Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property.
Forms of common ownership exist in every economic system. Common ownership of the means of production is a central goal of communist political movements as it is seen as a necessary democratic mechanism for the creation and continued function of a communist society. Advocates make a distinction between collective ownership and common property as the former refers to property owned jointly by agreement of a set of colleagues, such as producer cooperatives, whereas the latter refers to assets that are completely open for access, such as a public park freely available to everyone.
While virtually all societies have elements of common ownership, societies have existed where common ownership extended to essentially all possessions. Another term for this arrangement is a "gift economy" or communalism. Many nomadic societies effectively practiced common ownership of land.
The first church in Jerusalem shared all their money and possessions (Acts of the Apostles 2 and 4). Inspired by the Early Christians, many Christians have since tried to follow their example of community of goods and common ownership. Common ownership is practiced by some Christian groups such as the Hutterites (for about 500 years), the Bruderhof (for some 100 years) and others. In those cases, property is generally owned by a charity set up for the purpose of maintaining the members of the religious groups.
Common ownership is practised by large numbers of voluntary associations and non-profit organizations as well as implicitly by all public bodies. Most co-operatives have some element of common ownership, but some part of their capital may be individually owned.
Many socialist movements advocate the common ownership of the means of production by all of society as an eventual goal to be achieved through the development of the productive forces, although many socialists classify socialism as public-ownership of the means of production, reserving common ownership for what Karl Marx termed "upper-stage communism". From a Marxist analysis, a society based on a superabundance of goods and common ownership of the means of production would be devoid of classes based on ownership of productive property.
Therefore, public or state ownership of industry is seen as a temporary measure to be adopted during the transition from capitalism to socialism, which will eventually be displaced by common ownership as state authority becomes obsolete as class distinctions evaporate. Common ownership in a hypothetical communist society is distinguished from primitive forms of common property that have existed throughout history, such as Communalism and primitive communism, in that communist common ownership is the outcome of social and technological developments leading to the elimination of material scarcity in society.
From 1918 until 1995 the common ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange was cited in Clause IV of its constitution as a goal of the British Labour Party and was quoted on the back of its membership cards. The clause read:
Neoclassical economic theory analyzes common ownership using contract theory. According to the incomplete contracting approach pioneered by Oliver Hart and his co-authors, ownership matters because the owner of an asset has residual control rights. This means that the owner can decide what to do with the asset in every contingency not covered by a contract. In particular, an owner has stronger incentives to make relationship-specific investments than a non-owner, so ownership can ameliorate the so-called hold-up problem. As a result, ownership is a scarce resource that should not be wasted. In particular, a central result of the property rights approach says that joint ownership is suboptimal. If we start in a situation with joint ownership (where each party has veto power over the use of the asset) and move to a situation in which there is a single owner, the investment incentives of the new owner are improved while the investment incentives of the other parties remain the same. However, in the basic incomplete contracting framework the sub-optimality of joint ownership holds only if the investments are in human capital while joint ownership can be optimal if the investments are in physical capital. Recently, several authors have shown that joint ownership can actually be optimal even if investments are in human capital. In particular, joint ownership can be optimal if the parties are asymmetrically informed, if there is a long-term relationship between the parties, or if the parties have know-how that they may disclose.
ii)...Because of the transitional nature of socialism and the existence of the state as a marker of irreconcilable differences between classes Maoism also recognized the existence of class struggle under socialism which could be of a low-level of intensity or of a higher one (cultural revolution) but which would exist until the dissolution of classes and the state with it. iii) In the realm of scientific socialism Maoism is marked by the theory of class struggle and its existence during the dictatorship of the proletariat as well as it’s centrality in the construction of socialism. It is also characterized by the strategy and tactics of the revolution through People’s War led by the revolutionary Communist party of the proletariat, proletarian feminism, the national question, the mass line as well as the classline.
Clause IV is part of the constitution of the UK Labour Party, which sets out the aims and values of the party. The original clause, adopted in 1918, called for common ownership of industry, and proved controversial in later years, with Hugh Gaitskell attempting to remove the clause after Labour's loss in the 1959 general election.
