Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666. It is the proceedings of the French Academy of Sciences. It is currently split into seven sections, published on behalf of the Academy by Elsevier: Mathématique, Mécanique, Physique, Géoscience, Palévol, Chimie, and Biologies.
|Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences|
|Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci.|
|C. R. Math. Acad. Sci. Paris|
|C R Acad Sci|
The journal has had a complicated naming history, with several name changes and splits over the years.
Comptes rendus was initially established in 1835 as Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des Sciences. It began as an alternative publication pathway for more prompt publication than the Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences, which had been published since 1666. The Mémoires, which continued to be published alongside the Comptes rendus throughout the nineteenth century, had a publication cycle which resulted in memoirs being published years after they had been presented to the Academy. Some academicians continued to prefer publishing in the Mémoires because of the strict page limits in the Comptes rendus.
After 1965 this title was split into five sections:
Series A and B were published together in one volume except in 1974.
The subject areas of the series were rearranged as follows:
The physical and chemical sciences series were reshuffled between 1989 and 2000, creating considerable confusion. Series IIB united the physical and chemical sciences (as Mécanique, Physique, Astrophysique et Chimie) until the July 1989 issue, with which chemistry was separated in Series IIC. Series IV was created in March, 2000, but for two more months, Series IIB was published as Mécanique, Physique et Astrophysique. From May 2000 on, Series IIB was renamed Mécanique and limited to (applied) mechanics, as opposed to Series IV. Series IIC and IV started with issue number 1, the others continued their issue numbers (which by then had reached the 320s).
The present naming and subject assignment was established from 2002 on:
The year 1878 in science and technology involved many significant events, listed below.Algebraic cobordism
In mathematics, algebraic cobordism is an analogue of complex cobordism for smooth quasi-projective schemes over a field. It was introduced by Marc Levine and Fabien Morel (2001, 2001b).
An oriented cohomology theory on the category of smooth quasi-projective schemes Sm over a field k consists of a contravariant functor A* from Sm to commutative graded rings, together with push-forward maps f* whenever f:Y→X has relative dimension d for some d. These maps have to satisfy various conditions similar to those satisfied by complex cobordism. In particular they are "oriented", which means roughly that they behave well on vector bundles; this is closely related to the condition that a generalized cohomology theory has a complex orientation.
Over a field of characteristic 0, algebraic cobordism is the universal oriented cohomology theory for smooth varieties. In other words there is a unique morphism of oriented cohomology theories from algebraic cobordism to any other oriented cohomology theory.
Levine (2002) and Levine & Morel (2007) give surveys of algebraic cobordism.
The algebraic cobordism ring of generalized flag varieties has been computed by Hornbostel & Kiritchenko (2011).Analytic set
In descriptive set theory, a subset of a Polish space is an analytic set if it is a continuous image of a Polish space. These sets were first defined by Luzin (1917) and his student Souslin (1917).Auguste Trécul
Auguste Adolphe Lucien Trécul (8 January 1818 in Mondoubleau – 17 October 1896 in Paris) was a French botanist.
He studied pharmacy in Paris, and in 1841 became an interne to hospitals. His interests later changed to botany, and in 1848–50, on behalf of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle and the Ministry of Agriculture, he conducted scientific research in North America. In 1866 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences (botany section), and during the following year, was awarded the Légion d'Honneur.His main research dealt with plant anatomy, physiology and organogenesis. He published important papers on the structure of different members within the botanical family Nymphaeaceae, and was the author of a significant monograph on Artocarpeae. Many of his scientific articles were published in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles (from 1843 onward) and the Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. In his studies of fermentation, he differed with the conclusions reached by Louis Pasteur. The plant genus Treculia (family Moraceae) was named in his honor by Joseph Decaisne.Comptes Rendus (disambiguation)
Comptes Rendus (proceedings) may refer to several academic journals or conference proceedings
Comptes rendus de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France
Comptes rendus de l'Académie bulgare des sciences
Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, is an academic journal of history, philology, and archeology published by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences de Paris, a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666 by the Académie des Sciences. Several subsections exist.
