Comune

The comune (Italian pronunciation: [koˈmuːne]; plural: comuni [koˈmuːni]) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.

Municipalities of Italy
Administrative divisions of Italy:
- Regions (black borders)
- Comuni (grey borders)

Importance and function

The comune provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, and contracting for local roads and public works.

It is headed by a mayor (sindaco) assisted by a legislative body, the consiglio comunale (communal council), and an executive body, the giunta comunale (communal committee). The mayor and members of the consiglio comunale are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor (who needs an absolute majority in the first or second round of voting) gains three fifths of the consiglio's seats. The giunta comunale is chaired by the mayor, who appoints others members, called assessori, one of whom serves as deputy mayor (vicesindaco). The offices of the comune are housed in a building usually called the municipio, or palazzo comunale.

As of February 2019 there were 7,918 comuni in Italy; they vary considerably in area and population. For example, the comune of Rome, in Lazio, has an area of 1,307.71 km² and a population of 2,761,477 inhabitants, and is both the largest and the most populated; Atrani in the province of Salerno (Campania) was the smallest comune by area, with only 0.12 km², and Moncenisio in the Metropolitan City of Turin (Piedmont) is the smallest by population, with 29 inhabitants.

The density of the comuni varies widely by province and region: the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani, for example, has 391,224 inhabitants in 10 municipalities, or over 39,000 inhabitants per municipality; whereas the province of Isernia has 85,237 inhabitants in 52 municipalities, or 1,640 inhabitants per municipality – roughly twenty-four times more communal units per inhabitant. There are inefficiencies at both ends of the scale, and there is concern about optimizing the size of the comuni so they may best function in the modern world, but planners are hampered by the historical resonances of the comuni, which often reach back many hundreds of years, or even a full millennium.

While provinces and regions are creations of the central government, and subject to fairly frequent border changes, the natural cultural unit is indeed the comune, for many Italians, their hometown.

Many comuni also have a municipal police (polizia municipale), which is responsible for public order duties. Traffic control is their main function in addition to controlling commercial establishments to ensure they open and close according to their license.

Subdivisions

Number of municipalities and population in Italy[1]
Year Number Population Pop/Comune
1861 7,720 22,171,946 2,872
1871 8,383 27,295,509 3,256
1881 8,260 28,951,546 3,505
1901 8,263 32,963,316 3,989
1911 8,324 35,841,563 4,306
1921 9,195 39,396,757 4,285
1931 7,311 41,043,489 5,614
1936 7,339 42,398,489 5,777
1951 7,810 47,515,537 6,084
1961 8,035 50,623,569 6,300
1971 8,056 54,136,547 6,720
1981 8,086 56,556,911 6,994
1991 8,100 56,885,336 7,023
2001 8,101 56,995,744 7,036
2011 8,092 59,433,744 7,345
2019 7,918 60,483,973 7,639
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
1861
1871
1881
1901
1911
1921
1931
1941
1951
1961
1971
1981
1991
2001
2011
2018
Number of municipalities (comuni) in Italy at each census from 1861–2016.

Administrative areas inside comuni varies according to their population.

Comuni with at least 250000 residents are divided into circoscrizioni (circonscriptions, roughly equivalent to French arrondissements or London boroughs) to which the comune delegates administrative functions like schools, social services and waste collection; such functions varies from comune to comune. These bodies are headed by an elected president and a local council.

Smaller comuni usually comprises:

  • A main city, town or village, that almost always gives its name to the comune; such a place is referred to as the capoluogo ("head-place" or "capital"; cf. the French chef-lieu) of the comune; the word comune is also used in casual speech to refer to the city hall.
  • Outlying areas called frazioni (singular: frazione, abbreviated: fraz., literally "fraction"), each usually centred on a small town or village. These frazioni have usually never had any independent historical existence, but occasionally are former smaller comuni consolidated into a larger one. They may also represent settlements which predated the capoluogo: the ancient town of Pollentia (today Pollenzo), for instance, is a frazione of Bra. In recent years the frazioni have become more important thanks to the institution of the consiglio di frazione (fraction council), a local form of government which can interact with the comune to address local needs, requests and claims. Even smaller places are called località ("localities", abbreviated: loc.).
  • Smaller administrative divisions called municipalità, rioni, quartieri, terzieri, sestieri or contrade, which are similar to districts and neighbourhoods.

Sometimes a frazione might be more populated than the capoluogo; and rarely, owing to unusual circumstances (like depopulation), the town hall and its administrative functions can be moved to one of the frazioni: but the comune still retains the name of the capoluogo.

