmar Bergman said of him:

Tarkovsky for me is the greatest (director), the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream.

Tarkovsky's films include Ivan's Childhood (1962), Andrei Rublev (1966), Solaris (1972), Mirror (1975), and Stalker (1979). He directed the first five of his seven feature films in the Soviet Union; his last two films, Nostalghia (1983) and The Sacrifice (1986), were produced in Italy and Sweden, respectively. The films Andrei Rublev, Solaris, Mirror, and Stalker are regularly listed among the greatest films of all time.

Apple juice

Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple. The resulting expelled juice may be further treated by enzymatic and centrifugal clarification to remove the starch and pectin, which holds fine particulate in suspension, and then pasteurized for packaging in glass, metal or aseptic processing system containers, or further treated by dehydration processes to a concentrate.

Due to the complex and costly equipment required to extract and clarify juice from apples in large volume, apple juice is normally produced commercially. In the United States, unfiltered fresh apple juice is made by smaller operations in areas of high apple production, in the form of unclarified apple cider. Apple juice is one of the most common fruit juices in the world, with world production led by China, Poland, the United States, and Germany.

CSL Limited

CSL Limited is a global specialty biotechnology company that researches, develops, manufactures, and markets products to treat and prevent serious human medical conditions. CSL's product areas include blood plasma derivatives, vaccines, antivenom, and cell culture reagents used in various medical and genetic research and manufacturing applications.

Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Originally intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, and kola nuts (a source of caffeine). The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published.

The Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, which is then sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) can contains 38 grams (1.3 oz) of sugar (usually in the form of high fructose corn syrup). The bottlers then sell, distribute, and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores, restaurants, and vending machines throughout the world. The Coca-Cola Company also sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors.

The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name. The most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, and special versions with lemon, lime, and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Concentrate and Ask Again

"Concentrate and Ask Again" is the 12th episode of the third season of the American science fiction drama television series Fringe, and the 55th episode overall. In the episode, the Fringe division enlists the help of a troubled telepathic man (Omid Abtahi) in their investigation of a mysterious blue killing powder. Abtahi, Kevin Corrigan, Jody Thompson, and Paul Jarrett guest starred.

Graham Roland and Matthew Pitts co-wrote the episode, while Dennis Smith directed. The episode first aired in the United States on February 4, 2011 to an estimated 4.3 million viewers on its initial broadcast, a 16 percent drop in viewership from the previous two Friday episodes, "Reciprocity" and "The Firefly". "Concentrate and Ask Again" received mixed to positive reviews from television critics, with writers praising the advancement of the series' mythology but criticizing the main mystery plot.

Copper extraction

Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtaining copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors.

As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated (concentrated). The processing techniques depend on the nature of the ore. If the ore is primarily sulfide copper minerals (such as chalcopyrite), the ore is crushed and ground to liberate the valuable minerals from the waste ('gangue') minerals. It is then concentrated using mineral flotation. The concentrate is typically then sold to distant smelters, although some large mines have smelters located nearby. Such colocation of mines and smelters was more typical in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when smaller smelters could be economic. The sulfide concentrates are typically smelted in such furnaces as the Outokumpo or Inco flash furnace or the ISASMELT furnace to produce matte, which must be converted and refined to produce anode copper. Finally, the final refining process is electrolysis. For economic and environmental reasons, many of the byproducts of extraction are reclaimed. Sulfur dioxide gas, for example, is captured and turned into sulfuric acid — which can then be used in the extraction process or sold for such purposes as fertiliser manufacture.

Oxidised copper ores can be treated by hydrometallurgical extraction.

Ergocalciferol

Ergocalciferol, also known as vitamin D2 and calciferol, is a type of vitamin D found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency. This includes vitamin D deficiency due to poor absorption by the intestines or liver disease. It may also be used for low blood calcium due to hypoparathyroidism. It is used by mouth or injection into a muscle.Excessive doses can result in increased urine production, high blood pressure, kidney stones, kidney failure, weakness, and constipation. If high doses are taken for a long period of time, tissue calcification may occur. It is recommended that people on high doses have their blood calcium levels regularly checked. Normal doses are safe in pregnancy. It works by increasing the amount of calcium absorbed by the intestines and kidneys. Food in which it is found include some mushrooms.Ergocalciferol was first described in 1936. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Ergocalciferol is available as a generic medication and over the counter. In the United Kingdom a typical dose costs the NHS less than 10 pounds a month. In 2016 it was the 56th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 14 million prescriptions. Certain foods such as breakfast cereal and margarine have ergocalciferol added to them in some countries.