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences de Roumanie
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences de l'URSS, the French version of the Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences
Comptes rendus des travaux du Laboratoire Carlsberg
Comptes rendus de la Société de biologie, also known as Comptes rendus et mémoires de la Société de biologie and Comptes rendus de la Société de biologie et des ses filiales
Comptes rendus des séances de la Société entomologique de Belgique
Comptes rendus de la Societé française de gynécologie
Comptes rendus des séances de la Société des sciences et des lettres de VarsovieIt may also refer to
Compte rendu, a document published in February 1781 presenting the state of France's financesDenjoy–Riesz theorem
In topology, the Denjoy–Riesz theorem describes a class of sets of points in the Euclidean plane that can be covered by a continuous image of the unit interval, without self-intersections (a Jordan arc). A topological space is zero-dimensional according to the Lebesgue covering dimension if every finite open cover has a refinement that is also an open cover by disjoint sets. A topological space is totally disconnected if it has no nontrivial connected subsets; for points in the plane, being totally disconnected is equivalent to being zero-dimensional. The Denjoy–Riesz theorem states that every compact totally disconnected subset of the plane is a subset of a Jordan arc.Kuratowski (1968) credits the result to publications by Frigyes Riesz in 1906, and Arnaud Denjoy in 1910, both in Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. As Moore & Kline (1919) describe, Riesz actually gave an incorrect argument that every totally disconnected set in the plane is a subset of a Jordan arc. This generalized a previous result of L. Zoretti, which used a more general class of sets than Jordan arcs, but Zoretti found a flaw in Riesz's proof: it incorrectly presumed that one-dimensional projections of totally disconnected sets remained totally disconnected. Then, Denjoy (citing neither Zoretti nor Riesz) claimed a proof of Riesz's theorem, with little detail. Moore and Kline state and prove a generalization that completely characterizes the subsets of the plane that can be subsets of Jordan arcs, and that includes the Denjoy–Riesz theorem as a special case.
By applying this theorem to a two-dimensional version of the Smith–Volterra–Cantor set, it is possible to find an Osgood curve, a Jordan arc or closed Jordan curve whose Lebesgue measure is positive.A related result is the analyst's traveling salesman theorem, describing the point sets that form subsets of curves of finite arc length. Not every compact totally disconnected set has this property, because some compact totally disconnected sets require any arc that covers them to have infinite length.François Proth
François Proth (1852 – 1879) was a French self-taught mathematician farmer who lived in Vaux-devant-Damloup near Verdun, France.He stated four primality-related theorems. The most famous of these, Proth's theorem, can be used to test whether a Proth number (a number of the form k2n + 1 with k odd and k < 2n) is prime. The numbers passing this test are called Proth primes; they continue to be of importance in the computational search for large prime numbers.Proth also formulated Gilbreath's conjecture on successive differences of primes, 80 years prior to Gilbreath, but his proof of the conjecture turned out to be erroneous.The cause of Proth's death is not known.Holmium(III) oxide
Holmium(III) oxide, or holmium oxide is a chemical compound of a rare-earth element holmium and oxygen with the formula Ho2O3. Together with dysprosium(III) oxide (Dy2O3) holmium oxide is one of the most powerfully paramagnetic substances known. The oxide, also called holmia, occurs as a component of the related erbium oxide mineral called erbia. Typically the oxides of the trivalent lanthanides coexist in nature and separation of these components requires specialized methods. Holmium oxide is used in making specialty colored glasses. Glass containing holmium oxide and holmium oxide solutions have a series of sharp optical absorption peaks in the visible spectral range. They are therefore traditionally used as a convenient calibration standard for optical spectrophotometers.Jacques-Louis Soret
Jacques-Louis Soret (30 June 1827 – 13 May 1890) was a Swiss chemist who in 1878, along with Marc Delafontaine, first observed holmium spectroscopically. Independently, Per Teodor Cleve separated it chemically from thulium and erbium in 1879. The three are given credit for the element's discovery.
