A commission is a formal document issued to appoint a named person to high office or as a commissioned officer in a territory's armed forces.
Commissions are typically issued in the name of or signed by the head of state. In Commonwealth realms other than the United Kingdom, they may be signed by the Governor-General, the representative of the monarch of that realm, who is also Commander-in-Chief in and over that realm.
Because the word "commission" can also refer generally to an individual's duty, the more specific terms commissioning parchment or commissioning scroll are often used to specify the commissioning document. However the document is not usually in the form of a scroll and is more often printed on paper instead of parchment. In Canada, there is a differentiation in terminology according to rank; officers are accorded commissioning scripts whereas Chief Warrant Officers are accorded scrolls.
Here is an example from Canada:
ELIZABETH THE SECOND, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Canada and Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
To ........ .........
hereby appointed an Officer in Her Majesty's Canadian Armed Forces
With Seniority of the .... day of ......... ....
WE reposing especial Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, Courage and Integrity do by these Presents Constitute and Appoint you to be an Officer in our Canadian Armed Forces. You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge your Duty as such in the Rank of .............. or in such other Rank as We may from time to time hereafter be pleased to promote or appoint you to, and you are in such manner and on such occasions as may be prescribed by us to exercise and well discipline both the Inferior Officers and Non-Commissioned Members serving under you and use your best endeavour to keep them in good Order and Discipline, and We do hereby Command them to Obey you as their Superior Officer, and you to observe and follow such Orders and Directions as from time to time you shall receive from Us, or any other your Superior Officer according to Law, in pursuance of the Trust hereby Reposed in you.
IN WITNESS Whereof our Governor General of Canada hath hereunto set her hand and Seal at Our Government House in the City of Ottawa this .... day of .......... in the Year of our Lord ................... and in the .... Year of Our Reign.
By Command of Her Excellency the Governor General
Canadian Commissioning Scripts, as they are properly called by NDHQ, are signed by the Governor General of Canada and countersigned by the Minister of National Defence, on behalf of the Queen of Canada.
Here is an example of the Royal Canadian Navy's Commission from pre-1968:
ELIZABETH THE SECOND, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Canada and Her other Realms and Territories, Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
To Mr . . . . . . . . . . . . hereby appointed Sub Lieutenant in Her Majesty's Canadian Fleet.
WE reposing special Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, Courage and Integrity, do by these Presents Constitute and Appoint you a Sub Lieutenant, Royal Canadian Navy, Willing and Requiring you from time to time to repair on board and to take upon you the Charge and Command of Sub Lieutenant in any ship or Establishment to which you may hereafter at any time be duly appointed, or the charge and Command of any other Rank to which you may be promoted or appointed, strictly Charging and Commanding all the Officers and company of the said Ship or Establishment subordinate to you to conduct themselves jointly and severally in their respective employments with all due Respect and Obedience unto you, and you likewise to observe and execute the Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Royal Canadian Navy and such Orders and Instructions as you shall from time to time receive from Naval Headquarters or from your Superior Officers. Hereof nor you nor any of you may fail as you will answer the contrary at your Peril. And for so doing so this shall be Your Commission.
Officers in the Swedish Armed Forces have not received written commissions since 1982 when a new employment structure was instituted by law. They are nowadays hired on contracts, as in any other civil service position. Prior to 1982 all officers received written certificates of commission, each signed by the King of Sweden.
The wording used prior to 1982 in translation would be;
By the Grace of God, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Wends, make known: that We by this open commission have by grace commissioned and appointed the [present rank] in the [name of service or regiment] [recipients name] that from [day] of [month] [year] be [new rank] in the [name of service or regiment]. This for the observance of all. Stockholm Palace on the [day] of [month] [year].
The following is typical of the wording of a British commission, and comes from the Royal Naval Reserve:
Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, Lord High Admiral.
