Comorian language

Comorian (Shikomori or Shimasiwa, the "language of islands") is the name given to a group of four Bantu languages spoken in the Comoro Islands, an archipelago in the southwestern Indian Ocean between Mozambique and Madagascar. It is named as one of the official languages of the Union of the Comoros in the Comorian constitution. Shimaore, one of the languages, is spoken on the disputed island of Mayotte, a French department claimed by Comoros. Like Swahili, the Comorian languages are Sabaki languages, part of the Bantu language family. Each island has its own language and the four are conventionally divided into two groups: the eastern group is composed of Shindzuani (spoken on Ndzuani) and Shimaore (Mayotte), while the western group is composed of Shimwali (Mwali) and Shingazija (Ngazidja). Although the languages of different groups are not usually mutually intelligible, only sharing about 80% of their lexicon, there is mutual intelligibility between the languages within each group, suggesting that Shikomori should be considered as a two language groups rather than four distinct languages.[6]

Historically, the language was written in the Arabic script. The French colonial administration introduced the Latin script, of which a modified version was officially decreed in 2009.[7] Most Comorians use the Latin script when writing the Comorian language.

It is the language of Umodja wa Masiwa, the national anthem.

Comorian
shikomori/شِكُمُرِ
Native toComoros and Mayotte
RegionThroughout Comoros and Mayotte; also in Madagascar and Réunion
Native speakers
800,000 in Comoros[1] and 300,000 in Mayotte[2][3] (2011 and 2007)
Arabic
Latin
Official status
Official language in
 Comoros
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
zdj – Ngazidja dialect
wni – Ndzwani (Anjouani) dialect
swb – Maore dialect
wlc – Mwali dialect
Glottologcomo1260[4]
G.44[5]

Phonology

The consonants and vowels in the Comorian languages:

Vowels

Front Back
Close i ĩ u ũ
Mid e o
Open a ã

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p t ʈ k
voiced (b) (d) ɖ ɡ
implosive ɓ ɗ
vl. prenasal ᵐp ⁿt ᶯʈ ᵑk
vd. prenasal (ᵐb) (ⁿd) ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
impl. prenasal ᵐɓ ⁿɗ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ
vl. prenasal ⁿt͡s ⁿt͡ʃ
vd. prenasal ⁿd͡z ⁿd͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f θ s ʃ x h
voiced β v ð z ʒ ɣ
Nasal m n ɲ
Approximant w l j
Trill r

The consonants mb, nd, b, d are phonetically recognized as ranging from [ᵐɓ~ᵐb], [ⁿɗ~ⁿd], [ɓ~b], [ɗ~d].

References

  1. ^ "Udzima wa Komori". Université Laval, 2325, rue de l'Université. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  2. ^ Daniel Barreteau. "Premiers résultats d'une enquête sociolinguistique auprès des élèves de CM2 de Mayotte" (PDF) (in French). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
  3. ^ "Population of Mayotte". INSEE.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Comorian Bantu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  6. ^ Breslar, 1981; Ahmed-Chamanga, 2010
  7. ^ Ahmed-Chamanga, 2010

Further reading

  • Ahmed-Chamanga, Mohamed. (1992) Lexique Comorien (shindzuani) – Français. Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • Ahmed-Chamanga, Mohamed. (1997) Dictionnaire français-comorien (dialecte Shindzuani). Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • Ahmed-Chamanga, Mohamed. (2010) Introduction à la grammaire structurale du comorien. Moroni: Komedit. 2 vols.
  • Breslar, Jon. (1981) An Ethnography of the Mahorais (Mayotte, Comoro Islands). Thesis presented at University of Pittsburgh.
  • Djohar, Abdou. (2014) Approche contrastive franco-comorienne: les séquences figées à caractère adjectival. Université Paris-Nord.
  • Johansen, Aimee. A History of Comorian Linguistics. in John M. Mugane (ed.), Linguistic Typology and Representation of African Languages. Africa World Press. Trenton, New Jersey.
  • Lafon, Michel. (1991) Lexique Français-Comorien (Shingazidja). Paris: L'Harmattan.
  • Rey, Veronique. (1994) Première approche du mwali. Africana Linguistica XI. Tervuren: MRAC.

