Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010

Sponsors: Rep. Howard Berman (H.R. 2194) and Senator Chris Dodd (S. 2799). Senator Evan Bayh sponsored the related (S. 908).

Howard Berman official photo
Christopher Dodd official portrait 2-cropped

The Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 (Pub.L. 111–195, 124 Stat. 1312, enacted July 1, 2010; CISADA) is a law passed by the U.S. Congress that applies further sanctions on the government of Iran.

CISADA extended U.S. economic sanctions placed on Iran under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and punishes companies and individuals who aid Iran's petroleum sector. This increased pressure is part of the larger campaign over the Iranian nuclear program, and aims to target Iranian dependence on imports for its gasoline needs.[1] The act was passed by the House (408–8) and Senate (99–0) on June 24, 2010[2] and signed into law by President Obama on July 1, 2010.[3]

Background

While Iran is the fourth largest oil exporter in the world and second in OPEC, it currently does not have the capacity to refine enough oil to meet its own demand, and thus imports a reported 40% of its gasoline and another 11% of its diesel fuel.[4] According to an American Israel Public Affairs Committee brief from May 2009, nearly 80% of Iranian gasoline imports come from Vitol and Trafigura, while other companies that sell or have recently sold gasoline to Iran include Reliance Industries, Glencore, Total, BP, Shell,[5][6] Petronas, CNPC, Zhenhua, and Litasco.[7] Besides those companies selling gasoline directly to Iran, IRPSA would target a number of other companies involved in the sector, including those aiding the Iranian refining industry, insurers, and shipping companies.

Despite the reliance on foreign suppliers, the 2007 Gas Rationing Plan did lead to a decline in imports. The nine existing refineries are managed by the National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company and reportedly had a refining capacity of 1,451,000 bbl/d (230,700 m3/d) as of 2008. Iran is working towards doubling this capacity to 3,000,000 bbl/d (480,000 m3/d) by the year 2012, at which point it may become a net exporter of gasoline.[8] In mid-November 2009, Iranian Oil Minister Masoud Mir-Kazemi said that Iran was preparing, if necessary, to produce an extra 14 million liters of gasoline per day to counter possible sanctions, matched with a 70-day domestic stockpile of gasoline and a future reduction in gasoline subsidies.[9] In September 2010, Iran said it had coped by converting at least two petrochemical plants to gasoline production, though it used a generally inferior process that initially produces benzene.[10]

The idea of reducing Iranian gasoline imports as a means of pressuring Iran was examined during the administration of President George W. Bush but ultimately not taken up. During the 2008 presidential campaign, then candidate Barack Obama brought up the idea in a presidential debate.[11]

Legislative history

A previous iteration of the bill, the Iran Refined Petroleum Sanctions Act of 2009 (IRPSA) was introduced in the United States Senate on April 28, 2009 as S. 908 by Senator Evan Bayh and has since garnered 77 cosponsors. It was then introduced as H.R. 2194 in the United States House of Representatives on April 30 by Representative Howard L. Berman and attracted 343 cosponsors. The move elicited several responses from Iran, with an official from the National Iranian Oil Company declaring that "We can manage ... we have alternatives and we can do something about consumption and also production" and Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki stating, "If they go to decide in such decision, they will see our reaction".[12] The spokesman for the Foreign Ministry also said that "Sanctions and threats will not intimidate us and especially not affect our national will in following our rights".[13]

An August 2009 report in The New York Times stated that the proposal to target Iranian gasoline via companies involved had been discussed between Israeli officials and National Security Advisor James L. Jones as well as with allies in Europe.[11]

According to Rep. Berman, he will move the bill forward in October 2009 barring "some compelling evidence" not do to so; House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer has stated that he would then bring it to the House floor.[14]

In the aftermath of the September 25 revelation that Iran had built a secret uranium enrichment facility near Qom, Berman reiterated his commitment to push IRPSA forward in October[15] and wrote an editorial in The Washington Post describing the sanctions and their purpose.[16]