In some cases, a comune might not have a capoluogo but only some frazioni. In these cases, it is a comune sparso ("sparse comune") and the frazione which houses the town hall (municipio) is a sede municipale (compare county seat).

Homonymy

There are not many perfect homonymous Italian municipalities. There are only six cases in 12 comuni:[2]

This is mostly due to the fact the name of the province or region was appended to the name of the municipality in order to avoid the confusion. Remarkably two provincial capitals share the name Reggio: Reggio nell'Emilia, the capital of the province of Reggio Emilia, in the Emilia-Romagna, and Reggio di Calabria, the capital of the homonymous metropolitan city. Many other towns or villages are likewise partial homonyms (e.g. Anzola dell'Emilia and Anzola d'Ossola, or Bagnara Calabra and Bagnara di Romagna).

See also

International

References

  1. ^ "Comuni dal 1861". www.comuniverso.it. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  2. ^ (in Italian) Complete list and infos on Comuni-italiani.it

External links

.it

.it is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Italy.

Because it is also the English word it, and many words end with -it, this can commonly used in the construction of domain hacks, such as play.it(now owned by CBS Radio), write.it, make.it or rabb.it.

There are a number of reserved second-level domain names, for example, domain names like Italy.it, or other names that are referring to geographical regions of Italy.

.gov.it – The official governmental domain.

.edu.it – The official domain for public schools. It was introduced in June 2018.

Domains in the form comune..it and comune...it are reserved to Italian municipalities. The former variant is normally used by the province capital towns, the latter by smaller towns. If there are blank spaces in the town name, they can either be omitted or replaced by a hyphen sign.

Domains in the form provincia..it are reserved to Italian provinces.

Domains in the form regione..it are reserved to Italian regions.Reserved domains are not limited to the provided examples: any domain name which appears to be linked to an administrative geographical subdivision is reserved. E.g. the town of Tuoro sul Trasimeno have the following domains reserved:

Tuoro.Perugia.it,

Tuoro.PG.it,

TuorosulTrasimeno.Perugia.it,

Tuoro-sul-Trasimeno.Perugia.it,

TuorosulTrasimeno.PG.it,

Tuoro-sul-Trasimeno.PG.it,

TuoroTrasimeno.Perugia.it,

Tuoro-Trasimeno.Perugia.it,

TuoroTrasimeno.PG.it,

Tuoro-Trasimeno.PG.it.

However, only comune.Tuoro-sul-Trasimeno.PG.it is actually registered as the official town hall web site. Furthermore, and even if it is not explicitly listed, it is not possible to privately register a domain such as comune-di-tuoro-sul-trasimeno.it.

Balangero

Balangero is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Turin.

Balangero borders the following municipalities: Corio, Coassolo Torinese, Mathi, Lanzo Torinese, and Cafasse.

Bergamo

Bergamo (US: , Italian: [ˈbɛrɡamo] (listen); Eastern Lombard: Bèrghem [ˈbɛrɡɛm] (listen); Latin: Bergŏmum) is a city in the alpine Lombardy region of northern Italy, approximately 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Milan, and about 30 km (19 mi) from Switzerland, the alpine lakes Como and Iseo and 70 km (43 mi) from Garda and Maggiore. The Bergamo Alps (Alpi Orobie) begin immediately north of the city.

With a population of around 120,000, Bergamo is the fourth-largest city in Lombardy. Bergamo is the seat of the Province of Bergamo.

The metropolitan area of Bergamo extends beyond the administrative city limits, spanning over a densely urbanized area with slightly less than 500,000 inhabitants. The Bergamo metropolitan area is itself part of the broader Milan metropolitan area, home to over 8 million people.The city of Bergamo is composed of an old walled core, known as Città Alta ("Upper Town"), nestled within a system of hills constituting a regional park, and the modern expansion in the plains below. The upper town is encircled by massive Venetian defensive systems that are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 9 July 2017.Bergamo is well connected to several cities in Italy, thanks to the motorway A4 stretching on the axis between Turin, Milan, Verona, Venice and Trieste. The city is served by Il Caravaggio International Airport, the third-busiest airport in Italy with 12.3 million passengers in 2017. Bergamo is the second most visited city in Lombardy after Milan.

Burolo

Burolo is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Turin.

Burolo borders the following municipalities: Chiaverano, Torrazzo, Bollengo, Ivrea, and Cascinette d'Ivrea.

Campiglione-Fenile

Campiglione Fenile is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Turin.

Campiglione-Fenile borders the following municipalities: Bricherasio, Cavour, and Bibiana. The comune was formed in 1928 by merging the two previous comuni of Campiglione and Fenile.

