Complete game

In baseball, a complete game (denoted by CG) is the act of a pitcher pitching an entire game without the benefit of a relief pitcher.[1] A pitcher who meets this criterion will be credited with a complete game regardless of the number of innings played - pitchers who throw an entire official game that is shortened by rain will still be credited with a complete game, while starting pitchers who are relieved in extra innings after throwing nine or more innings will not be credited with a complete game. A starting pitcher who is replaced by a pinch hitter in the final half inning of a game will still be credited with a complete game.

The frequency of complete games has evolved since the early days of baseball. The complete game was essentially an expectation in the early 20th century and pitchers completed almost all of the games they started. In modern baseball, the feat is much more rare and no pitcher has reached 30 complete games in a season since 1975; in the 21st century, a pitcher has thrown 10 or more complete games in a season only twice.

Cy Young 1 MLB HOF
Cy Young, the all-time MLB complete games leader.

Historical trend

Historical MLB complete game trend
Year Games started Complete games Complete game % Ref
1904 2,496 2,186 87.6 [2]
1914 3,758 2,067 55.0 [2]
1924 2,462 1,198 48.7 [2]
1934 2,446 1,061 43.4 [2]
1944 2,484 1,123 45.2 [2]
1954 2,472 840 34.0 [2]
1964 3,252 797 24.5 [2]
1974 3,890 1,089 28.0 [2]
1984 4,210 632 15.0 [2]
1994 3,200 255 8.0 [2]
2004 4,854 150 3.1 [2]
2014 4,860 118 2.4 [3]

In the early 20th century, it was common for most good Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers to pitch a complete game almost every start, barring injury or ejection. Pitchers were expected to complete games they started. Over the course of the 20th century, complete games became less common, to the point where a good modern pitcher typically achieves only 1 or 2 complete games per season. (In the 2012 MLB season, 2.6% of starts were complete games.)[4] To put this in perspective, as recently as the 1980s, 10–15 complete games a year by a star pitcher was not unheard of, and in 1980, Oakland Athletics pitcher Rick Langford threw 22 consecutive complete games.[5] Years earlier, Robin Roberts of the Philadelphia Phillies threw 28 consecutive complete games, spanning the 1952 and 1953 seasons.

This change has been brought about by strict adherence to pitch counts as a basis for removing a pitcher, even though he may appear to be pitching well, and new pitching philosophies in general. Many have come to believe that the risk of arm injuries becomes far more prevalent after a pitcher has thrown 100 to 120 pitches in a single game.[6] Though Hall-of-Famer Nolan Ryan once threw well over 200 pitches in a single game (a 1974 contest in which he pitched 13 innings),[7] it is now rare for a manager to allow a pitcher to throw more than 120 pitches in a start. Former pitcher Carl Erskine noted the increase in ex-pitchers on coaching staffs since the 1950s, whom he considered better evaluators of a pitchers' ability to pitch late into games. [8] Given this, sabermetricians generally regard Cy Young's total of 749 complete games as the career baseball record that will never be broken. Further supporting the belief is that only three pitchers (Young, Ryan, and Don Sutton) even made at least 749 starts in their careers.[9]

James Shields threw 11 complete games in the 2011 season for the Tampa Bay Rays, becoming the first pitcher to reach double digits in a single season since CC Sabathia threw 10 complete games for the Cleveland Indians and Milwaukee Brewers in 2008. The last pitcher to throw as many as 15 complete games in a single season was Curt Schilling, who accomplished that feat for the Philadelphia Phillies in 1998. The last pitcher to throw 20 complete games in a single season was Fernando Valenzuela, who did so for the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1986. The last pitcher to throw 25 complete games in a season was Rick Langford, who had 28 for the Oakland Athletics in 1980. The last pitcher to throw 30 complete games in a season was Catfish Hunter, who did so for the New York Yankees in 1975.