On October 28, the bill was marked up in the House Foreign Affairs Committee under chairman Howard Berman and then passed by a voice vote.[17] The following day the Senate Banking Committee under chairman Christopher Dodd unanimously approved the Senate version of the bill;[18] in fact, the Senate bill passed was entitled the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2009 (S. 2799), which incorporated IRPSA provisions.[19]

In late November the Obama administration was reported to be preparing new sanctions against Iran, though one official who discussed IRPSA said that "'The problem with congressional measures is you can't turn them on and off as you like. ... We've been having ongoing discussions with the Hill,' to tailor the bills and slow them up."[20] Democratic comments on December 3 indicated that they would bring IRPSA to the floor of the House of Representatives in two weeks time and a push would be made to pass it before Congress leaves at the end of the month for a holiday recess.[21] The bill was finally brought to the House floor on December 15 and was passed with 412 votes in favor, 12 against, and 4 present.[22][23] At the time the Senate's bill was held up in part because of a letter sent by Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg to Senator John Kerry, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, asking him to temporarily delay the bill and outlining several concerns "including the lack of flexibility, inefficient monetary thresholds and penalty levels, and blacklisting that could cause unintended foreign policy consequences".[24][25]

On January 26, the AFP quoted Senate majority leader Harry Reid as saying that the Senate may find time to take up its version of IRPSA in the coming weeks.[26] Just two days later, Reid brought S. 2799 to the floor for a voice vote, and it was passed.[27] Right before passage Senator John McCain wished to add an amendment to target Iranians accused of human rights abuses, but Reid wanted to avoid a situation where other senators began introducing their own additional amendments. After the intervention of Senator Joe Lieberman, McCain relented with the assurance that his amendment would be included in the conference report.[28]

Letters signed by majorities in both Houses of Congress were to be sent to President Obama on April 19 urging him to quickly implement Congressional sanctions against Iran; the Senate–House conference for IRPSA was scheduled for that week.[29] On April 28 the first conference meeting took place.[30] Due to reported progress on the UN Security Council sanctions track and expectations that the EU would make further decisions on Iran in mid-June, conference co-chairs Berman and Dodd announced on May 25 that they did not intend to pass IRPSA until the second half of June.[31] After a new round of UN sanctions was approved on June 9, Berman reaffirmed his intention to bring IRPSA to a vote before the July 4 recess but after an EU meeting on June 16 and 17.[32]

Supporters and opponents

On September 10 the Anti-Defamation League and other Jewish organizations participating in the National Jewish Leadership Advocacy Day on Iran urged the adoption of IRPSA and similar bills.[33] The bill is also supported by United Against Nuclear Iran,[34] the American Israel Public Affairs Committee,[35] the American Jewish Committee,[36] the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, and J Street.[37] Israeli Ambassador Michael Oren released a general statement of support after the passage of H.R. 2194.[38] The Washington Post wrote in an editorial on February 13, 2010 that President Obama should sign IRPSA, stating that although "secondary sanctions are a blunt instrument... the threat of them might be needed to prod the Security Council or an ad-hoc Western alliance into taking steps that will break the Iranian regime's dangerous gathering of momentum."[39]

A report by The Weekly Standard said that several provisions in the Senate bill had received opposition from the Export-Import Bank of the United States, which has made loan guarantees to some foreign companies that conduct business with Iran.[40] Nine business groups (Business Roundtable, Coalition for Employment through Exports, Emergency Committee for American Trade, National Association of Manufacturers, National Foreign Trade Council, Organization for International Investment, USA*Engage, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and U.S. Council for International Business) have come out against the bill in a joint letter to National Security Advisor Jim Jones and NEC Chairman Larry Summers, in which they stated that such "unilateral, extraterritorial, and overly broad" sanctions would be counterproductive in the mission to stop Iran from achieving nuclear weapons.[41]

Provisions

Major provisions of H.R. 2194 as summarized by the Congressional Research Service:[42]