Cavour, Piedmont

Cavour (Italian pronunciation: [kaˈvur]; from the Piedmontese toponym, Cavor [kaˈʋʊr]; Latin: Caburrum) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Turin.

Cavour borders the following municipalities: Macello, Vigone, Bricherasio, Garzigliana, Villafranca Piemonte, Campiglione-Fenile, Bibiana, Bagnolo Piemonte, Barge.

Cesana Torinese

Cesana Torinese (French Césanne) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 70 kilometres (43 mi) west of Turin, on the border with France.

Cesanese Comune

Cesanese Comune (more commonly known as just Cesanese) is a red Italian wine grape variety that is grown primarily in the Lazio region. The grape has three Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) regions dedicated to it-Cesanese di Affile DOC, Cesanese di Olevano DOC and Cesanese di Piglio DOC. Cesanese di Affile appears to be a distinct sub-variety of Cesanese Comune unique to the commune of Affile. (much like Brunello is a unique clone of Sangiovese unique to commune of Montalcino) There are noticeable differences between Cesanese Comune and the grapes found in Cesanese di Affile, including the size of the grape berry itself. The sub-variety Cesanese d'Affile is considered to be of superior quality of Cesanese Comune and is used as minor ingredient in the Tuscan cult wine Trinoro. The grape has very old origins, and may have been used in Roman winemaking. Today it is rarely seen outside of the Lazio.

Dello, Lombardy

Dello (Brescian: Dèl) is a comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy.

Frazione

"Frazione" (Italian pronunciation: [fratˈtsjoːne]; pl. frazioni [fratˈtsjoːni]) is the Italian name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other administrative divisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. It is cognate to the English word fraction, but in practice is roughly equivalent to "parishes" or "wards" in other countries.

Girò

Girò is a red Italian wine grape variety that is grown on Sardinia and used mostly in the production of fortified wines in the Giro di Cagliari Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC). The grape was once widely planted throughout Sardinia but its plantings were decimated when the phylloxera epidemic hit the island at the end of the nineteenth century. At the turn of the 21st century there were 552 hectares (1,364 acres) of the grape planted throughout Italy, mostly in the Sardinian provinces of Cagliari and Oristano.

Italy. Common Good

Italy. Common Good (Italian: Italia. Bene Comune, IBC) was a centre-left political and electoral alliance in Italy created to stand at the 2013 Italian general election.

Leinì

Leinì (officially Leini) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 13 kilometres (8 mi) north of Turin.

Moncenisio, Piedmont

Moncenisio is the smallest comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont, located about 60 km west of Turin, on the border with France, in Val Cenischia.

Moncenisio borders the following municipalities: Val-Cenis (France), Novalesa, and Venaus.

Pancalieri

Pancalieri is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, about 30 km southwest of Turin.

Pancalieri borders the following municipalities: Osasio, Virle Piemonte, Vigone, Lombriasco, Casalgrasso, Villafranca Piemonte, Faule, and Polonghera.

Pozzuolo del Friuli

Pozzuolo del Friuli (Friulian: Puçui) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of Trieste and about 10 kilometres (6 mi) southwest of Udine.

It borders to the north-east with the Comune of Basiliano, to the north with the Comune of Udine and Campoformido, and to the east with the comune of Pavia di Udine, and to the south with the comune of Mortegliano, and to the west with the comune of Lestizza. It is crossed by the Cormor torrent, and is located in the central part of the Friulian Plain. Under its administration are also the villages of Cargnacco, Carpeneto, Sammardenchia, Terenzano and Zugliano.

Rome

Rome (Latin and Italian: Roma [ˈroːma] (listen)) is the capital city and a special comune of Italy (named Comune di Roma Capitale). Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City (the smallest country in the world) is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans, and Sabines. Eventually, the city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and is regarded by some as the first ever metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City (Latin: Urbs Aeterna; Italian: La Città Eterna) by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was also taken up by Ovid, Virgil, and Livy. Rome is also called the "Caput Mundi" (Capital of the World). After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome slowly fell under the political control of the Papacy, and in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all the popes since Nicholas V (1447–1455) pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and then the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, sculptors and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic.

Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in the world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The city also hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p.A., and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL. Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, and financial services. Rome is also an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies.

Savona

Savona (Italian: [saˈvoːna] (listen); local Ligurian: Sann-a [ˈsaŋˑa], Genoese: Savonn-a) is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea.

Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, and a brass foundry.

One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys. 'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus.

Tavernole sul Mella

Tavernole sul Mella (Brescian: Taèrnole) is a comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. It is located on the river Mella, in the upper Trompia valley. The main sight is the medieval church of San Filiastro, housing 15th-century paintings.

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