Comparison of web search engines

Search engines are listed in tables below for comparison purposes. The first table lists the company behind the engine, volume and ad support and identifies the nature of the software being used as free software or proprietary. The second table lists privacy aspects along with other technical parameters, such as whether the engine provides personalization (alternatively viewed as a filter bubble).

Defunct or acquired search engines are not listed here.

Search crawlers

Current search engines with independent crawlers, as of December 2018.

Search engine Company Launched Software distribution license Pages indexed Daily direct queries Results count Advertisements
Baidu Baidu 2000 Proprietary Unknown Unknown Yes Yes
Bing Microsoft 1998/2009 Proprietary 13.5 billion[1] Unknown Yes Yes
Exalead Exalead 2000 Proprietary Unknown Unknown Yes No
Gigablast Independent 2000 Free 1 billion[2] Unknown Yes No
Google Search Alphabet Inc 1998 Proprietary 40 billion[1] 9.022 billion[3] Yes Yes
Mojeek Mojeek 2004 Proprietary 2 billion[4] Unknown Yes No
Qwant Qwant 2013 Proprietary 20 billion[5] 10 million[6] Unknown Yes
YaCy Independent,
2005 Free 1.4 billion[7] 0.13 million [7] Yes No
Yandex Search Yandex 1997 Proprietary >2 billion[8] Unknown Yes Yes

Digital rights

Search engine Server's location(s) Dedicated servers Data center Cloud computing HTTPS available Tor gateway available Proxy gateway search links available Internet censorship (countries)
Baidu China No No Unknown China
Bing USA/China Yes Yes(SSL blocked in China) No Unknown China
DuckDuckGo[9] USA No Verizon Internet Services Amazon EC2 Yes Yes [10] No No[11]
Gigablast USA Yes[12] Yes[12] No Unknown
Google Search USA Yes Default if signed in[13] No Unknown Argentina,[14]
Mojeek UK Yes Custodian Data Centres Yes No Unknown Unknown
Qwant Europe, France Yes Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown
Yahoo! Search USA Partial Yes[15] No Unknown Argentina[14]
Yandex Search Russia Yes Yes[16] No Unknown Unknown

Tracking and surveillance

Search engine HTTP tracking cookies Personalized results[a][b] IP address tracking[c][b] Information sharing[b] Warrantless wiretapping of unencrypted backend traffic[b]
Baidu Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Bing Unknown Unknown Yes[17] Yes[17] 2014 and prior[17][18][19]
DuckDuckGo[9][20] No No No No No
Gigablast Unknown No No[12] No[12] No[12]
Google Search yes Default[21] Yes[17] Yes[17] 2013 and prior[17][22]
Mojeek No No No No Unknown
Qwant No No No No No
Yahoo! Search Unknown Unknown Yes[17] Yes[17] 2014 and prior[17][23]
Yandex Search Unknown Yes[24] Unknown Limited[25] Unknown
  1. ^ The results of the search are arranged for the user in accordance to their interests as determined from previous search queries or other information available to the search engine.
  2. ^ a b c d Cannot be verified independently, as the information is handled by servers not accessible by the public.
  3. ^ Tracking the user has to be conducted in order to provide personalized search results.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Size Google, Bing, Yahoo search (number of web pages)". Retrieved March 23, 2013.
  2. ^ "about". Retrieved 2018-02-12.
  3. ^ "Google Annual Search Statistics". Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Mojeek Is A Privacy-Focused, Unbiased Google Search Alternative)". Retrieved November 3, 2018.
  5. ^ Qwant (2018-11-20). "Web indexation: where does Qwant's independence stand?". Medium. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  6. ^ "Qwant", Wikipedia, 2019-02-09, retrieved 2019-02-13
  7. ^ a b "YaCy - The Peer to Peer Search Engine: Home". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  8. ^ "SEC Filing 2011" (PDF). Form 20-F. "Our search index includes billions of webpages..": Yandex N.V. 31 December 2011. p. 45. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  9. ^ a b Holwerda, Thom (June 21, 2011), "DuckDuckGo: The Privacy-centric Alternative to Google", OSNews, retrieved March 30, 2012
  10. ^ Weinberg, Gabriel (2010-08-10). "DuckDuckGo now operates a Tor exit enclave". Retrieved 2014-07-01.
  11. ^ "Don't Bubble Us". Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Gigablast - The Private Search Engine". 2013. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  13. ^ "Google Makes HTTPS Encryption Default for Search". eWeek. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
  14. ^ a b "Yahoo & Google Forced To Censor Search Results in Argentina". Seroundtable. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
  15. ^ Danny Sullivan (22 January 2014). "Yahoo Search Goes Secure". Search Engine Land. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  16. ^ "Yandex.Direct switches to HTTPS". Yandex. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Johnson, Kevin; Martin, Scott; O'Donnell, Jayne; Winter, Michael (June 15, 2013). "Reports: NSA Siphons Data from 9 Major Net Firms". USA Today. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  18. ^ Danny Yadron (2013-12-05). "Microsoft Compares NSA to 'Advanced Persistent Threat' - Digits - WSJ". Retrieved 2014-01-15.
  19. ^ Tom Warren (2013-12-05). "Microsoft labels US government a 'persistent threat' in plan to cut off NSA spying". The Verge. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  20. ^ "DuckDuckGo Privacy". 2012-04-11. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  21. ^ "Turn off search history personalization". Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  22. ^ Gallagher, Sean (2013-11-06). "Googlers say "F*** you" to NSA, company encrypts internal network". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  23. ^ Brandom, Russell (2013-11-18). "Yahoo plans to encrypt all internal data by early 2014 to keep the NSA out". The Verge. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  24. ^ "Компания Яндекс — Персональный поиск". Retrieved May 22, 2013.
  25. ^ "Privacy Policy – Legal Documents". Yandex.Company. 3.3.1.: LLC Yandex. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
Bing (search engine)