To our Trusty and Well Beloved ....... ....... Greeting:
We, reposing especial Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty, Courage, and good Conduct, do by these Presents Constitute and Appoint you to be an Officer in Our Royal Naval Reserve from the .... day of ........ ...... You are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge your Duty as such in the Rank of .............. or in such other Rank as We may from time to time hereafter be pleased to promote you to, of which a notification will be made in the London Gazette, and you are in such manner on such occasions as may be prescribed by Us to exercise and well discipline in their duties such officers, men and women as may be placed under your orders from time to time and use your best endeavours to keep them in good order and discipline.
And We do hereby Command them to Obey you as their superior Officer and you to observe and follow such Orders and Directions as from time to time you shall receive from Us, or any superior Officer, according to the Rules and Discipline of War, in pursuance of the Trust hereby reposed in you.
Given at Our Court, at Saint James's the .... day of ........ .... in the ..... Year of Our Reign
By Her Majesty's Command
The above would be signed by the Queen (although a facsimile signature may be used) and countersigned by two members of the Admiralty Board.
Before the Board of Admiralty were merged into the Ministry of Defence in 1964, with the title of Lord High Admiral reverting to the Crown, the naval officer's commission was signed not by the Sovereign but by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, executing the office of Lord High Admiral. The naval officer's commission was worded as follows:
By the Commissioners for Executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom.
To ......... ..........
hereby appointed a ............... in Her Majesty's Fleet.
By Virtue of the Power of Authority to us given by Her Majesty's Letters Patent under the Great Seal, We do hereby constitute and appoint you a .......... in Her Majesty's Fleet. Charging and Commanding you in that rank or in any higher rank to which you may be promoted to observe and execute the Queen's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions for the Government of Her Majesty's Naval Service and all such Orders and Instructions as you shall from time to time receive from Us or from your Superior Officers for Her Majesty's Service. And likewise Charging and Commanding all Officers and Men subordinate to you according to the said Regulations Instructions or Orders to behave themselves with all due Respect and Obedience to you their Superior Officer. Given under our hands and the Seal of the Office of Admiralty this .... day of ......... .... in the .... Year of Her Majesty's Reign.
With Seniority of ..............
Similarly the following is the wording of a Lieutenant's Commission from 1800:
By the Commissioners for executing the Office of the Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland &c and of all His Majesty's Plantations &c.
To Lieut. ..... hereby appointed Lieutenant of His Majesty's Ship the.......
By Virtue of the Power and Authority to us given We do hereby constitute and appoint you Lieutenant of His Majesty's Ship the ..... willing and requiring you forthwith to go on board and take upon you the Charge and Command of Lieutenant in her accordingly. Strictly Charging and Commanding all the Officers and Company belonging to the said ship subordinate to you to behave themselves jointly and severally in their respective Employments with all the Respect and Obedience unto you their said Lieutenant; And you likewise to observe and execute as well the General printed Instructions as what Orders and Directions you shall from time to time receive from your Captain or any other your superior Officers for His Majesty's service. Hereof nor you nor any of you may fail as you will answer the contrary at your peril. And for so doing this shall be your Warrant. Given under our hands and the Seal of the Office Admiralty this ..... day of ....., ..... in the ..... Year of His Majesty's Reign.
By Command of their Lordships
Article II, section 3, of the U.S. Constitution provides that the President "shall Commission all the Officers of the United States," including officers of the uniformed services as well as civilian officers. Commissions of officers in the armed services are issued in the name of the President, although authority to sign on the President's behalf is generally exercised by the secretary of the department in which the officer is being commissioned. This includes not only "commissioned officers" but also "commissioned warrant officers" (warrant officers in the pay grades of W-2 through W-5). Warrant officers at the grade of W-1 are appointed by warrant by the secretary of their respective service, except in the Coast Guard where they are appointed by secretarial commission.