In 1995, under the leadership of Tony Blair, a new Clause IV was adopted. This was seen as a significant moment in Blair's redefinition of the party as "New Labour", but has survived beyond the New Labour branding.Co-operatives UK
Co-operatives UK is "the central membership organisation for co-operative enterprise throughout the UK". The co-operative federation was founded in 1870 as the Co-operative Central Board, changing its name to the Co-operative Union before finally becoming Co-operatives UK following its merger with the Industrial Common Ownership Movement (ICOM) in 2001. Historically associated with the consumer co-operatives, the merger broadened its scope to include worker co-operatives and it now exists to support and promote the values of the entire co-operative movement throughout the UK.During its history, it has been responsible for the organisation of the Co-operative Congresses, the establishment of both Co-operative Commissions and the creation of the Co-operative College and the Co-operative Party. The head office, Holyoake House in Manchester, is a Grade II listed building, and was built in 1911 in memory of the co-operative activist George Jacob Holyoake.Membership of Co-operatives UK includes organisations as diverse as the Woodcraft Folk, Suma Wholefoods and the Co-operative Group. It is controlled by a board elected by its membership, is a member of the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA), the trustee of the Co-operative College, and retains a nominated seat on the National Executive Committee of the Co-operative Party.Collective ownership
Collective ownership is the ownership of means of production by all members of a group for the benefit of all its members. The breadth or narrowness of the group can range from a whole society to a set of coworkers in a particular enterprise (such as one collective farm). In the latter (narrower) sense the term is distinguished from common ownership and the commons, which implies open-access, the holding of assets in common, and the negation of ownership as such.
Collective ownership of the means of production is the defining characteristic of socialism, where "collective ownership" can refer to society-wide ownership or to cooperative ownership by an organization's members. It more commonly refers to group ownership (such as a producer cooperative) as contrasted with public ownership.Communism
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution.
The two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production.
The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be roughly divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory.Marxism-Leninism and social democracy were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; social democracy advocates economic reform through gradual democratic legislative action rather than through revolution.Customary land
Customary land is land which is owned by indigenous communities and administered in accordance with their customs, as opposed to statutory tenure usually introduced during the colonial periods. Common ownership is one form of customary land ownership.
Since the late 20th century, statutory recognition and protection of indigenous and community land rights continues to be a major challenge. The gap between formally recognized and customarily held and managed land is a significant source of underdevelopment, conflict, and environmental degradation.In the Malawi Land Act of 1965, "Customary Land" is defined as "all land which is held, occupied or used under customary law, but does not include any public land". In most countries of the Pacific islands, customary land remains the dominant land tenure form. Distinct customary systems of tenure have evolved on different islands and areas within the Pacific region. In any country there may be many different types of customary tenure.The amount of customary land ownership out of the total land area of Pacific island nations is the following: 97% in Papua New Guinea, 90% in Vanuatu, 88% in Fiji, 87% in the Solomon Islands, and 81% in Samoa.Duopoly (broadcasting)
A duopoly (or twinstick, referring to "stick" as jargon for a radio tower) is a situation in television and radio broadcasting in which two or more stations in the same city or community share common ownership.Freehold (law)
In common law jurisdictions like England and Wales, United States, Australia, Canada, and Ireland, a freehold is the common ownership of real property, or land, and all immovable structures attached to such land. It is in contrast to a leasehold: in which the property reverts to the owner of the land after the lease period has expired. For an estate to be a freehold, it must possess two qualities: immobility (property must be land or some interest issuing out of or annexed to land) and ownership of it must be of an indeterminate duration. If the time of ownership can be fixed and determined, it cannot be a freehold.It is "An estate in land held in fee simple, fee tail or for term of life." A subset is a perpetual freehold, which is "an estate given to a grantee for life, and then successively to the grantee's heirs for life."In England and Wales, before the Law of Property Act 1925, a freehold estate transferable to the owner's "heirs and assigns" (successors by inheritance, or purchase (including gift), respectively) was a fee simple estate. A fee tail estate describes when transfer (by inheritance or otherwise) was limited to lineal descendants of the first person to whom the estate was given (known as "heirs of the body" or "heirs of the blood"). There were also freehold estates not of inheritance, such as an estate for life.Muskegon Chronicle
The Muskegon Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Muskegon, Michigan, owned by Booth newspapers. In May 2007, the paper celebrated 150 years.
Because of common ownership with Grand Rapids Press, the Chronicle's coverage and distribution focuses on Muskegon, Newaygo, Oceana, and Ottawa County north of the Grand River, while the Press focuses on Kent, Ottawa (south of the Grand River), and Allegan counties. These two papers often publish each other's stories. Beginning with the October 18 edition, printing of the Chronicle was moved to Muskegon to the Walker, Michigan, printing facility of The Grand Rapids Press. Both newspapers are still printed daily, although home delivery for both was reduced to three days a week (Tuesday, Thursday, and Sunday) with an e-edition available to subscribers and the print edition available only in newsstands on the other days.Seaboard System Railroad
The Seaboard System Railroad, Inc. (reporting mark SBD) was a short-lived former US Class I railroad that was created on December 29, 1982 after the consolidation of the Seaboard Coast Line and its sister railroads (notably the Louisville & Nashville and Clinchfield) into a single entity. It was one of two operating companies of CSX Corporation, the other being Chessie System.