  • Amends the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 to direct the President to impose two or more current sanctions under such Act if a person has, with actual knowledge, made an investment of $20 million or more (or any combination of investments of at least $5 million which in the aggregate equals or exceeds $20 million in any 12-month period) that directly and significantly contributed to Iran's ability to develop its petroleum resources.
  • Directs the President to impose: (1) sanctions established under this Act (in addition to any current sanctions imposed under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996) if a person has, with actual knowledge, sold, leased, or provided to Iran any goods, services, technology, information, or support that would allow Iran to maintain or expand its domestic production of refined petroleum resources, including any assistance in refinery construction, modernization, or repair; and (2) sanctions established under this Act if a person has, with actual knowledge, provided Iran with refined petroleum resources or engaged in any activity that could contribute to Iran's ability to import refined petroleum resources, including providing shipping, insurance, or financing services for such activity.
  • Establishes additional sanctions prohibiting specified foreign exchange, banking, and property transactions.

See also

References

  1. ^ Lake, Eli (2009-04-28). "Senators push for business sanctions". Washington Times. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  2. ^ Cornwell, Susan (2010-06-24). "US Congress OKs sanctions on Iran's energy, banks". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
  3. ^ Remarks by the President at Signing of the Iran Sanctions Act, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, July 1, 2010.
  4. ^ "Iran faces global push towards more sanctions". Financial Times. 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  5. ^ "FAQS – The Iran Refined Petroleum Sanctions Act" (PDF). AIPAC. May 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  6. ^ "Iran Sanctions (Special Series), Part 1: The Nuts and Bolts". Stratfor. 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  7. ^ Swartz, Spencer; Stecklow, Steve (2010-06-17). "Black-Market Gas Shelters Iran". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-06-19.
  8. ^ "Iran Energy Data, Statistics and Analysis". Energy Information Administration. February 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
  9. ^ "Iran unveils new plan to counter fuel sanctions". Tehran Times. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
  10. ^ Iran Sanctions, Kenneth Katzman, November 9, 2010
  11. ^ a b Sanger, David E. (2009-08-02). "U.S. Weighs Iran Sanctions if Talks Are Rejected". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  12. ^ "Iran shrugs off US threats of gas sanctions". Press TV. 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  13. ^ "Iran ramps up rhetoric against sanctions". UPI. 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  14. ^ Fingerhut, Eric (2009-09-10). "Berman: Ready to move ahead on Iran sanctions". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  15. ^ Kampeas, Ron (2009-09-25). "Pelosi, Berman on sanctions after Iran revelations". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
  16. ^ Berman, Howard L. (2009-09-26). "Dealing With Iran's Deception". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
  17. ^ Fingerhut, Eric (2009-10-28). "Iran sanctions clears House committee". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
  18. ^ Saine, Cindy (2009-10-29). "Senate Panel Votes To Expand Sanctions Against Iran". Voice of America. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-29.
  19. ^ "Senators Applaud Unanimous Passage of Iran Sanctions Legislation by Banking Committee". 2009-10-30. Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  20. ^ Calabresi, Massimo (2009-11-30). "Obama Tries to Increase the Pressure on Iran". Time. Retrieved 2009-11-30.
  21. ^ Bresnahan, John (2009-12-03). "House to vote on new Iran sanctions". Politico. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
  22. ^ Rozen, Laura (2009-12-15). "House Iran petroleum sanctions bill passes". Politico. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  23. ^ "U.S. House passes Iran gasoline sanctions bill". Reuters. 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  24. ^ "Exclusive: State Department letter to Kerry outlines "serious substantive concerns" with Iran sanctions bill". The Cable. Foreign Policy. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  25. ^ "Iran sanctions debate moves to the Senate". The Cable. Foreign Policy. 2009-12-16. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  26. ^ "US Senate may act on Iran sanctions in 'weeks'". Agence France-Presse. 2010-01-26. Retrieved 2010-01-27.
  27. ^ Rozen, Laura (2010-01-28). "Senate passes Iran sanctions bill". Politico. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  28. ^ Rogin, Josh (2010-01-29). "Iran sanctions bill benefits from Joe-mentum". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
  29. ^ Johnson, Bridget (2010-04-17). "House Iran sanctions letter going to be sent to Obama on Monday". Blog Briefing Room. The Hill. Retrieved 2010-04-19.
  30. ^ Rozen, Laura (2010-04-27). "Congress to hold first Iran sanctions conference meeting". Politico. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  31. ^ Rozen, Laura (2010-05-25). "Noting progress at UN, Congress slows Iran sanctions bill". Politico. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  32. ^ Rogin, Josh (2010-06-09). "UN vote paves way for completion of Iran sanctions bill". The Cable. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2010-06-10.
  33. ^ "ADL Joins Jewish Leaders in Raising Awareness of Iranian Threat During Daylong Fly-In to Washington, DC (press release)". Anti-Defamation League. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
  34. ^ Harvey Morris (28 February 2010). "US lobbyists push for tough laws on Iran". Financial Times.
  35. ^ "Take Action". AIPAC. Retrieved 2009-12-06.
  36. ^ Mullins, Anne Schroeder (2009-12-09). "Spam-a-Lot". Politico. Retrieved 2009-12-09.
  37. ^ Fingerhut, Eric (2009-12-07). "J Street backs Iran sanctions resolution". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  38. ^ Rozen, Laura (2009-12-15). "Berman: Iran sanctions bill empowers Obama". Politico. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  39. ^ "It's time for U.S. to consider targeting Iran's gas imports". The Washington Post. 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  40. ^ Goldfarb, Michael (2009-12-04). "The Export-Import Bank of the United States Goes to Bat for the Mullahs". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved 2009-12-06.
  41. ^ Rozen, Laura (2010-01-26). "unilateral, extraterritorial, and overly broad". Politico. Retrieved 2010-01-31.
  42. ^ "CRS Summary of H.R.2194". The Library of Congress. 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2009-09-26.