The commission of a newly commissioned officer reads:
The President of the United States of America
To all who shall see these presents, greeting:
Know Ye that, reposing special trust and confidence in the patriotism, valor, fidelity and abilities of .................., I do appoint ["him" or "her"] a ["Second Lieutenant" or "Ensign"] in the [name of service] to rank as such from the .... day of ........ ...... This Officer will therefore carefully and diligently discharge the duties of the office to which appointed by doing and performing all manner of things thereunto belonging.
And I do strictly charge and require those Officers and other personnel of lesser rank to render such obedience as is due an officer of this grade and position. And this Officer is to observe and follow such orders and directives, from time to time, as may be given by me, or the future President of the United States of America, or other Superior Officers acting in accordance with the laws of the United States of America.
This commission is to continue in force during the pleasure of the President of the United States of America for the time being, under the provisions of those Public Laws relating to Officers of the Armed Forces of the United States of America and the component thereof in which this appointment is made.
Done at the City of Washington, this .... day of ........ in the year of our Lord ................ and of the Independence of the United States of America the ..........
By the President:
At higher grade levels, appointments (including promotions) require Senate confirmation, and the wording of the commission reflects that fact: "... I have nominated and, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, do appoint..."
The Constitutional requirement mentioned above, that the President commission all officers of the United States, includes a wide range of civilian officials, including justices of the Supreme Court and other federal judges, U.S. attorneys and marshals, the heads of executive departments, subcabinet officials down to the level of assistant secretary, diplomatic representatives, and members of the Foreign Service, among others. Commissions are issued in the name of the President, either under his own signature or that of an official expressly delegated to act on his behalf, and under either the great seal of the United States or, if prescribed by law, the seal of the department in which the appointment is made.
A typical commission for a Presidentially-appointed, Senate-confirmed civilian official in the Executive Branch would read:
John E. Doe
President of the United States of America
To all to whom these presents shall come greeting: Know ye that reposing special trust and confidence in the Integrity and Ability of Rebecca Frances Roe of Kansas, I have nominated and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, do appoint her Secretary of Transportation and do authorize and empower her to execute and fulfill the duties of that Office according to law, and to have and to hold the said office with all the powers and privileges thereunto of right appertaining, unto her the said Rebecca Frances Roe during the pleasure of the President of the United States for the time being
In Testimony whereof I have caused these Letters to be made Patent and the Seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed.
Done at the City of Washington this second day of December in the Year of our Lord two thousand seventeen and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fortieth.
By the President [President's signature]
[Great Seal] [Secretary of State's signature]
For certain positions, other characteristics such as "prudence" (for ambassadors) or "wisdom, uprightness, and learning" (for judges) may be used in addition to or instead of "integrity and ability." If a position is for a fixed term of years or "during good behavior," the appropriate wording replaces the clause beginning "during the pleasure of the President."
The President of the United States of America
To (name of officer) Greeting
Reposing special trust and confidence in your Integrity, Prudence and Ability, I have nominated and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, do appoint you a Foreign Service Officer, a Consular Officer, and a Secretary in the Diplomatic Service of the United States of America, and do authorize and empower you to do and perform all such matters and things as to the said offices do appertain, and to have and to hold the said offices, and to exercise and enjoy all the rights, privileges and immunities thereunto appertaining, during the pleasure of the President of the United States.
In testimony whereof, I have caused the Seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed.
Done at the City of Washington this .... day of .... in the year of our Lord .... and of the Independence of the United States of America the ....
By the President (President's signature)
The commission is countersigned by the Secretary of State, and the singular Great Seal of the United States, entrusted to the Secretary under the 1789 statute creating the Department of State, is affixed.
A person applying for a license to be a notary public receives a commission, generally indicating what political jurisdiction (state or District of Columbia) issued it, when it is valid (usually four years from issue) and the signature of the issuing authorities (usually the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary of State).