External links

Anjouan

Anjouan (also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani, and historically as Johanna or Hinzuan) is an autonomous high island in the Indian Ocean that forms part of the Union of the Comoros. Its chief town is Mutsamudu and, as of 2006, its population is around 277,500. The total area of the island is 424 square kilometers (163 square miles).

Charles Sacleux

Charles Joseph Sacleux (1856–1943) was a French Catholic missionary and linguist. He is known also as a botanist, having collected a herbarium of over 2000 plants in East Africa and Zanzibar.

Comorian

Comorian may refer to:

Something of or pertaining to the Comoro Islands, a region of Africa including Comoros

Something or someone of, from, or related to Comoros, a country in the Comoro Islands

Comorian language, a set of Sabaki dialects (Bantu language)

Comoros

The Comoros ( (listen); Arabic: جزر القمر‎, Juzur al-Qumur / Qamar), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Umoja wa Komori, French: Union des Comores, Arabic: الاتحاد القمري‎ al-Ittiḥād al-Qumurī / Qamarī), is an island country in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique, the French region of Mayotte, and northwestern Madagascar. The capital and largest city in Comoros is Moroni. The religion of the majority of the population is Sunni Islam.

At 1,660 km2 (640 sq mi), excluding the contested island of Mayotte, the Comoros is the fourth-smallest African nation by area. The population, excluding Mayotte, is estimated at 795,601. As a nation formed at a crossroads of different civilisations, the archipelago is noted for its diverse culture and history. The archipelago was first inhabited by Bantu speakers who came from East Africa, supplemented by Arab and Austronesian immigration.

The sovereign state is an archipelago consisting of three major islands and numerous smaller islands, all in the volcanic Comoro Islands. The major islands are commonly known by their French names: northwestern-most Grande Comore (Ngazidja), Mohéli (Mwali), and Anjouan (Nzwani). In addition, the country has a claim on a fourth major island, southeastern-most Mayotte (Maore), though Mayotte voted against independence from France in 1974, has never been administered by an independent Comoros government, and continues to be administered by France (currently as an overseas department). France has vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would affirm Comorian sovereignty over the island. In addition, Mayotte became an overseas department and a region of France in 2011 following a referendum passed overwhelmingly.

It became part of the French colonial empire in the end of 19th century before becoming independent in 1975. Since declaring independence, the country has experienced more than 20 coups d'état or attempted coups, with various heads of state assassinated. Along with this constant political instability, the population of the Comoros lives with the worst income inequality of any nation, with a Gini coefficient over 60%, while also ranking in the worst quartile on the Human Development Index. As of 2008 about half the population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. The French insular region of Mayotte, which is the most prosperous territory in the Mozambique Channel, is the major destination for Comorian illegal immigrants who flee their country. The Comoros is a member state of the African Union, Francophonie, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Arab League (of which it is the southernmost state, being the only member state of the Arab League with a tropical climate and also entirely within the Southern Hemisphere) and the Indian Ocean Commission. Other countries near the Comoros are Tanzania to the northwest and the Seychelles to the northeast. Its capital is Moroni, on Grande Comore. The Union of the Comoros has three official languages—Comorian, Arabic, and French.

Grande Comore

Grande Comore (Swahili: Ngazidja) is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. It is the largest island in the Comoros nation. Most of its population is of the Comorian ethnic group. Its population as of 2006 is about 316,600. The island's capital is Moroni, which is also the national capital. The island is made up of two shield volcanoes, with Mount Karthala being the country's highest point at 2,361 m (7,746 ft) above sea level. According to the 2009 revision of the constitution of 2002, it is governed by an elected Governor, as are the other islands, with the federal government being much reduced in power. The name Ngazidja is sometimes seen in the now nonstandard form Njazidja.