Firefighting foam

Firefighting foam is a foam used for fire suppression. Its role is to cool the fire and to coat the fuel, preventing its contact with oxygen, resulting in suppression of the combustion. Fire-fighting foam was invented by the Russian engineer and chemist Aleksandr Loran in 1902.The surfactants used must produce foam in concentration of less than 1%. Other components of fire-retardant foams are organic solvents (e.g., trimethyl-trimethylene glycol and hexylene glycol), foam stabilizers (e.g., lauryl alcohol), and corrosion inhibitors.

Fluphenazine

Fluphenazine, sold under the brand names Prolixin among others, is an antipsychotic medication. It is used in the treatment of chronic psychoses such as schizophrenia, and appears to be about equal in effectiveness to low-potency antipsychotics like chlorpromazine. It is given by mouth, injection into a muscle, or just under the skin. There is also a long acting injectable version that may last for up to four weeks. Fluphenazine decanoate, the depot injection form of fluphenazine, should not be used by people with severe depression.Common side effects include movement problems, sleepiness, depression and increased weight. Serious side effects may include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, low white blood cell levels, and the potentially permanent movement disorder tardive dyskinesia. In older people with psychosis as a result of dementia it may increase the risk of dying. It may also increase prolactin levels which may result in milk production, enlarged breasts in males, impotence, and the absence of menstrual periods. It is unclear if it is safe for use in pregnancy. Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine class. Its mechanism of action is not entirely clear but believed to be related to its ability to block dopamine receptors. In up to 40% of those on long term phenothiazines, liver function tests become mildly abnormal.Fluphenazine came into use in 1959. The injectable form is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. In the United States the tablets costs between $0.22 and $0.42 per day for a typical dose. The wholesale cost in the developing world of the long acting form is between US$0.20 and US$6.20 per injection as of 2014. It was discontinued in Australia around mid 2017.

Hair spray

Hair spray (also hair lacquer or spritz) is a common cosmetic hairstyling product that is sprayed onto hair to protect against humidity and wind. Hair sprays typically consist of several components for the hair as well as a propellant.

Head

A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the ears, brain, forehead, cheeks, chin, eyes, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively. Some very simple animals may not have a head, but many bilaterally symmetric forms do, regardless of size.

Heads develop in animals by an evolutionary trend known as cephalization. In bilaterally symmetrical animals, nervous tissues concentrate at the anterior region, forming structures responsible for information processing. Through biological evolution, sense organs and feeding structures also concentrate into the anterior region; these collectively form the head.

I Concentrate on You

"I Concentrate on You" is a song written by Cole Porter for the 1940 film Broadway Melody of 1940, where it was introduced by Douglas McPhail.

Lotion play

Lotion Play is a subset of the better known Wet-And-Messy fetish (WAM), which typically involves participants using food (such as pudding or whipped cream), mud, or paint as a lubricant to facilitate sexual activity. Lotion Play isolates lotion specifically as a lubricating medium - setting it apart in the Wet-and-Messy genre, as other common WAM mediums do not have such specific popularity as Lotion Play. Lotion Play (ローションプレイ, rōshon purei), also known as gookkake, gluekkake, is a popular fetish, form of Japanese erotica and prostitution request involving the use of copious amounts of lubricant, which in the Japanese language is referred to by the Old-French word "lotion" (ローション in Japanese).Typically lotion play involves a participant rubbing lotion on another using their body, sexual intercourse in a pool or bath filled with lotion, or lotion being poured over the participants during sex. In Japan (and other parts of the world), lotion is available in concentrated form (e.g.: liter/gallon) which can be added to hot water to produce the desired amount of lotion. A 1-gallon concentrate will typically yield 6-10 gallons of lotion (J-Lube Lotion Concentrate). The main component in most lotion is polyacrylate. A similar effect can be achieved by dissolving powdered methyl cellulose in water.

Mesoridazine

Mesoridazine (Serentil) is a piperidine neuroleptic drug belonging to the class of drugs called phenothiazines, used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a metabolite of thioridazine. The drug's name is derived from the methylsulfoxy and piperidine functional groups in its chemical structure.

It has central antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic and weak muscarinic anticholinergic effects.