Since the late 1960s, the Seaboard Coast Line and its sister railroads had been known as the "Family Lines System," sharing common ownership while operating under different names when conducting business. On July 1, 1986, Seaboard and Chessie merged into Chesapeake & Ohio Railway on August 31, 1987 which ended the CSX Corporation's shared ownership of the Seaboard System and Chessie System railroads.Sister station
In broadcasting, sister stations or sister channels are radio or television stations operated by the same company, either by direct ownership or through a management agreement.
Radio sister stations will often have different formats, and often one station is on the AM band while another is on the FM band. Conversely, several types of sister-station relationships exist in television; stations in the same city will usually be affiliated with different television networks (often one with a major network and the other with a secondary network), and may occasionally shift television programs between each other when local events require one station to interrupt its network feed.
Sister stations in separate (but often nearby) cities owned by the same company may or may not share a network affiliation. For example, WNYW and WWOR-TV, in New York City and Secaucus, New Jersey, are both owned by 21st Century Fox. WNYW is a Fox owned-and-operated station; WWOR-TV is a MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated station. In addition, stations in different cities affiliated with the same network, but not sharing an ownership tie, may refer to each other informally as sister stations.
Sister networks or sister channels, in many cases, are cable or satellite channels which are launched to either broadcast series which either premiered on the main network but has been moved out of the higher-priority schedule (such as TV Land), fulfill a specific niche of content which would not be fulfilled on the main network (such as Nick Jr. or Nicktoons) or broadcast to a wider audience than the main network (such as CNN International or Al Jazeera English). However, in other cases, these cable or satellite channels may only share common ownership. The establishment and proliferation of sister networks on cable, satellite and internet providers has become easier and more commercially profitable over the history of such media venues.State ownership
State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party. Public ownership specifically refers to industries selling goods and services to consumers and differs from public goods and government services financed out of a government’s general budget. Public ownership can take place at the national, regional, local, or municipal levels of government; or can refer to non-governmental public ownership vested in autonomous public enterprises. Public ownership is one of the three major forms of property ownership, differentiated from private, collective/cooperative, and common ownership.In market-based economies, state-owned assets are often managed and operated as joint-stock corporations with a government owning all or a controlling stake of the company's shares. This form is often referred to as a state-owned enterprise. A state-owned enterprise might variously operate as a not-for-profit corporation, as it may not be required to generate a profit; as a commercial enterprise in competitive sectors; or as a natural monopoly. Governments may also use the profitable entities they own to support the general budget. The creation of a state-owned enterprise from other forms of public property is called corporatization.
In Soviet-type economies, state property was the dominant form of industry as property. The state held a monopoly on land and natural resources, and enterprises operated under the legal framework of a nominally planned economy, and thus according to different criteria than enterprises in market and mixed economies.
Nationalization process of transferring private or municipal assets to a central government or state entity. Municipalization is the process of transferring private or state assets to a municipal government.Television station
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most often the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more recently, via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively.
Because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments often claim authority to regulate them. Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were typically limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations usually require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages.
Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational (NCE) and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries generally limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably. Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news.The Intelligencer and Wheeling News Register
The Intelligencer and Wheeling News Register are combined daily newspapers under common ownership in Wheeling, West Virginia, and are the flagship publications of Ogden Newspapers. The Intelligencer is published weekday mornings and Saturdays, while the News-Register is published weekday afternoons and Sundays.The Register-Herald
The Register-Herald is seven-day morning daily newspaper based in Beckley, West Virginia, and also covering surrounding communities in Fayette, Greenbrier, Raleigh, Summers and Wyoming counties, West Virginia. It has a circulation of 19,237 and is owned by Community Newspaper Newspaper Holdings.The newspaper traces its history to The Raleigh Register, the Raleigh Herald, and the Beckley Evening Post which were among a dozen weekly and monthly publications published in and around Beckley as early as the 1880s. The Raleigh Register developed into a modern daily newspaper and began seven-day publication on June 6, 1923. The Evening Post began daily publication on February 12, 1924. On May 31, 1926 the Herald and Evening Post combined as a morning daily newspaper known as the Beckley Post-Herald. On June 1, 1928 the Raleigh Register and Beckley Post-Herald came under common ownership, with the Post-Herald publishing Monday-Friday mornings, the Register publishing Monday-Friday afternoons, with subscribers receiving a combined paper produced by the Post-Herald staff on Saturday and the Register staff on Sunday. Despite the common ownership the Register was generally a Democratic newspaper, and the Post-Herald a Republican alternative. This arrangement continued until the sale of the newspapers to the owners of the Charleston Daily Mail in 1977. Following this, the editorial independence of the two publications declined, and the Register was slowly shut down. By 1981 the Register was simply an afternoon reprint and update of the Post-Herald, with a separate editorial page, and on January 1, 1985 the two newspapers were completely combined under the current name.