555 Mission Street is a 33 story, 147 m (482 ft) office tower in the South of Market area of San Francisco, California. Construction of the tower began in 2006 and the tower was finished on September 18, 2008. It was the tallest office building constructed in San Francisco in the 2000s, and is the 25th tallest building in San Francisco.The building is the part of a new generation of skyscrapers in San Francisco's downtown built on Mission Street since 2000, including The Paramount, the St. Regis Museum Tower, Millennium Tower, 101 Second Street, and JP MorganChase Building.Aosta Valley
The Aosta Valley (Italian: Valle d'Aosta [ˈvalle daˈɔsta] (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); French: Vallée d'Aoste [vale dɔst] (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Arpitan: Val d'Outa (usual); Walser: Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Piedmontese: Val d'Osta) is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy. It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France, to the west, Valais, Switzerland, to the north and by the Metropolitan City of Turin in the region of Piedmont, Italy, to the south and east.
Covering an area of 3,263 km2 (1,260 sq mi) and with a population of about 128,000 it is the smallest, least populous, and least densely populated region of Italy. It is the only Italian region that is not sub-divided into provinces (the province of Aosta was dissolved in 1945). Provincial administrative functions are provided by the regional government. The region is divided into 74 comuni (communes).
Italian and French are the official languages, though much of the native population also speak Valdôtain, a dialect of Arpitan (Franco-Provençal), as their home language; about half of the population can speak all three languages.The regional capital is Aosta.Chief warrant officer
Chief warrant officer is a military rank used by the United States Armed Forces, the Canadian Armed Forces, the Pakistan Air Force, the Israel Defense Forces, the South African National Defence Force, the Lebanese Armed Forces and, since 2012, the Singapore Armed Forces. In the United States Armed Forces, chief warrant officers are commissioned officers, not non-commissioned officers (NCOs) like in other NATO forces.David Ferrie
David William Ferrie (March 28, 1918 – February 22, 1967) was an American pilot who was alleged by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison to have been involved in a conspiracy to assassinate President John F. Kennedy. Garrison also alleged that Ferrie knew Lee Harvey Oswald. Ferrie denied any involvement in a conspiracy and said he never knew Oswald. Decades later, photos emerged establishing that Ferrie had been in the same Civil Air Patrol unit as Oswald in the 1950s, but critics have argued this does not prove that either Ferrie or Oswald was involved in an assassination plot.Districts of Papua New Guinea
This page is a list of districts of Papua New Guinea.Education and Training 2010
"Education and Training 2010" was the name given by the European Commission to the activities it supports which pursue the agenda set out in the 2001 report of European Ministers of Education to the Spring 2001 European Council, and in their 2002 joint work programme with the Commission. It functions under the Open Method of Coordination and involves exchanges of experience and good practice, joint policy development, benchmarking and measurement of progress.Emergency
An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible and agencies may only be able to offer palliative care for the aftermath.
While some emergencies are self-evident (such as a natural disaster that threatens many lives), many smaller incidents require that an observer (or affected party) decide whether it qualifies as an emergency.
The precise definition of an emergency, the agencies involved and the procedures used, vary by jurisdiction, and this is usually set by the government, whose agencies (emergency services) are responsible for emergency planning and management.Howard Brennan
Howard Leslie Brennan (March 20, 1919 – December 22, 1983) was a witness to the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. According to the Warren Commission, Brennan's description of a sniper he saw was probative in reaching the conclusion that the shots came from the sixth floor, southeast corner window of the Texas School Book Depository Building.IEEE 802.11p
IEEE 802.11p is an approved amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard to add wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE), a vehicular communication system. It defines enhancements to 802.11 (the basis of products marketed as Wi-Fi) required to support Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications. This includes data exchange between high-speed vehicles and between the vehicles and the roadside infrastructure, so called V2X communication, in the licensed ITS band of 5.9 GHz (5.85-5.925 GHz). IEEE 1609 is a higher layer standard based on the IEEE 802.11p. It is also the basis of a European standard for vehicular communication known as ETSI ITS-G5.John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories
The assassination of John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 and the subsequent murder of the prime suspect Lee Harvey Oswald by night club owner Jack Ruby two days later has spurred numerous conspiracy theories. These include accusations of involvement of the CIA, the Mafia, sitting Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro, the KGB, or some combination thereof. The seriously flawed original FBI investigation and Warren Commission report as well as a "benign CIA cover-up" has led to the claim that US federal government deliberately covered up crucial information in the aftermath of the assassination. Former Los Angeles District Attorney Vincent Bugliosi estimated that a total of 42 groups, 82 assassins, and 214 people had been accused at one time or another in various conspiracy scenarios.In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald was the only person responsible for assassinating Kennedy. In 1979, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that Kennedy was assassinated probably as a result of a conspiracy. The HSCA concluded that a second gunman besides Oswald probably also fired at Kennedy, based on acoustic evidence that was later discredited. In 1998, the Assassinations Records Review Board unearthed inconsistencies in the prior investigations, and the Board's chief analyst for military records contended that the brain photographs in the Kennedy records were probably not of Kennedy's brain.Last Bastion Station Trust
The Last Bastion Station Trust, LLC is a privately owned trust company that temporarily owns 2 radio stations previously owned by Citadel Broadcasting. Citadel absorbed ABC Radio as well as 22 radio stations (not including ESPN Radio and Radio Disney O&O affiliates) on June 12, 2007 from The Walt Disney Company, making Citadel Broadcasting the 3rd-largest radio company in the United States. However, in order to comply with the FCC ownership limitations, Citadel transferred 12 of its radio stations.Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was an American Marxist and former U.S. Marine who assassinated United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. Oswald was honorably released from active duty in the Marine Corps into the reserve and defected to the Soviet Union in October 1959. He lived in the Belarusian city of Minsk until June 1962, when he returned to the United States with his Russian wife, Marina, and eventually settled in Dallas. Five government investigations concluded that Oswald shot and killed Kennedy from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository as the President traveled by motorcade through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas.
About 45 minutes after assassinating Kennedy, Oswald shot and killed Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit on a local street. He then slipped into a movie theater, where he was arrested for Tippit's murder. Oswald was eventually charged with the assassination of Kennedy; he denied the accusations and stated that he was a "patsy." Two days later, Oswald was fatally shot by local nightclub owner Jack Ruby on live television in the basement of Dallas Police Headquarters.
In September 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone when he assassinated Kennedy by firing three shots from the Texas School Book Depository. This conclusion, though controversial, was supported by previous investigations from the FBI, the Secret Service, and the Dallas Police Department. Despite forensic, ballistic, and eyewitness evidence supporting the official findings, public opinion polls have shown that most Americans do not believe the official version of the events. The assassination has spawned numerous conspiracy theories.N11 code
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Pisco is a colorless or yellowish-to-amber colored brandy produced in winemaking regions of Peru and Chile. Made by distilling fermented grape juice into a high-proof spirit, it was developed by 16th-century Spanish settlers as an alternative to orujo, a pomace brandy that was being imported from Spain. It had the advantages of being produced from abundant domestically grown fruit and reducing the volume of alcoholic beverages transported to remote locations.Saint Edward State Park
Saint Edward State Park is a 316-acre (128 ha)-park in Kenmore, Washington and Kirkland, Washington. It is part of the Washington State Park System. Before becoming a Catholic seminary and later a state park, the area was logged in the 19th century and again in the 1920s. A series of trails runs through the park for bicyclists and hikers. The forest canopy is primarily made up of the Coast Douglas-fir, Western Redcedar, Bigleaf Maple, Pacific Madrone and Western Hemlock. Its dense carpet includes many varieties of fern (mainly Western Sword Fern), shrub and moss. It is flanked on the west by an undeveloped beach on Lake Washington. The park surrounds the Saint Thomas Center, which houses Bastyr University.Spider-Man in film
The fictional character Spider-Man, a comic book superhero created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko and featured in Marvel Comics publications, has currently appeared in eleven live-action films since his inception, not including fan made shorts and guest appearances in other Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) films. Spider-Man is the alter-ego of Peter Parker, a talented young freelance photographer and aspiring scientist imbued with superhuman abilities after being bitten by a radioactive/genetically-altered spider.