Career leaders

  1. Cy Young – 749
  2. Pud Galvin – 646
  3. Tim Keefe – 554
  4. Walter Johnson – 531
  5. Kid Nichols – 531
  6. Bobby Mathews – 525
  7. Mickey Welch – 525
  8. Charley Radbourn – 489
  9. John Clarkson – 485
  10. Tony Mullane – 468
  11. Jim McCormick – 466
  12. Gus Weyhing – 448
  13. Grover Cleveland Alexander – 437
  14. Christy Mathewson – 434
  15. Jack Powell – 422
  16. Eddie Plank – 410
  17. Will White – 394
  18. Amos Rusie – 392
  19. Vic Willis – 388
  20. Tommy Bond – 386

All pitchers above are right-handed, except for Eddie Plank. All also played most or all of their careers before the start of the modern live-ball era of baseball, which began during the 1920 season and was fully established in 1921. Among pitchers whose entire careers were in the live-ball era, the all-time leader in complete games is Warren Spahn, whose total of 382 places him 21st all-time.

Active career leaders

Through August 27, 2018, the top 10 active players who lead MLB in career complete games were:[10]

Rank Name Complete games
1 CC Sabathia 38
Bartolo Colón 38
3 Félix Hernández 25
Clayton Kershaw 25
5 Justin Verlander 24
6 James Shields 23
7 Adam Wainwright 22
8 Ervin Santana 21
9 Johnny Cueto 17
Cole Hamels 17
Corey Kluber 17
David Price 17

Single-season leaders

  1. Will White – 75 (1879)
  2. Charley Radbourn – 73 (1884)
  3. (tie) Pud Galvin – 72 (1883)
  4. (tie) Guy Hecker – 72 (1884)
  5. (tie) Jim McCormick – 72 (1880)
  6. Pud Galvin – 71 (1884)
  7. (tie) John Clarkson –68 (1885)
  8. (tie) John Clarkson – 68 (1889)
  9. (tie) Tim Keefe – 68 (1883)
  10. Bill Hutchinson – 67 (1892)
  11. (tie) Jim Devlin – 66 (1876)
  12. (tie) Matt Kilroy – 66 (1886)
  13. (tie) Matt Kilroy –66 (1887)
  14. (tie) Charley Radbourn – 66 (1883)
  15. (tie)Toad Ramsey – 66 (1886)
  16. (tie) Pud Galvin – 65 (1879)
  17. (tie) Bill Hutchinson – 65 (1890)
  18. (tie) Jim McCormick –65 (1882)
  19. Silver King – 64 (1888)
  20. (tie) Tony Mullane – 64 (1884)
  21. (tie) Mickey Welch – 64 (1880)
  22. (tie) Will White – 64 - (1883)

All pitchers right-handed except Matt Kilroy and Toad Ramsey. The record for complete games in a live-ball season is 33, set at the dawn of the era by Grover Cleveland Alexander in 1920 and Burleigh Grimes in 1923, and also by Dizzy Trout in 1944, when baseball's player pool was severely diluted due to World War II.[11]

Other records

  • Jack Taylor completed 187 consecutive games he started between 1901 and 1906.[12]
  • Leon Cadore and Joe Oeschger share the record for the longest complete game, achieved when they pitched against each other in a 26-inning marathon that ended in a 1–1 tie on May 1, 1920.[13]


  1. ^ Dickson, Paul (1999). The new Dickson baseball dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-15-600580-7. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Baseball Prospectus 2007, p.75
  3. ^ "2013 Major League Baseball Pitching Splits". Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  4. ^ 2012 Major League Baseball Season Summary
  5. ^ Rick Langford Game Logs 1980 Season
  6. ^ Baseball Prospectus 2007, p.79
  7. ^ June 14, 1974 Boxscore, Red Sox vs. Angels
  8. ^ Zimniuch, Fran (2010). Fireman: The Evolution of the Closer in Baseball. Chicago: Triumph Books. pp. 73–4. ISBN 978-1-60078-312-8.
  9. ^ "Career Leaders & Records for Games Started". Baseball-Reference. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  10. ^ "Active Career Leaders in Complete Games". Baseball Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  11. ^ Single Season Leaders in Complete Games
  12. ^ SABR's Baseball Biography Project: Jack Taylor
  13. ^ Complete Games Records by Baseball Almanac


See also

1917 World Series

In the 1917 World Series, the Chicago White Sox beat the New York Giants four games to two. The Series was played against the backdrop of World War I, which dominated the American newspapers that year and next.