Hachimiya Ahamada

Hachimiya Ahamada (born 1976) is a French film director of Comorian descent, known for her films about the Comoran diaspora.

LGBT rights in France

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in France have been seen as traditionally liberal. Although same-sex sexual activity was a capital crime that often resulted in the death penalty during the Ancien Régime, all sodomy laws were repealed in 1791 during the French Revolution. However, a lesser known indecent exposure law that often targeted homosexuals was introduced in 1960 before being repealed twenty years later.

The age of consent for same-sex sexual activity was altered more than once before being equalised in 1982 under then–President of France François Mitterrand. After granting same-sex couples domestic partnership benefits known as the civil solidarity pact, France became the thirteenth country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage in 2013. Laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity were enacted in 1985 and 2012, respectively. In 2010, France became the first country in the world to declassify transgenderism as a mental illness. Additionally, since 2017, transgender people have been allowed to change their legal gender without undergoing surgery or receiving any medical diagnosis.France has frequently been named one of the most gay friendly countries in the world. Recent polls have indicated that a majority of the French support same-sex marriage and in 2013, another poll indicated that 77% of the French population believed homosexuality should be accepted by society, one of the highest in the 39 countries polled. Paris has been named by many publications as one of the most gay friendly cities in the world, with Le Marais, Quartier Pigalle and Bois de Boulogne being said to have a thriving LGBT community and nightlife.

Maore dialect

Maore Comorian, or Shimaore (French Mahorais), is one of the two indigenous languages spoken in the French-ruled Comorian islands of Mayotte; Shimaore being a dialect of the Comorian language, while ShiBushi is an unrelated Malayo-Polynesian language originally from Madagascar. Historically, Shimaore- and ShiBushi-speaking villages on Mayotte have been clearly identified, but Shimaore tends to be the de facto indigenous lingua franca in everyday life, because of the larger Shimaore-speaking population. Only Shimaore is represented on the local television news program by RFO. The 2002 census references 80,140 speakers of Shimaore in Mayotte itself, to which one would have to add people living outside the island, mostly in metropolitan France. There are also 20,000 speakers of Comorian in Madagascar, of which 3,000 are Shimaore speakers.

The same 2002 census indicates that 37,840 persons responded as knowing how to read or write Shimaore. However this number has to be taken with caution, since it was a few years after this census was taken that a standard writing system was introduced.

From a sociolinguistic perspective, French tends to be regarded by many Shimaore speakers as the language of higher education and prestige, and there is a temptation by native Mahorans to provide an all-French education to their children. This puts a lot of pressure on Shimaore and the language may become endangered in the near future if nothing is done.Although French remains the official language in Mayotte, Shimaore will probably be taught in Mahoran schools starting in the next few years, and a pilot project began in fall 2004. As in many parts of France where local languages are introduced in the school system, this has led to tensions between partisans of a French-centered education system and administrations, versus those promoting a more diversified approach. Shimaore's position in this regard is however different from other French regions (such as Brittany), since the language is locally spoken by a majority of the population. The project in Mayotte has been inspired by similar projects involving Swahili in eastern Africa countries.

Mayotte is a geographically small territory, but frequent exchanges between villages have not started until the last quarter of the twentieth century. As of 2004, linguistic differences between the east and west part of the island, and between the main city of Mamoudzou and the remote villages, are still noticeable, especially when it comes to phonological differences. One typical example is the word u-la (to eat), notably pronounced this way in the city due to the influence of a brand of yogurt bearing the same name, but pronounced u-dja in other parts of the island.

Mayotte

Mayotte (French: Mayotte, pronounced [majɔt]; Shimaore: Maore, IPA: [maˈore]; Malagasy: Mahori) is an overseas department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte). It consists of a main island, Grande-Terre (or Maore), a smaller island, Petite-Terre (or Pamanzi), and several islets around these two. Mayotte is part of the Comoros archipelago, located in the northern Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Southeast Africa, between northwestern Madagascar and northeastern Mozambique. The department status of Mayotte is recent and the region remains, by a significant margin, the poorest in France. Mayotte is nevertheless much more prosperous than the other countries of the Mozambique Channel, making it a major destination for illegal immigration.