The first live-action film based on Spider-Man was the unauthorized short Spider-Man by Donald F. Glut in 1969. This was followed by Spider-Man, an American made-for-television film that premiered on the CBS network in 1977. It starred Nicholas Hammond and was intended as a backdoor pilot for what became a weekly episodic TV series.
The rights to further films featuring the character were purchased in 1985, and moved through various production companies and studios before being secured by Sony Pictures Entertainment (Columbia Pictures) for $10 million (plus 5% of any movies' gross revenue and half the revenue from consumer products), who hired Sam Raimi to direct Spider-Man (2002), Spider-Man 2 (2004), and Spider-Man 3 (2007) starring Tobey Maguire. The first two films were met with positive reviews from critics, while the third film received a more mixed response.
In 2010, Sony announced that the franchise would be rebooted. Marc Webb was hired to direct, with Andrew Garfield starring, and The Amazing Spider-Man (2012) was released to positive reviews. The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (2014) saw mixed reviews.
In February 2015, Disney, Marvel Studios and Sony announced a deal to share the Spider-Man film rights, leading to a new iteration of Spider-Man being introduced and integrated into the MCU. The deal allows Sony to distribute and have final creative control over MCU films where Spider-Man is the main character, while Disney distributes the ones where he is not. Tom Holland portrays this younger version of Spider-Man, appearing in Captain America: Civil War (2016), Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017), Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and Avengers: Endgame (2019), as well as the sequel to Homecoming, Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019). All of Spider-Man's MCU appearances received positive reviews. In August 2019, Disney and Sony could not reach a new agreement regarding Spider-Man films, with Marvel Studios and Feige said to no longer have any involvement in any future films.
Plans for an animated Spider-Man film were officially announced by Sony in April 2015. Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse (2018) combines Sony Pictures Imageworks' computer animation pipeline with traditional hand-drawn comic book techniques, inspired by the work of Miles Morales's co-creator Sara Pichelli. Completing the animation required up to 140 animators, the largest crew ever used by Sony Pictures Animation for a film. Into the Spider-Verse received universal acclaim, winning the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature and becoming the highest-rated film in the Spider-Man franchise, surpassing Spider-Man 2.
Raimi's trilogy grossed $2.5 billion worldwide on a $597 million budget, while Webb's films grossed over $1.4 billion on a $480 million budget. Spider-Man's MCU films (Homecoming and Far From Home) have grossed over $1.9 billion on a $335 million budget and Into the Spider-Verse grossed $375 million on a $90 million budget. The Spider-Man films have grossed over $6.3 billion collectively at the global box office. This includes Far From Home, which became the first film to gross over $1 billion worldwide as well as Sony's highest-grossing film ever.Trial of Clay Shaw
On March 1, 1967, New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison arrested and charged New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw with conspiring to assassinate President Kennedy, with the help of Lee Harvey Oswald, David Ferrie, and others. On January 29, 1969, Shaw was brought to trial in Orleans Parish Criminal Court on these charges. On March 1, 1969, a jury took less than an hour to find Shaw not guilty. To date, it is the only trial to be brought for the assassination of President Kennedy.Victoria County Station
The Victoria County Station was a proposed nuclear power plant, in Victoria County, 13.3 miles south of Victoria, Texas. The plant, consisting of two 1535 MWe General-Electric-Hitachi economic simplified boiling water reactors was applied for by the Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings, LLC on September 2, 2008. The project was canceled in August 2012.Exelon filed a Combined Construction and Operating License (COL) application for the plant on September 3, 2008 with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In July 2009, Exelon announced that it was suspending its COL application. In March 2010, Exelon announced that it was formally withdrawing its COL application, while submitting its application for an early site permit (ESP).On August 28, 2012, Exelon announced that it had notified the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that it was withdrawing its ESP application, which brought to an end all project activity.