The strong Chicago White Sox club had finished the 1917 season with a 100–54 record: their first and only one-hundred-win season in franchise history as of 2018. The Sox's next World Series winner in 2005 would finish the regular season with a 99–63 record.

The Sox won Game 1 of the Series in Chicago 2–1 behind a complete game by Eddie Cicotte. Happy Felsch hit a home run in the fourth inning that provided the winning margin. The Sox beat the Giants in Game 2 by a score of 7–2 behind another complete game effort by Red Faber to take a 2–0 lead in the Series.

Back in New York for Game 3, Cicotte again threw a complete game, but the Sox could not muster a single run against Giants starter Rube Benton and lost 2–0. In Game 4 the Sox were shut out again 5–0 by Ferdie Schupp. Faber threw another complete game, but the Series was even at 2–2 going back to Chicago.

Reb Russell started Game 5 in Chicago, but only faced three batters before giving way to Cicotte. Going into the bottom of the seventh inning, Chicago was down 5–2, but they rallied to score three in the seventh and three in the eighth to win 8–5. Faber pitched the final two innings for the win. In Game 6 the Sox took an early 3–0 lead and on the strength of another complete game victory from Faber (his third of the Series) won 4–2 and clinched the World Championship. Eddie Collins was the hitting hero, batting .409 over the six game series while Cicotte and Faber combined to pitch 50 out of a total 52 World Series innings to lead the staff.

The decisive game underscored the Giants' post-season frustrations, featuring a famous rundown in which Giants' third baseman Heinie Zimmerman futilely chased the speedy Eddie Collins toward home plate with what would be the Series-winning run. Catcher Bill Rariden had run up the third base line to start a rundown, expecting pitcher Rube Benton or first baseman Walter Holke to cover the plate. However, neither of them budged, forcing Zimmerman to chase Collins while pawing helplessly in the air with the ball in an attempt to tag him. Two years before the issue of baseball betting reached its peak, Zimmerman found himself having to publicly deny purposely allowing the run to score, i.e. to deny that he had "thrown" the game. In truth, McGraw blamed Benton and Holke for failing to cover the plate. A quote often attributed to Zim, but actually invented by writer Ring Lardner some years later, was that when asked about the incident Zim replied, "Who the hell was I supposed to throw to, Klem (umpire Bill Klem, who was working the plate)?" Conventional wisdom has it that Collins was much faster than Zimmerman, but existing photos of the play show that Zimmerman was only a step or two behind Collins, who actually slid across the plate while Zim jumped over him to avoid trampling him. Zimmerman would eventually be banned for life due to various accusations of corruption.

The great athlete Jim Thorpe, better known for football in general, made his only World Series "appearance" during Game 5, where he was listed in the lineup card as starting in right field; but for his turn at bat in the top of the first inning he was replaced by a left-handed hitting Dave Robertson.

The White Sox, who were essentially dismantled following the 1920 season by baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis due to the Black Sox Scandal in the 1919 World Series, did not make it to another World Series until 1959, and did not win another World Series until 2005.

Cliff Lee

Clifton Phifer Lee (born August 30, 1978) is an American former professional baseball starting pitcher. Lee played in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the Cleveland Indians, Philadelphia Phillies, Seattle Mariners, and Texas Rangers. He stood 6 feet 3 inches (191 cm) and weighed 205 pounds (93 kg), while playing. During his school days, Lee played baseball at Benton High School and attended Meridian Community College and the University of Arkansas before being drafted by the Montreal Expos in the fourth round of the 2000 draft.

After playing with the Expos’ minor-league affiliate Harrisburg Senators, Lee was traded in 2002 to the Cleveland Indians and was first called up to the big leagues later that season. He was traded to the Phillies in 2009, then traded to the Mariners and Rangers, eventually returning to the Phillies as a free agent in 2011. A four-time All-Star, Lee won the American League (AL) Cy Young Award in 2008 as a member of the Indians, after leading the AL in wins and lowest earned run average (ERA).