Serious side effects include akathisia, tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Mesoridazine was withdrawn from the United States market in 2004 due to dangerous side effects, namely irregular heart beat and QT-prolongation of the electrocardiogram.It currently appears to be unavailable worldwide.

Orange juice

Orange juice is a liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges. It comes in several different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange, clementine, and tangerine. As well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of juice vesicles, known as "pulp" in American English, and "(juicy) bits" in British English. These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species, variety, and season. In American English, the beverage name is often abbreviated as "OJ".

Commercial orange juice with a long shelf life is made by pasteurizing the juice and removing the oxygen from it. This removes much of the taste, necessitating the later addition of a flavor pack, generally made from orange products. Additionally, some juice is further processed by drying and later rehydrating the juice, or by concentrating the juice and later adding water to the concentrate.

The health value of orange juice is debatable: it has a high concentration of vitamin C, but also a very high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks. As a result, some government nutritional advice has been adjusted to encourage substitution of orange juice with raw fruit, which is digested more slowly, and limit daily consumption.

Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a partially permeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended chemical species as well as biological ones (principally bacteria) from water, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective", this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as solvent molecules, i.e., water, H2O) to pass freely.In the normal osmosis process, the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration (high water potential), through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration (low water potential). The driving force for the movement of the solvent is the reduction in the free energy of the system when the difference in solvent concentration on either side of a membrane is reduced, generating osmotic pressure due to the solvent moving into the more concentrated solution. Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, thus, is reverse osmosis. The process is similar to other membrane technology applications.

Reverse osmosis differs from filtration in that the mechanism of fluid flow is by osmosis across a membrane. The predominant removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or size exclusion, where the pores are 0.01 micrometers or larger, so the process can theoretically achieve perfect efficiency regardless of parameters such as the solution's pressure and concentration. Reverse osmosis instead involves solvent diffusion across a membrane that is either nonporous or uses nanofiltration with pores 0.001 micrometers in size. The predominant removal mechanism is from differences in solubility or diffusivity, and the process is dependent on pressure, solute concentration, and other conditions. Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other effluent materials from the water molecules.

Stadium Arcadium

Stadium Arcadium is the ninth studio album by American rock band Red Hot Chili Peppers. The album was released on May 9, 2006, on Warner Bros. Records. The album produced five singles: "Dani California", "Tell Me Baby", "Snow (Hey Oh)", "Desecration Smile", and "Hump de Bump" along with the first ever fan made music video for the song, "Charlie". In the U.S., Stadium Arcadium became the band's first number one selling album. According to the band's vocalist Anthony Kiedis, Stadium Arcadium was originally scheduled to be a trilogy of albums each released six months apart, but was eventually condensed into a double album. The album is also the group's last to feature guitarist John Frusciante, who confirmed his departure from the band in 2009.

The album was critically praised for integrating musical styles from several aspects of the band's career. The album gained the band seven Grammy Award nominations in 2007 including an award for Best Rock Album and one for Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package. Winning 5 out of 7 Grammy Awards, it was the most nominations that the band had garnered in their 24-year career. Kiedis attributed the album's success to less abrasive dynamics within the band, saying that the band's "chemistry, when it comes to writing, is better than ever. There was always a struggle to dominate lyrically. But we are now confident enough in who we are, so everybody feels more comfortable contributing more and more valuable, quality stuff".

Trifluoperazine

Trifluoperazine, sold under a number of brand names, is a typical antipsychotic primarily used to treat schizophrenia. It may also be used short term in those with generalized anxiety disorder but is less preferred to benzodiazepines. It is of the phenothiazine chemical class.

Triuranium octoxide

Triuranium octoxide (U3O8) is a compound of uranium. It is present as an olive green to black, odorless solid. It is one of the more popular forms of yellowcake and is shipped between mills and refineries in this form.

U3O8 has potential long-term stability in a geologic environment. In the presence of oxygen (O2), uranium dioxide (UO2) is oxidized to U3O8, whereas uranium trioxide (UO3) loses oxygen at temperatures above 500 °C and is reduced to U3O8. The compound can be produced by any one of three primary chemical conversion processes, involving either uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) or uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) as intermediates. It is generally considered to be the more attractive form for disposal purposes because, under normal environmental conditions, U3O8 is one of the most kinetically and thermodynamically stable forms of uranium. Its particle density is 8.3 g cm−3.

Triuranium octoxide is converted to uranium hexafluoride for the purpose of uranium enrichment.

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