External links

111th United States Congress

The One Hundred Eleventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government from January 3, 2009, until January 3, 2011. It began during the last two weeks of the George W. Bush administration, with the remainder spanning the first two years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The apportionment of seats in the House was based on the 2000 U.S. Census. In the November 4, 2008 elections, the Democratic Party increased its majorities in both chambers, giving President Obama a Democratic majority in the legislature for the first two years of his presidency. A new delegate seat was created for the Northern Mariana Islands. The 111th Congress had the most experienced members in history: at the start of the 111th Congress, the average member of the House had served 10.3 years, while the average Senator had served 13.4 years.

Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II ( (listen); born August 4, 1961) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008.

Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. He received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton. He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

During his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills into law. The main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (often referred to as "Obamacare", shortened as the "Affordable Care Act"), the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi was killed by NATO-assisted forces. He also ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki.

After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was fully legalized in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling significantly improved.Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and currently resides in Washington, D.C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years.

Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration

The foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 2009 to 2017 while Barack Obama was president. The term Obama Doctrine is frequently used to describe the various principles of the administration's foreign policy. Obama's main foreign policy advisors were Secretaries of State Hillary Clinton, and John Kerry. Substantial geopolitical developments that occurred during Obama's presidency include:

The aftermath of the "Great Recession" of 2008 and the ensuing Eurozone Crisis.

The widespread Arab Spring protests.

The growing and controversial role of drone aircraft.

Attempts to negotiate free trade agreements in the Trans-Pacific and Transatlantic areas.

Edward Snowden's revelations of extensive government surveillance.

Russia′s annexation of Crimea in 2014 and intervention in eastern Ukraine.Supporters of Obama's foreign policy applaud cooperation with allies and his efforts to end the Iraq War, the administration's attempts at destroying al-Qaeda's core leadership, the killing of Osama bin Laden; the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, brokering a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalizing U.S. relations with Cuba. Comparatively, the Obama administration's foreign policy received criticism across the political spectrum. Conservatives such as Obama's 2008 Republican challenger John McCain and South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham have accused the President of being timid and ineffectual in wielding American influence. On the other hand, liberals including Jimmy Carter and Dennis Kucinich accused him of cynicism and heavy-handedness. More specifically, some critics charged that he had pursued similarly imperialistic policies to those of his predecessor, George W. Bush, of whom Obama was deeply critical during his tenure in the Senate and his 2008 presidential campaign.