The newspaper changed hands three times in the 1990s, before being acquired by its current owners in 2000. Circulation has waned with the declining population of the area.
Beckley Newspapers, a division of Community Newspaper Holdings Inc., publishes The Register-Herald and two weekly newspapers, The Fayette Tribune and The Montgomery Herald.The Tex Avery Show
The Tex Avery Show is an animated showcase of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Warner Bros. cartoon shorts prominently by animator Tex Avery (a.k.a. Fred Avery). The showcase premiered on the Cartoon Network in 1996 (not long after the Time Warner-Turner merger allowed for common ownership of all but four of Avery's cartoons), and was taken off the air in 2002, while reruns continued to be shown on Cartoon Network until June 2004. It was soon re-broadcast on Boomerang.Travel Channel International
Travel Channel International is a commercial television channel owned by Discovery, Inc. and broadcasting travel-themed programmes in the EMEA regions and Asia Pacific, spanning 21 on-air languages. The channel was operated by Travel Channel International Limited (TCI) and despite the name, it had no relation with the American television channel of the same name, until TCI was acquired by Scripps Networks Interactive in May 2012. In March 2018 Discovery, Inc. acquired Scripps Networks Interactive. With the American service's rebranding as a destination for paranormal and supernatural programming in October 2018, the International service now again diverges from the American network in its programming, this time under common ownership.Vertical integration
In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need. It is contrasted with horizontal integration, wherein a company produces several items which are related to one another. Vertical integration has also described management styles that bring large portions of the supply chain not only under a common ownership, but also into one corporation (as in the 1920s when the Ford River Rouge Complex began making much of its own steel rather than buying it from suppliers).
Vertical integration and expansion is desired because it secures the supplies needed by the firm to produce its product and the market needed to sell the product. Vertical integration and expansion can become undesirable when its actions become anti-competitive and impede free competition in an open marketplace. Vertical integration is one method of avoiding the hold-up problem. A monopoly produced through vertical integration is called a vertical monopoly.WBT-FM
WBT-FM ("News 1110/99.3 WBT") is a commercial FM radio station licensed to Chester, South Carolina that primarily serves the western region of the Charlotte metropolitan area. The station is owned by Entercom, one of the largest owners of radio stations in the United States. The station's programming primarily consists of simulcasts of the news/talk radio format of WBT, AM 1110 in Charlotte.
WBT-FM was first licensed, as WCMJ, on December 1, 1969. It broadcasts on 99.3 MHz with an effective radiated power (ERP) of 7,700 watts, using a tower nearly 600 feet (182 meters) in height above average terrain (HAAT). The transmitter is located 40 miles (65 kilometers) southwest of Charlotte, off Armenia Road in Chester. The station is also authorized to broadcast using the digital HD Radio format.Studios are located at One Julian Price Place on West Morehead Street, just west of Uptown Charlotte, co-located with the city's CBS affiliate WBTV, which previously had common ownership.Worker cooperative
A worker cooperative is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers. This control may be exercised in a number of ways. A cooperative enterprise may mean a firm where every worker-owner participates in decision-making in a democratic fashion, or it may refer to one in which management is elected by every worker-owner, and it can refer to a situation in which managers are considered, and treated as, workers of the firm. In traditional forms of worker cooperative, all shares are held by the workforce with no outside or consumer owners, and each member has one voting share. In practice, control by worker-owners may be exercised through individual, collective, or majority ownership by the workforce; or the retention of individual, collective, or majority voting rights (exercised on a one-member one-vote basis). A worker cooperative, therefore, has the characteristic that each of its workers owns one share, and all shares are owned by the workers. The International organisation representing worker cooperatives is CICOPA. CICOPA has two regional organisations: CECOP- CICOPA Europe and CICOPA Americas.
|Theory and practice|