Lee won his first seven postseason starts. As a Phillie, he went 4-0 in the 2009 postseason, including a complete game in the 2009 World Series against the New York Yankees. The following season, Lee led the Rangers to a shutout win, defeating the Yankees 8-0 in the 2010 ALCS, en route to reaching the 2010 World Series.Lee threw and batted left-handed and could count on three different fastballs, the four-seam, two-seam, and cutter, in his pitching arsenal. Other pitches at his command included the slider, curveball, and change-up.

Game tree

In game theory, a game tree is a directed graph whose nodes are positions in a game and whose edges are moves. The complete game tree for a game is the game tree starting at the initial position and containing all possible moves from each position; the complete tree is the same tree as that obtained from the extensive-form game representation.

The diagram shows the first two levels, or plies, in the game tree for tic-tac-toe. The rotations and reflections of positions are equivalent, so the first player has three choices of move: in the center, at the edge, or in the corner. The second player has two choices for the reply if the first player played in the center, otherwise five choices. And so on.

The number of leaf nodes in the complete game tree is the number of possible different ways the game can be played. For example, the game tree for tic-tac-toe has 255,168 leaf nodes.

Game trees are important in artificial intelligence because one way to pick the best move in a game is to search the game tree using any of a large number of tree search algorithms, combined with minimax-like rules to prune the tree. The game tree for tic-tac-toe is easily searchable, but the complete game trees for larger games like chess are much too large to search. Instead, a chess-playing program searches a partial game tree: typically as many plies from the current position as it can search in the time available. Except for the case of "pathological" game trees (which seem to be quite rare in practice), increasing the search depth (i.e., the number of plies searched) generally improves the chance of picking the best move.

Two-person games can also be represented as and-or trees. For the first player to win a game, there must exist a winning move for all moves of the second player. This is represented in the and-or tree by using disjunction to represent the first player's alternative moves and using conjunction to represent all of the second player's moves.

Jack Morris

John Scott Morris (born May 16, 1955) is an American former professional baseball starting pitcher. He is a color commentator for the Detroit Tigers on Fox Sports Detroit. He played in Major League Baseball (MLB) between 1977 and 1994, mainly for the Detroit Tigers. Morris won 254 games throughout his career.

Armed with a fastball, a slider, and a forkball, Morris was a five-time All-Star (1981, 1984, 1985, 1987, and 1991), and played on four World Series Championship teams (1984 Tigers, 1991 Minnesota Twins, and 1992–1993 Toronto Blue Jays). He went 3–0 in the 1984 postseason with two complete game victories in the 1984 World Series, and 4–0 in the 1991 postseason with a ten-inning complete game victory in Game 7 of the 1991 World Series. Morris won the Babe Ruth Award in both 1984 and 1991, and was named World Series MVP in 1991. While he gave up the most hits, most earned runs, and most home runs of any pitcher in the 1980s, he also started the most games, pitched the most innings, and had the most wins of any pitcher in that decade. He is one of seven players in MLB history to have won back-to back World Series championships on different teams, the other six being Ben Zobrist, Jake Peavy, Bill Skowron, Clem Labine, Don Gullett, and Ryan Theriot.

Since retiring as a player, Morris has worked as a broadcast color analyst for the Blue Jays, Twins, and Tigers. He has also been an analyst for MLB broadcasts on Fox Sports 1. Morris was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2018.

John Burkett

John David Burkett (born November 28, 1964) is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. He compiled 166 wins, 1,766 strikeouts, and a 4.31 earned run average. He pitched from 1987 to 2003, with the San Francisco Giants, Florida Marlins, Texas Rangers, Atlanta Braves and Boston Red Sox. His best season came in 1993 when he went 22–7 with a 3.65 ERA for the Giants. Burkett was a National League All-Star in 1993 and 2001. After being released in Spring Training by the Tampa Bay Devil Rays in 2000, he was picked up by the Atlanta Braves and resurrected a career thought to be over by many. His 3.04 ERA was 3rd in all of MLB for 2001. Burkett retired following the 2003 season after going 12–9 with the Red Sox at age 38. He was given the nickname "Sheets" during his days with the Atlanta Braves because of his betting and organizing pools for games in the clubhouse. His 1996 postseason complete game win vs the eventual WS Champion New York Yankees, was the first complete game in Divisional Series history and the first postseason win in Texas Rangers history.