Bing is a web search engine owned and operated by Microsoft. The service has its origins in Microsoft's previous search engines: MSN Search, Windows Live Search and later Live Search. Bing provides a variety of search services, including web, video, image and map search products. It is developed using ASP.NET.

Bing, Microsoft's replacement for Live Search, was unveiled by Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer on May 28, 2009, at the All Things Digital conference in San Diego, California, for release on June 1, 2009. Notable new features at the time included the listing of search suggestions while queries are entered and a list of related searches (called "Explore pane") based on semantic technology from Powerset, which Microsoft had acquired in 2008.In July 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would power Yahoo! Search. All Yahoo! Search global customers and partners made the transition by early 2012. The deal was altered in 2015, meaning Yahoo! was only required to use Bing for a "majority" of searches.In October 2011, Microsoft stated that they were working on new back-end search infrastructure with the goal of delivering faster and slightly more relevant search results for users. Known as "Tiger", the new index-serving technology had been incorporated into Bing globally since August that year. In May 2012, Microsoft announced another redesign of its search engine that includes "Sidebar", a social feature that searches users' social networks for information relevant to the search query.As of October 2018, Bing is the third largest search engine globally, with a query volume of 4.58%, behind Google (77%) and Baidu (14.45%). Yahoo! Search, which Bing largely powers, has 2.63%.

Comparison of webmail providers

The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of notable webmail providers who offer a web interface in English.

The list does not include web hosting providers who may offer email services as a part of hosting package.


DuckDuckGo (DDG) is an Internet search engine that emphasizes protecting searchers' privacy and avoiding the filter bubble of personalized search results. DuckDuckGo distinguishes itself from other search engines by not profiling its users and by showing all users the same search results for a given search term, and emphasizes returning the best results, rather than the most results, generating those results from over 400 individual sources, including crowdsourced sites such as Wikipedia, and other search engines like Bing, Yahoo!, and Yandex. In April 2019, it had 36,827,098

daily direct searches on average.The company is based in Paoli, Pennsylvania, in Greater Philadelphia, and has 59 employees. The company name is a reference to the children's game duck, duck, goose.Some of DuckDuckGo's source code is free software hosted at GitHub under the Apache 2.0 License, but the core is proprietary. The company registered the domain name on February 22, 2011, and acquired on December 12, 2018, which are used as shortened URL aliases that redirect to


Ecosia is an Internet search engine based in Berlin, Germany, that plants trees by donating 80% or more of its surplus income to non-profit organizations that focus on reforestation and conservationism. Ecosia considers itself a social business, is CO2-negative, claims to support full financial transparency, protects the privacy of its users and is certified by B-Lab as a benefit corporation.The website maintains a running total of the number of trees planted. As of 19 May 2019, the search engine has been responsible for the planting of more than 57.4 million trees.


Gigablast is a free and open-source web search engine and directory. Founded in 2000, it is an independent engine and web crawler based in New Mexico, developed and maintained by Matt Wells, a former Infoseek employee and New Mexico Tech graduate.The search engine source code is written in the programming languages C and C++. It was released as open-source software under the Apache License version 2, in July 2013. In 2015, Gigablast claimed to have indexed over 12 billion web pages, and received billions of queries per month.Gigablast has provided, and provides, search results to other companies, such as Ixquick, Clusty, Zuula, Snap, Blingo, and Internet Archive.

Google Search

Google Search, also referred to as Google Web Search or simply Google, is a web search engine developed by Google LLC. It is the most used search engine on the World Wide Web across all platforms, with 92.74% market share as of October 2018, handling more than 3.5 billion searches each day.The order of search results returned by Google is based, in part, on a priority rank system called "PageRank". Google Search also provides many different options for customized search, using symbols to include, exclude, specify or require certain search behavior, and offers specialized interactive experiences, such as flight status and package tracking, weather forecasts, currency, unit and time conversions, word definitions, and more.