Soret was also responsible for correctly working out the chemical composition of ozone as being three oxygen atoms bound together.The Soret peak, a strong absorption band of hemoglobin is also named after him.His son was Charles Soret, a recognized physicist and chemist in his own right.Janssen Medal (French Academy of Sciences)
The Janssen Medal is an astrophysics award presented by the French Academy of Sciences to those who have made advances in this area of science.The award was founded in 1886, though the first medal was not awarded until a year later. The commission formed to decide on the first recipient of the medal selected the German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff for his work on the science of spectroscopy. However, Kirchhoff died aged 63 on 17 October 1887, a few months before the award would have been announced. Rather than chose a new recipient for the award, the commission announced at the Academy's session of 26 December 1887 that the inaugural medal would be placed on his grave, in "supreme honour of the memory of this great scholar of Heidelberg".The award had been intended to be biennial, but was awarded in 1888 and again in 1889. A statement in the 1889 volume of Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences clarified that the award would be presented annually for the first seven years, and then biennially from 1894 onwards.This award is distinct from the Prix Jules Janssen (created in 1897), an annual award presented by the French Astronomical Society. Both awards are named for the French astronomer Pierre Janssen (1824–1907) (better known as Jules Janssen). Janssen founded the Academy award, and was a member of the inaugural commission.Jean-Pierre Petit
Jean-Pierre Petit (born 5 April 1937, Choisy-le-Roi) is a French scientist, senior researcher at National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) as an astrophysicist in Marseille Observatory, now retired. His main working fields are fluid mechanics, kinetic theory of gases, plasma physics applied in magnetohydrodynamics power generation and propulsion as well as topology and astrophysics applied in cosmology. He is a pioneer in magnetohydrodynamics and has worked out the principle and techniques of parietal MHD converter. In cosmology, he works on the Janus cosmological model, a bimetric theory of gravity published through peer review, presented in international conferences, and popularized through science comics, as well as course videos.Jean-Pierre Petit is the founder of the "LAMBDA" laboratory (Laboratory for Applications of MHD in Bitemperature Discharges to Aerodynamics) and he co-founded the "Ufo-Science" non-profit organization dedicated to the study of the unidentified atmospheric phenomena or potential unidentified flying objects. He argues that a thorough scientific study of UFO phenomena (including cameras equipped with diffraction gratings) could potentially advance our scientific knowledge.
Jean-Pierre Petit also demonstrates a sustained interest in a wide variety of subjects not directly related to his work in cosmology, astrophysics and physics.
In particular, on the UFO question, on the events of September 11, 2001, the UMMO case, the construction of pyramids, Aurora-type military technologies and French domestic policy issues.Michel Laurin
Michel Laurin is a vertebrate paleontologist whose specialties include the emergence of a land-based lifestyle among vertebrates, the evolution of body size, and the origin and phylogeny of lissamphibians. He has also made important contributions to the literature on phylogenetic nomenclature. As an undergraduate he worked in the laboratory of Robert L. Carroll and earned his Ph.D. at the University of Toronto under the direction of Robert R. Reisz; his thesis concerned the osteology of seymouriamorphs. His 1991 review of diapsid phylogeny provided the broadest review of the subject up to that date. In 1995, Laurin and Reisz coauthored a widely cited article providing evidence that the synapsids are the sister group of all other amniotes. He later worked on untangling the phylogeny of the Stegocephalia, a group with a notoriously difficult phylogeny. He later moved to France; since 1998, he has been a CNRS researcher at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.He is an editor-in-chief of Comptes Rendus Palevol, a journal in the Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences family, as well as being a reviewing editor for the Journal of Evolutionary Biology. He has been a key contributor to the International Society for Phylogenetic Nomenclature, where he served as president 2008–2009 and as secretary 2010–2011.Philippe Janvier
Philippe Janvier is a French paleontologist, specialising in Palaeozoic vertebrates, who currently works at the Museum National de l’Histoire Naturelle in Paris. He has written several books and scientific papers on Palaeozoic vertebrates and contributed to the Tree of Life phylogeny project. He has led the largest paleontology research group in France (currently called the CR2P), located in Paris. Janvier received the award of the Grand prix scientifique de la Fondation Simone et Cino del Duca (Institut de France) on June 11, 2008 for his work. He was a founding member of the Société Française de Systématique. He is currently Associate Editor of the Comptes Rendus Palevol (one of the series of the Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences) for paleoichthyology.Photovoltaic effect
The photovoltaic effect is the creation of voltage and electric current in a material upon exposure to light and is a physical and chemical phenomenon.The photovoltaic effect is closely related to the photoelectric effect. In either case, light is absorbed, causing excitation of an electron or other charge carrier to a higher-energy state. The main distinction is that the term photoelectric effect is now usually used when the electron is ejected out of the material (usually into a vacuum) and photovoltaic effect used when the excited charge carrier is still contained within the material. In either case, an electric potential (or voltage) is produced by the separation of charges, and the light has to have a sufficient energy to overcome the potential barrier for excitation. The physical essence of the difference is usually that photoelectric emission separates the charges by ballistic conduction and photovoltaic emission separates them by diffusion, but some "hot carrier" photovoltaic device concepts blur this distinction.