Burkett is also a part-time professional bowler, and has 32 perfect games to his credit. He's cashed in several PBA events during his baseball days and joined the PBA50 (Bowling's Senior Tour) in 2015. He finished 15th in the 2015 Suncoast PBA Senior US Open and 4th at PBA50 Northern California Classic. His 2016 campaign was cut short when he had right ankle surgery. 2017 PBA50 season top finishes were 11th in PBA50 National Championship, 24th at the Senior US OPEN,11th at Dave Small's Championship Lanes Classic and 9th at the DeHayes Insurance Group Championship. He has six children named Avery, Maxwell, Reid, Meg, Rachel, and Madison. Both Reid and Meg attend Southern Methodist University.

Johnny Cueto

Johnny Cueto Ortiz (Spanish: [ˈkweto]; born February 15, 1986) is a Dominican professional baseball pitcher for the San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball (MLB). He previously played for the Cincinnati Reds from 2008 through 2015 and the Kansas City Royals in 2015. He was traded from the Reds to the Royals during the 2015 season, where he won the 2015 World Series over the New York Mets.

Cueto made his major league debut in 2008, delivering an outstanding performance, but struggling with consistency in his rookie year and 2009. By 2010 though, Cueto began to become a more consistent starting pitcher, and by 2011 he had emerged as the ace of the Reds pitching staff and one of the top pitchers in the National League. He won 19 games and posted a 2.78 ERA in 2012, finishing fourth in the voting for the National League Cy Young Award and helping lead the Reds to the NL Central title. In 2014, he won 20 games with a 2.25 ERA and tied for the NL lead in strikeouts with 242, finishing as the runner up for the Cy Young. In 2016, he won 18 games with the San Francisco Giants while posting a 2.79 ERA, helping lead them to the postseason, where they lost in the NLDS, and achieving another top 10 finish in the Cy Young voting. He was an MLB All-Star in 2014 and 2016, and was chosen as the starting pitcher for the 2016 MLB All-Star Game. From 2011 to 2017, Cueto accumulated the second lowest ERA of all pitchers with at least 750 innings pitched (behind Clayton Kershaw), managing a 2.94 ERA alongside a 90–51 (.638) record in ​1,256 1⁄3 innings.

José Berríos

José Orlando Berríos (born May 27, 1994) is a Puerto Rican professional baseball pitcher for the Minnesota Twins of Major League Baseball (MLB). He was drafted by the Twins in the first round of the 2012 Major League Baseball draft.

Justin Verlander

Justin Brooks Verlander (born February 20, 1983) is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Houston Astros of Major League Baseball (MLB). He previously played for the Detroit Tigers for 12 seasons, with whom he made his major league debut on July 4, 2005. A right-handed batter and thrower, Verlander stands 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 m) tall and weighs 225 pounds (102 kg).

From Manakin-Sabot, Virginia, Verlander attended Old Dominion University (ODU) and played college baseball for the Monarchs. He broke the Monarchs' and Colonial Athletic Association's career records for strikeouts. At the 2003 Pan American Games, Verlander helped lead the United States national team to a silver medal.

The Tigers selected him in the first round and as the second overall pick of the 2004 first-year player draft. As a former ace in the Tigers' starting rotation, he was a key figure in four consecutive American League (AL) Central division championships from 2011−2014, two AL Pennants in 2006 and 2012, and in the Astros' first World Series championship in 2017. He is among the career pitching leaders for the Tigers, including ranking second in strikeouts (2,373), seventh in wins (183), and eighth in innings pitched (2511).

The winner of a number of accolades, Verlander is an eight-time MLB All-Star, has led the AL in strikeouts five times and in wins twice. He was the AL Rookie of the Year in 2006, and on June 12, 2007, pitched the first no-hitter at Comerica Park versus the Milwaukee Brewers. In 2009, he led the AL in wins and strikeouts, both for the first time. Verlander produced his most successful season in 2011, including his second career no-hitter versus the Toronto Blue Jays on May 7. By season's end, Verlander won the Pitching Triple Crown, the AL Cy Young Award unanimously, the AL Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award, and the Sporting News Player of the Year Award.