The main purpose of Google Search is to hunt for text in publicly accessible documents offered by web servers, as opposed to other data, such as images or data contained in databases. It was originally developed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin in 1997. In June 2011, Google introduced "Google Voice Search" to search for spoken, rather than typed, words. In May 2012, Google introduced a Knowledge Graph semantic search feature in the U.S.

Analysis of the frequency of search terms may indicate economic, social and health trends. Data about the frequency of use of search terms on Google can be openly inquired via Google Trends and have been shown to correlate with flu outbreaks and unemployment levels, and provide the information faster than traditional reporting methods and surveys. As of mid-2016, Google's search engine has begun to rely on deep neural networks.Competitors of Google include Baidu and in China; and in South Korea; Yandex in Russia; in the Czech Republic; Yahoo in Japan, Taiwan and the US, as well as Bing and DuckDuckGo. Some smaller search engines offer facilities not available with Google, e.g. not storing any private or tracking information.

Within the US, as of July 2018, Microsoft Sites handled 24.2 percent of all search queries in the United States. During the same period of time, Oath (formerly known as Yahoo) had a search market share of 11.5 percent. Market leader Google generated 63.2 percent of all core search queries in the United States.

Search engine evaluation

Search engine evaluation is covered by multiple articles:

Comparison of web search engines, which is qualitative and lists the qualities of popular search engines

Evaluation measures (information retrieval), which is quantitative and which describes general methods by which any search engine results might be evaluated

Search engine privacy

Search engine privacy is a subset of internet privacy that deals with user data being collected by search engines. Both types of privacy fall under the umbrella of information privacy. Privacy concerns regarding search engines can take many forms, such as search engines logging individual search queries, browsing history, IP addresses, and cookies of users and conducting user profiling in general. The collection of personally identifiable information of users by search engines is referred to as "tracking". This is controversial because search engines often claim to collect a user's data in order to tailor better results to that specific user and provide the user with a better searching experience. However, search engines can also abuse and compromise its users' privacy by selling their data to advertisers for profit. In the absence of regulations, users must decide what is more important to their search engine experience: relevance and speed of results or their privacy, and choose a search engine accordingly.The legal framework for protecting user privacy is not very solid. The most popular search engines are Google, Yahoo, Bing, and Baidu, collect personal information, but other search engines that are focused on privacy have cropped up recently, such as DuckDuckGo. There have been several well publicized breaches of search engine user privacy that occurred with companies like AOL and Yahoo. For individuals interested in preserving their privacy, there are options available to them, such as using software like Tor makes the user's location and personal information anonymous or using a privacy focused search engine.


Swisscows is a web search engine launched in 2014, a project of Hulbee AG, a company based in Egnach, Switzerland.The search engine is based on semantic data recognition that give faster "answers" to queries. In addition, Swisscows does not store users' data. Swisscows also deems itself "family-friendly", with explicit results entirely omitted. The website's servers are based in underground data centers under the Swiss Alps.Swisscows uses Bing for web search, but has also built its own index for the German language edition. It also has shopping search, music search (powered by SoundCloud), and a language translator powered by Yandex.

As of 2018, there are 20 million monthly search queries, according to Hulbee CEO, Andreas Wiebe.

Web search engine

A web search engine or Internet search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web search (Internet search), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a web search query. The search results are generally presented in a line of results, often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may be a mix of web pages, images, videos, infographics, articles, research papers and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler.

Internet content that is not capable of being searched by a web search engine is generally described as the deep web.

Yahoo! Search

Yahoo! Search is a web search engine owned by Yahoo, headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. As of October 2018, it is the second largest search engine worldwide across all platforms with 2.32% market share.As of July 2018, Microsoft Sites handled 24.2 percent of all search queries in the United States. During the same period of time, Oath (formerly known as Yahoo) had a search market share of 11.5 percent. Market leader Google generated 63.2 percent of all core search queries in the United States.Originally, "Yahoo Search" referred to a Yahoo-provided interface that sent queries to a searchable index of pages supplemented with its directory of websites. The results were presented to the user under the Yahoo! brand. Originally, none of the actual web crawling and data housing was done by Yahoo! itself. In 2001, the searchable index was powered by Inktomi and later was powered by Google until 2004, when Yahoo! Search became independent. On July 29, 2009, Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would henceforth power Yahoo! Search.


Yossarian Lives is a metaphorical search engine, a type of Internet search engine. Its algorithms return results that are disparate, but potentially metaphorically related to the user's query. These results are intended to encourage creative thinking and diversity of thought. "We don't want you to know what everyone else knows, we want you to generate new knowledge." The search engine emphasizes new knowledge vs. the reinforcing of existing information. The site works to avoid the "filter bubble" by returning results that are conceptually related but disparate, compared with traditional search engines that return the most popular or common results.The company is based in London, UK.


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