Mayotte's area is 374 square kilometres (144 sq mi) and, with its 270,372 people according to January 2019 official estimates, is very densely populated at 723 per km2 (1,872 per sq mi). The biggest city and prefecture is Mamoudzou on Grande-Terre. However, the Dzaoudzi–Pamandzi International Airport is located on the neighbouring island of Petite-Terre. The territory is also known as Maore, the native name of its main island, especially by advocates of its inclusion in the Union of the Comoros.

Although, as a department, Mayotte is now an integral part of France, the majority of the inhabitants do not speak French as a first language, but a majority of the people 14 years and older report in the census that they can speak French (with varying levels of fluency). The language of the majority is Shimaore, a Sabaki language closely related to the varieties in the neighbouring Comoros islands. The second most widely spoken native language is Kibushi, a Malagasy language, of which there are two varieties, Kibushi Kisakalava, most closely related to the Sakalava dialect of Malagasy, and Kibushi Kiantalaotra. Both have been influenced by Shimaore. The vast majority of the population is Muslim.

The island was populated from neighbouring East Africa with later arrival of Arabs, who brought Islam. A sultanate was established in 1500.

In the 19th century, Mayotte was conquered by Andriantsoly, former king of Iboina on Madagascar, and later by the neighbouring islands Mohéli and then Anjouan before being purchased by France in 1841. The people of Mayotte voted to remain politically a part of France in the 1974 referendum on the independence of the Comoros. Mayotte became an overseas department on 31 March 2011 and became an outermost region of the European Union on 1 January 2014, following a 2009 referendum with an overwhelming result in favour of the department status.

The new department is facing enormous problems and challenges: in 2019, with an annual population growth of 3.8%, half the population is less than 17 years old, unemployment reaches 35% and 84% of the inhabitants live below the official poverty line. In addition, as a result of massive illegal immigration from neighboring islands, 48% of the population are foreign nationals.

Mohéli

Mohéli, also known as Mwali, is an autonomous island that forms part of the Union of the Comoros.

Mzungu

Mzungu (pronounced [m̩ˈzuŋɡu]) is a Bantu language term used in the African Great Lakes region to refer to people of European descent. It is a commonly used expression among Bantu peoples in Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Comoros, Mayotte and Zambia, dating back to the 18th century.

Outline of Comoros

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Comoros:

Comoros – sovereign island nation located in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of Africa on the northern end of the Mozambique Channel between northern Madagascar and northeastern Mozambique. The nearest countries to the Comoros are Mozambique, Tanzania, Madagascar, and the Seychelles. At 2,235 km² (863 sq mi) the Comoros is the third smallest African nation by area; and with a population estimated at 798,000 it is the sixth smallest African nation by population (though it has one of the highest population densities in Africa), and is the southern most member state of the Arab League. Its name derives from the Arabic word qamar ("moon"). The country is notable for its diverse culture and history, as a nation formed at the crossroads of many civilizations. It has three official languages—Comorian (Shikomor), Arabic, and French, and it is the only state to be a member of each of the African Union, Francophonie, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Arab League, and Indian Ocean Commission, among other international organizations. However it has had a troubled history since independence in 1975, marked by an inordinate number of coups d'état.

Réunion

Réunion (French: La Réunion, pronounced [la ʁe.ynjɔ̃] (listen); previously Île Bourbon) is an overseas department and region of France and an island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 km (109 mi) southwest of Mauritius. As of January 2019, it had a population of 866,506.The island has been inhabited since the 16th century, when people from France and Madagascar settled there. Slavery was abolished on 20 December 1848 (a date celebrated yearly on the island), when the French Second Republic abolished slavery in the French colonies. However, later on indentured workers were brought to Réunion from South India, among other places. The island became an overseas department of France in 1946.