The Tigers traded Verlander to the Houston Astros just before the 2017 trade deadline. He immediately made an impact for the team, going undefeated in his first five starts heading into the postseason. He helped lead the Astros to the 2017 World Series, which they won over the Los Angeles Dodgers, giving him his first career ring. For his performance in the 2017 American League Championship Series, he was named MVP, and was co-winner of the Babe Ruth Award (with teammate José Altuve) for most outstanding performance in the 2017 postseason. In the 2018 season, Verlander became the 114th pitcher in major league history to surpass 200 career wins, also becoming the 20th fastest to reach the milestone (412 starts).

Kuhn poker

Kuhn poker is an extremely simplified form of poker developed by Harold W. Kuhn as a simple model zero-sum two-player imperfect-information game, amenable to a complete game-theoretic analysis. In Kuhn poker, the deck includes only three playing cards, for example a King, Queen, and Jack. One card is dealt to each player, which may place bets similarly to a standard poker. If both players bet or both players pass, the player with the higher card wins, otherwise, the betting player wins.

List of Major League Baseball career complete games leaders

In baseball, a complete game (denoted by CG) is the act of a pitcher pitching an entire game without the benefit of a relief pitcher. A pitcher who meets this criterion will be credited with a complete game regardless of the number of innings played - pitchers who throw an entire official game that is shortened by rain will still be credited with a complete game, while starting pitchers who are relieved in extra innings after throwing nine or more innings will not be credited with a complete game. A starting pitcher who is replaced by a pinch hitter in the final half inning of a game will still be credited with a complete game.

Cy Young is the all-time leader in complete games with 749 and the only player to complete more than 700 games. Pud Galvin is second all-time with 646 career complete games and the only other player to complete more than 600 games.

List of Major League Baseball career games finished leaders

In baseball statistics, a relief pitcher is credited with a game finished (denoted by GF) if he is the last pitcher to pitch for his team in a game. A starting pitcher is not credited with a GF for pitching a complete game.

Mariano Rivera is the all-time leader in games finished with 952. Rivera is the only pitcher in MLB history to finish more than 900 career games. Trevor Hoffman and Lee Smith are the only other pitchers to finish more than 800 games in their careers.

Madison Bumgarner

Madison Kyle Bumgarner (born August 1, 1989), commonly known by his nickname, "MadBum", is an American professional baseball pitcher for the San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball (MLB). Bumgarner has won three World Series championships (2010, 2012, 2014) and two Silver Slugger Awards (2014, 2015). He has also been selected to four National League All-Star teams and has the most strikeouts in franchise history by a Giants left-handed pitcher.Bumgarner played high school baseball at South Caldwell High School in Hudson, North Carolina, where he helped his team win the 2007 4A State Championship. After graduating, he was selected with the tenth overall pick in the 2007 MLB draft by the San Francisco Giants. In 2008, his first year playing professionally, he won the South Atlantic League pitching triple crown. He and Buster Posey both made their Major League debuts in 2009, and have since established a reputation as one of the best batteries in recent MLB history, largely due to their prolific success early in their careers. Bumgarner pitched eight scoreless innings in Game 4 of the 2010 World Series, helping win the franchise's first World Series in San Francisco and the first since 1954. Two years later, Bumgarner pitched seven more scoreless innings in Game 2 of the 2012 World Series. Bumgarner became the ace of a Giants pitching staff that won three World Series championships in a five-year span.

Following one of the most dominant postseason and World Series pitching performances in modern MLB history, he was named the Most Valuable Player of the 2014 World Series, the 2014 Babe Ruth Award winner, the 2014 Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year, and the 2014 Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year.

Matija Nastasić

Matija Nastasić (Serbian Cyrillic: Матија Настасић, pronounced [mǎtija nǎstasitɕ]; born 28 March 1993) is a Serbian professional footballer who plays for German club Schalke 04 and the Serbia national team as a centre back.

He began his career at Partizan, and after a loan to Teleoptik joined Fiorentina in 2011. After one season there he transferred to Manchester City for €15 million and a swap with Stefan Savić, winning the Premier League in 2014, despite injury problems. In 2015, he joined Schalke, initially on loan.

Nastasić made his senior international debut for Serbia in 2012, and has gone on to earn over 25 caps.