The first solar cell, consisting of a layer of selenium covered with a thin film of gold, was experimented by Charles Fritts in 1884, but it had a very poor efficiency. A demonstration of the photovoltaic effect in 1839 used an electrochemical cell, but the most familiar form of the photovoltaic effect in modern times though is in solid-state devices, mainly in photodiodes. When sunlight or other sufficiently energetic light is incident upon the photodiode, the electrons present in the valence band absorb energy and, being excited, jump to the conduction band and become free. These excited electrons diffuse, and some reach the rectifying junction (usually a p-n junction) where they are accelerated into a different material by a built-in potential (Galvani potential). This generates an electromotive force, and thus some of the light energy is converted into electric energy. The photovoltaic effect can also occur when two photons are absorbed simultaneously in a process called two-photon photovoltaic effect...
The photovoltaic effect was first observed by French physicist A. E. Becquerel in 1839. He explained his discovery in Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, "the production of an electric current when two plates of platinum or gold immersed in an acid, neutral, or alkaline solution are exposed in an uneven way to solar radiation."Besides the direct excitation of free electrons, a photovoltaic effect can also arise simply due to the heating caused by absorption of the light. The heating leads to an increase in temperature, which is accompanied by temperature gradients. These thermal gradients in turn may generate a voltage through the Seebeck effect. Whether direct excitation or thermal effects dominate the photovoltaic effect will depend on many material parameters.
In most photovoltaic applications the radiation is sunlight, and the devices are called solar cells. In the case of a p-n junction solar cell, illuminating the material creates an electric current as excited electrons and the remaining holes are swept in different directions by the built-in electric field of the depletion region.Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences
The Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian: Доклады Академии Наук СССР, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (DAN SSSR), French: Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS) was a Soviet journal that was dedicated to publishing original, academic research papers in physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, and biology. It was first published in 1933 and ended in 1992 with volume 322, issue 3.
Today, it is continued by Doklady Akademii Nauk (Russian: Доклады Академии Наук), which began publication in 1992. The journal is also known as the Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS).
Doklady has had a complicated publication and translation history. A number of translation journals exist which publish selected articles from the original by subject section; these are listed below.Romanian Academy of Sciences
The Romanian Academy of Sciences was an institution established in Romania by a group of 26 scientists, dissatisfied with the imperfect organization of the Scientific Section of the Romanian Academy, which was left in the background, with only 12 seats to represent all sciences.Tarski's theorem about choice
In mathematics, Tarski's theorem, proved by Alfred Tarski (1924), states that in ZF the theorem "For every infinite set , there is a bijective map between the sets and " implies the axiom of choice. The opposite direction was already known, thus the theorem and axiom of choice are equivalent.
Tarski told Jan Mycielski (2006) that when he tried to publish the theorem in Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, Fréchet and Lebesgue refused to present it. Fréchet wrote that an implication between two well known propositions is not a new result. Lebesgue wrote that an implication between two false propositions is of no interest.Édouard-Alfred Martel
Édouard-Alfred Martel (1 July 1859, Pontoise, Val-d'Oise – 3 June 1938, Montbrison), the 'father of modern speleology', was a world pioneer of cave exploration, study, and documentation. Martel explored thousands of caves in his native France and many other countries, popularised the pursuit of cave exploration, introduced the concept of speleology as a distinct area of scientific study, maintained an extensive archive, and in 1895 founded Société de Spéléologie, the first organisation devoted to cave science in the world.