As in France, the official language is French. In addition, the majority of the region's population speaks Réunion Creole.

Administratively, Réunion is one of the overseas departments of France. Like the other four overseas departments, it is also one of the 18 regions of France, with the modified status of overseas region, and an integral part of the republic with the same status as Metropolitan France. Réunion is an outermost region of the European Union and, as an overseas department of France, part of the eurozone.

SWB

SWB may refer to:

Börse Stuttgart, international code for the Stuttgart Stock Exchange

Maore dialect, ISO 639-3 code for the Maore dialect of the Comorian language

Shallow water blackout, a loss of consciousness suffered while breath-hold diving in shallow water

Silver War Badge, a World War I military service badge

Smith & Wesson's stock listing symbol on the New York Stock Exchange

South Wales Borderers, a British Army regiment

Southwestern Bell, an American telecommunications company

Star Wars: Battlefront, a video game

Tripartite model of subjective well-being, a psychological concept of happiness

Wheelbase, short wheelbase, vehicle chassis length

Subjective well-being, a self-reported measure of well-being

Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: language of the Swahili people), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people. It is a lingua franca of the African Great Lakes region and other parts of eastern and south-eastern Africa, including Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, some parts of Malawi and Zambia, Mozambique and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Comorian, spoken in the Comoros Islands, is sometimes considered to be a dialect of Swahili, though other authorities consider it a distinct language.The exact number of Swahili speakers, be it native or second-language speakers, is unknown and a matter of debate. Various estimates have been put forward and they vary widely, ranging from 15 million to 50 million. Swahili serves as a national language of the DRC, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Shikomor, the official language in Comoros and also spoken in Mayotte (Shimaore), is related to Swahili. Swahili is also one of the working languages of the African Union and officially recognised as a lingua franca of the East African Community. In 2018 South Africa legalized the teaching of Swahili in South African schools as an optional subject to begin in 2020.A significant fraction of Swahili vocabulary derives from Arabic, in part conveyed by Arabic-speaking Muslim inhabitants. For example, the Swahili word for "book" is kitabu, traceable back to the Arabic word كتاب kitāb (from the root K-T-B "write"). However, the Swahili plural form of this word ("books") is vitabu, rather than the Arabic plural form كتب kutub, following the Bantu grammar in which ki- is reanalysed as a nominal class prefix, whose plural is vi-.

Udzima wa ya Masiwa

"Udzima wa ya Masiwa" (Comorian for "The Union of the Great Islands") is the national anthem of Comoros. Adopted upon independence in 1978, it was written by Said Hachim Sidi Abderemane who also composed the music, along with Kamildine Abdallah.

Mayotte (claimed by the Comoros, but under French administration) is also mentioned in the song.

WLC

WLC or wlc may refer to:

Live Mesh (formerly Windows Live Core), a data synchronization system for computing devices

Warrior Leader Course (now known as Basic Leader Course or BLC), a course of study for non-commissioned officers in the US Army

Weighted Least-Connection, a scheduling algorithm used by load balancing software such as Linux Virtual Server

West London College, an independent college of further and higher education

West Lothian Council, a Scottish local authority

Westminster Larger Catechism

Westminster Leningrad Codex, one of the oldest manuscripts of the complete Hebrew Bible

White Lined Chipboard, a paperboard grade

William Lane Craig, an American philosopher of religion and Christian apologist

Windows Live Calendar, a time-management web application by Microsoft as part of its Windows Live services

Wireless LAN Controller, computer networking device

Wireless charging (a.k.a. inductive charging) of mobile devices

Wisconsin Lutheran College, a liberal arts college affiliated with the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod

Woods Learning Center, an academic program in Casper, Wyoming

World Lacrosse Championship

World Logging Championship, a competition between foresters

World Lotto Corporation, an official European lottery site and platinum marketing partner of the International Lottery in Liechtenstein Foundation

Worm-like chain, a model in polymer physics

Comorian language, Mwali dialect

World Lethwei Championship, Martial arts promotion

Official languages
Non-official languages

Languages

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