Matt Cain

Matthew Thomas Cain (born October 1, 1984), nicknamed The Horse, Big Daddy, and Big Sugar, is an American former professional baseball pitcher, who played 13 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the San Francisco Giants. A three-time World Series champion, he is widely regarded as a central figure of the Giants' success in the 2010s for his pitching and leadership. During his playing days, Cain stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall, weighing 230 pounds (100 kg).

The Giants drafted Cain out of high school in 2002, and he made his MLB debut at age 21 in 2005, becoming the youngest player in the National League (NL) that year.

In 2009, Cain was named to his first career All-Star Game and won the Willie Mac Award. During the 2010 MLB Postseason, he did not allow an earned run in any of the three playoff games he pitched in as the Giants won their first World Series since 1954. In 2011, Cain won 12 games and had a 2.88 earned run average (ERA). In 2012, he signed a five-year, $112.5 million contract extension, which was at the time the largest deal for a right-handed pitcher in North American sports history.

Cain threw the 22nd perfect game in big league history on June 13, 2012. He had a 16–5 record during the regular season, finishing sixth in NL Cy Young Award voting. The Giants would win every series-clinching playoff game in which Cain started as they won the 2012 World Series.


In baseball, a no-hitter (also known as a no-hit game and colloquially as a no-no) is a game in which a team was not able to record a single hit. Major League Baseball (MLB) officially defines a no-hitter as a completed game in which a team that batted in at least nine innings recorded no hits. A pitcher who prevents the opposing team from achieving a hit is said to have "thrown a no-hitter". This is a rare accomplishment for a pitcher or pitching staff: only 302 have been thrown in Major League Baseball history since 1876, an average of about two per year. In most cases in MLB, no-hitters are recorded by a single pitcher who throws a complete game; one thrown by two or more pitchers is a combined no-hitter. The most recent major league no-hitter by a single pitcher was thrown on May 7, 2019 by Mike Fiers of the Oakland Athletics against the Cincinnati Reds at the Oakland Coliseum; this was also the 300th no-hitter in MLB history. The most recent combined no-hitter was thrown on August 3, 2019 by Aaron Sanchez, Will Harris, Joe Biagini, and Chris Devenski of the Houston Astros against the Seattle Mariners at Minute Maid Park.

It is possible to reach base without a hit, most commonly by a walk, error, or being hit by a pitch. (Other possibilities include the batter reaching first after an uncaught third strike or catcher's interference.) A no-hitter in which no batters reach base at all is a perfect game, a much rarer feat. Because batters can reach base by means other than a hit, a pitcher can throw a no-hitter (though not a perfect game) and still give up runs, and even lose the game, although this is extremely uncommon and most no-hitters are also shutouts. One or more runs were given up in 25 recorded no-hitters in MLB history, most recently by Ervin Santana of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in a 3–1 win at the Cleveland Indians on July 27, 2011. On two occasions, a team has thrown a nine-inning no-hitter and still lost the game. On a further four occasions, a team has thrown a no-hitter for eight innings in a losing effort, but those four games are not officially recognized as no-hitters by Major League Baseball because the outing lasted fewer than nine innings. It is theoretically possible for opposing pitchers to throw no-hitters in the same game, although this has never happened in the majors. Two pitchers, Fred Toney and Hippo Vaughn, completed nine innings of a game on May 2, 1917 without either giving up a hit or a run; Vaughn gave up two hits and a run in the 10th inning, losing the game to Toney, who completed the extra-inning no-hitter.

Red Barrett

Charles Henry "Red" Barrett (February 14, 1915 – July 28, 1990) was a Major League Baseball pitcher who played 11 total career seasons in the National League. He played for the Cincinnati Reds, Boston Braves and St. Louis Cardinals. He pitched the shortest complete game by fewest pitches (58) in history.He died at the age of 75 in Wilson, North Carolina.