History of the United States Democratic Party

The Democratic Party is the oldest voter-based political party in the world and the oldest existing political party in the United States, tracing its heritage back to the anti-Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party of the 1790s. During the Second Party System (from 1832 to the mid-1850s) under Presidents Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk, the Democrats usually bested the opposition Whig Party by narrow margins. Both parties worked hard to build grassroots organizations and maximize the turnout of voters, which often reached 80 percent or 90 percent of eligible voters (at this time, suffrage was granted only to white males). Both parties used patronage extensively to finance their operations, which included emerging big city political machines as well as national networks of newspapers. The party was a proponent for slave-owners across the country, urban workers and caucasian immigrants.

From 1860 to 1932 in the era of the American Civil War to the Great Depression, the opposing Republican Party, organized in the mid-1850s from the ruins of the Whig Party and some other smaller splinter groups, was dominant in presidential politics. The Democrats elected only two Presidents to four terms of office for twenty-two years, namely Grover Cleveland (in 1884 and 1892) and Woodrow Wilson (in 1912 and 1916).

Over the same period, the Democrats proved more competitive with the Republicans in Congressional politics, enjoying House of Representatives majorities (as in the 65th Congress) in 15 of the 36 Congresses elected, although only in five of these did they form the majority in the Senate. Furthermore, the Democratic Party was split between the Bourbon Democrats, representing Eastern business interests; and the agrarian elements comprising poor farmers in the South and West. The agrarian element, marching behind the slogan of free silver (i.e. in favor of inflation), captured the party in 1896 and nominated William Jennings Bryan in the 1896, 1900 and 1908 presidential elections, although he lost every time. Both Bryan and Wilson were leaders of the progressive movement in the United States (1890s–1920s).

Starting with 32nd President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 during the Great Depression, the party dominated the Fifth Party System, with its progressive liberal policies and programs with the New Deal coalition to combat the emergency bank closings and the continuing financial depression since the famous Wall Street Crash of 1929 and later going into the crises leading up to World War II. The Democrats and the Democratic Party finally lost the White House and control of the executive branch of government only after Roosevelt's death in April 1945 near the end of the war and after the continuing post-war administration of Roosevelt's third Vice President Harry S. Truman, former Senator from Missouri (for 1945 to 1953, elections of 1944 and the "stunner" of 1948). A new Republican Party President was only elected later in the following decade of the early 1950s with the losses by two-time nominee, the Governor of Illinois Adlai Stevenson (grandson of the former Vice President with the same name of the 1890s) to the very popular war hero and commanding general in World War II, General Dwight D. Eisenhower (in 1952 and 1956).

With two brief interruptions since the Great Depression and World War II eras, the Democrats with unusually large majorities for over four decades, controlled the lower house of the Congress in the House of Representatives from 1930 until 1994 and the Senate for most of that same period, electing the Speaker of the House and the Representatives' majority leaders/committee chairs along with the upper house of the Senate's majority leaders and committee chairmen. Important Democratic progressive/liberal leaders included 33rd and 36th Presidents Harry S. Truman of Missouri (1945–1953) and Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas (1963–1969), respectively; and the earlier Kennedy brothers of 35th President John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts (1961–1963), Senators Robert F. Kennedy of New York and Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts who carried the flag for modern American liberalism. Since the presidential election of 1976, Democrats have won five out of the last eleven presidential elections, winning in the presidential elections of 1976 (with 39th President Jimmy Carter of Georgia, 1977–1981), 1992 and 1996 (with 42nd President Bill Clinton of Arkansas, 1993–2001) and 2008 and 2012 (with 44th President Barack Obama of Illinois, 2009–2017). Democrats have also won the popular vote in 2000 and 2016, but lost the Electoral College with Al Gore and Hillary Clinton, respectively. The 1876 and 1888 elections were other two presidential elections in which Democrats won the popular vote, but lost the Electoral College (the Democrats candidates were Samuel J. Tilden and Grover Cleveland). Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. argue that "the Democratic party, nationally, moved from left-center toward the center in the 1940s and 1950s, then moved further toward the right-center in the 1970s and 1980s".

Iran and Libya Sanctions Act

The Iran and Libya Sanctions Act of 1996 (ILSA) was a 1996 act of the United States Congress that imposed economic sanctions on firms doing business with Iran and Libya. On September 20, 2004, the President signed an Executive Order to terminate the national emergency with respect to Libya and to end IEEPA-based economic sanctions on Libya. On September 30, 2006, the Act was renamed the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA). The Act was originally limited to five years, and has been extended several times. On December 1, 2016, ISA was extended for a further ten years.The Act empowers the President to waive sanctions on a case-by-case basis, which is subject to renewal every six months. As at March 2008, ISA sanctions had not been enforced against any non-US company. Despite the restrictions on American investment in Iran, FIPPA provisions apply to all foreign investors, and many Iranian expatriates based in the US continue to make substantial investments in Iran.

Jim Himes

James Andrew Himes (born July 5, 1966) is an American businessman and U.S. Representative for Connecticut's 4th congressional district, serving since 2009. He is a member of the Democratic Party and Chair of the New Democrat Coalition.The district includes most of the southwestern corner of the state and is largely coextensive with the Connecticut side of the New York metropolitan area. It incorporates portions of Fairfield and New Haven counties, including the cities of Bridgeport, Westport and Stamford.

List of United States federal legislation, 2001–present

This is a chronological, but still incomplete, list of United States federal legislation passed by the 107th and subsequent United States Congresses, starting in 2001. For the main article on this subject, see List of United States federal legislation. Additional lists can be found at List of United States federal legislation: Congress of the Confederation, List of United States federal legislation, 1789–1901 and List of United States federal legislation, 1901–2001.

List of acts of the 111th United States Congress

The acts of the 111th United States Congress include all laws enacted and treaties ratified by the 111th United States Congress, which lasted from January 3, 2009 to January 3, 2011. Such acts include public and private laws, which were enacted after being passed by Congress and signed by the President. There were no overridden vetoes.

Mark Wallace

Mark D. Wallace is an American businessman, former diplomat and lawyer who has served in a variety of government, political and private sector posts. He served in several positions during the administration of President George W. Bush, including as the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Representative for UN Management and Reform.

He is currently the CEO of United Against Nuclear Iran (UANI) and the Counter Extremism Project (CEP).

Political positions of the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primary candidates

The Democratic candidates in the 2016 United States presidential election hold a wide variety of stances on issues related to domestic and foreign policy and their political ideological views.

United States embargoes

As of 2014 the federal government of the United States imposes several embargoes and economic sanctions against different countries and activities, the most notable of them aimed against countries which the U.S. government has declared "State Sponsors of Terrorism".

Sanctions imposed by the United States government include:

no arms-related exports

controls over dual-use technology exports

restrictions on economic assistance

financial restrictions:

requiring the United States to oppose loans by the World Bank and other international financial institutions

diplomatic immunity waived to allow families of terrorist victims to file for civil damages in U.S. courts

tax credits for companies and individuals denied for income earned in listed countries

duty-free goods exemption suspended for imports from those countries

authority to prohibit a U.S. citizen from engaging in financial transactions with the government on the list without a license from the U.S. government

prohibition of U.S. Defense Department contracts above $100,000 with companies controlled by countries on the list.

United States sanctions against Iran

The United States applies economic, trade, scientific and military sanctions against Iran. U.S. economic sanctions are administered by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control. Currently, the U.S. sanctions against Iran include an embargo on dealings with the country by the U.S., and a ban on selling aircraft and repair parts to Iranian aviation companies.On 17 May 2018 the European Commission announced its intention to implement the blocking statute of 1996 to declare the US sanctions against Iran null and void in Europe and ban European citizens and companies from complying with them. The Commission also instructed the European Investment Bank to facilitate European companies' investment in Iran.

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