Scott McGregor (baseball)

Scott Houston McGregor (born January 18, 1954) is a former Major League Baseball pitcher who spent his entire career with the Baltimore Orioles, from 1976 to 1988. He is the pitching coach for the Aberdeen IronBirds.Born and raised in southern California, McGregor played baseball at El Segundo High School with hall of famer George Brett, who was a year ahead. He was the fourteenth overall selection in the 1972 Major League Baseball draft and was in the New York Yankees' organization until June 1976, when he was part of a ten-player deal.McGregor was selected to the American League All-Star team in 1981. He won 20 games in 1980 and was solid in two postseasons with the Orioles in 1979 and 1983. McGregor sent the Orioles to the World Series by clinching the 1979 ALCS with a Game 4 shutout of the California Angels. He pitched a complete game victory in Pittsburgh in Game 3 of the World Series. Despite taking the loss in Game 7, McGregor yielded two runs in 8 innings to Willie Stargell and the eventual champion Pirates.In the 1983 postseason, McGregor allowed two runs in the openers of the ALCS and World Series, but lost both games by scores of 2–1 to the White Sox and Phillies, respectively. However, in Game 5, he shut out the Phillies in a complete game to end the series, four games to one. He remained a starting pitcher on the Orioles for the next five seasons, and made his final appearance on April 27, 1988.After his baseball career ended, McGregor worked as a youth pastor and for five years headed a church in Dover, Delaware.In 2002, McGregor returned to baseball as a pitching coach in Class A ball, and began working his way up. He was named interim Orioles bullpen coach in late 2013 replacing Bill Castro, who was promoted to pitching coach. He did not return in 2014.

Shutouts in baseball

In Major League Baseball, a shutout (denoted statistically as ShO or SHO) refers to the act by which a single pitcher pitches a complete game and does not allow the opposing team to score a run. If two or more pitchers combine to complete this act, no pitcher is awarded a shutout, although the team itself can be said to have "shut out" the opposing team.

The ultimate single achievement among pitchers is a perfect game, which has been accomplished 23 times in over 135 years, most recently by Félix Hernández of the Seattle Mariners on August 15, 2012. By definition, a perfect game is counted as a shutout. A no-hitter completed by one pitcher is also a shutout unless the opposing team manages to score through a series of errors, base on balls, catcher's interferences, dropped third strikes, or hit batsmen. The all-time career leader in shutouts is Walter Johnson, who pitched for the Washington Senators from 1907–1927. He accumulated 110 shutouts, which is 20 more than the second place leader, Pete Alexander. The most shutouts recorded in one season was 16, which was a feat accomplished by both Pete Alexander (1916) and George Bradley (1876). These records are considered among the most secure records in baseball, because pitchers today rarely earn more than one or two shutouts per season with a heavy emphasis on pitch count and relief pitching. Complete games themselves have also become rare among starting pitchers.

The current leader among active players for career shutouts is Clayton Kershaw, who has thrown 15.

Stan Coveleski

Stanley Anthony Coveleski (born Stanislaus Kowalewski, July 13, 1889 – March 20, 1984) was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball who played for four American League (AL) teams between 1912 and 1928, primarily the Cleveland Indians. The star of the Indians pitching staff, he won over 20 games each year from the epidemic-shortened 1918 season through 1921, leading the AL in shutouts twice and in strikeouts and earned run average (ERA) once each during his nine years with the club. The star of the 1920 World Series, he led the Indians to their first championship with three complete-game victories, including a 3–0 shutout in the Game 7 finale. Traded to the Washington Senators after the 1924 season, he helped that club to its second AL pennant in a row with 20 victories against only 5 losses, including a 13-game winning streak, while again leading the league in ERA.

Coveleski followed in the footsteps of his brother Harry as a major league pitcher. But after making his debut with the Philadelphia Athletics in 1912, he was sidetracked by three more seasons in the minor leagues before joining the Indians in 1916, and won only thirteen major league games before turning 27. Coveleski specialized in throwing the spitball, where the pitcher alters the ball with a foreign substance such as chewing tobacco. It was legal when his career began but prohibited in 1920, with Coveleski being one of 17 pitchers permitted to continue throwing the pitch. In 450 career games, Coveleski pitched 3,082 innings and posted a record of 215–142, with 224 complete games, 38 shutouts, and a 2.89 ERA. He set Cleveland records of 172 wins, 2,502⅓ innings and 305 starts, which were later broken by Mel Harder and Willis Hudlin. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1969.

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