Commercial vehicle

A commercial vehicle is any type of motor vehicle used for transporting goods or paying passengers. The European Union defines a "commercial motor vehicle" as any motorized road vehicle, that by its type of construction and equipment is designed for, and capable of transporting, whether for payment or not: (1) more than nine persons, including the driver; (2) goods and "standard fuel tanks". This means the tanks permanently fixed by the manufacturer to all motor vehicles of the same type as the vehicle in question and whose permanent fitting lets fuel be used directly, both for propulsion and, where appropriate, to power a refrigeration system. Gas tanks fitted to motor vehicles for the direct use of diesel as a fuel are considered standard fuel tanks.[1]

Lada Largus (1)
Lada Largus is a type of commercial cars for transporting goods.

Classification

In the United States a vehicle is designated “commercial” when it is titled or registered to a company. This is a broad definition, as commercial vehicles may be fleet vehicles, company cars, or other vehicles used for business. Vehicles that are designed to carry more than 15 passengers are considered a commercial vehicle.

A vehicle may be considered a commercial vehicle if it:

  • Belongs to a company or corporation
  • Is used for business, but is in an individual's name, such as a sole proprietor
  • Is a leased vehicle and in the name of the financial institution that owns it
  • Exceeds a certain weight or class and therefore, is "classified" as commercial even though it may not be commercially used or commercially owned. A weight rating of 26,001 pounds or more is always considered commercial[2]
  • Is used to haul any hazardous material

A vehicle can be used for a business, if not exclusively, and remain privately licensed, depending on the amount of time used for business.

Commercial truck classification

Commercial trucks are classified according to the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). The United States Department of Transportation classifies commercial trucks with eight classes:[3]

  • Class 1- GVWR ranges from 0 to 6,000 pounds (0 to 2,722 kg)
  • Class 2- GVWR ranges from 6,001 to 10,000 pounds (2,722 to 4,536 kg)
  • Class 3- GVWR ranges from 10,001 to 14,000 pounds (4,536 to 6,350 kg)
  • Class 4- GVWR ranges from 14,001 to 16,000 pounds (6,351 to 7,257 kg)
  • Class 5- GVWR ranges from 16,001 to 19,500 pounds (7,258 to 8,845 kg)
  • Class 6- GVWR ranges from 19,501 to 26,000 pounds (8,846 to 11,793 kg)
  • Class 7- GVWR ranges from 26,001 to 33,000 pounds (11,794 to 14,969 kg)
  • Class 8- GVWR is anything above 33,000 pounds (14,969 kg)

Examples of commercial vehicles

Preservation

Old commercial vehicles, like vintage cars, are popular items for preservation. News about preservation can be found in magazines, such as Heritage Commercials.

Legal issues

Commercial vehicle accidents and injuries are often more complex than regular car accidents, often involving additional concerns, background checks on operator driving records, and corporate maintenance records.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ EC Council Directive 68/297, substituted by EC Council Directive 85/347
  2. ^ [1] -commercial vehicles
  3. ^ [2] Commercial truck classification
  4. ^ Catania, Peter. "Special Considerations In Commercial Vehicle Accidents And Injuries". Catania & Catania. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
Accuride Corporation

Accuride International (California), an unrelated company, is a manufacturer of drawer slides.Accuride Corporation is a diversified manufacturer and supplier of commercial vehicle components in North America. Based in Evansville, Indiana, the company designs, manufactures and markets commercial vehicle components.

Accuride’s business units are Accuride Wheels, Gunite Corporation, and Brillion Iron Works. Its products include commercial vehicle wheels, wheel-end components and assemblies, truck body and chassis parts, and other commercial vehicle components; and are marketed under brand names including Accuride, Gunite and Brillion.

Air brake (road vehicle)

An air brake or, more formally, a compressed air brake system, is a type of friction brake for vehicles in which compressed air pressing on a piston is used to apply the pressure to the brake pad needed to stop the vehicle. Air brakes are used in large heavy vehicles, particularly those having multiple trailers which must be linked into the brake system, such as trucks, buses, trailers, and semi-trailers, in addition to their use in railroad trains. George Westinghouse first developed air brakes for use in railway service. He patented a safer air brake on March 5, 1872. Westinghouse made numerous alterations to improve his air pressured brake invention, which led to various forms of the automatic brake. In the early 20th century, after its advantages were proven in railway use, it was adopted by manufacturers of trucks and heavy road vehicles.

Albion Motors

Albion Motors was a Scottish automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturer.

Founded in 1899, Albion Motors was purchased by Leyland Motors in 1951. Vehicles continued to be manufactured under the Albion brand until 1972, after which they continued to be produced, but were sold under the Leyland brand. Vehicle production at the former Albion factory in Scotstoun continued until 1980.

Ashok Leyland

Ashok Leyland is an Indian automobile company headquartered in Chennai, India. It is owned by the Hinduja Group.Founded in 1948, it is the second largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in India, fourth largest manufacturer of buses in the world and 10th largest manufacturer of trucks globally. Operating nine plants, Ashok Leyland also makes spare parts and engines for industrial and marine applications. It sold approximately 140,000 vehicles (M&HCV + LCV) in FY 2016. It is the second largest commercial vehicle company in India in the medium and heavy commercial vehicle (M&HCV) segment, with a market share of 32.1% (FY 2016). With passenger transportation options ranging from 10 seaters to 74 seaters (M&HCV = LCV), Ashok Leyland is a market leader in the bus segment. In the trucks segment Ashok Leyland primarily concentrates on the 16 to 25-ton range. However, Ashok Leyland has a presence in the entire truck range, from 7.5 to 49 tons.

British Columbia Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement

British Columbia Commercial Vehicle Safety & Enforcement (BCCVSE) is a provincial law enforcement agency that is responsible for the compliance and enforcement of the commercial transport sector, protection of the environment and transportation infrastructure of British Columbia, increasing road safety and protecting the motoring public.CVSE officers are provincial peace officers who are empowered by the Motor Vehicle Act, Inspectors Authorization Regulation and Transport of Dangerous Goods Act to enforce provincial and select pieces of federal legislation. These acts are the Motor Vehicle Act, Commercial Transport Act, Transportation Act, Passenger Transportation Act, Transport of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Fuel Tax Act and the federal Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act Regulations.CVSE is headquartered out of Victoria, the provincial capital of British Columbia and operates out of 24 inspection stations throughout the province. Areas with converted self-weigh scales and decommissioned inspection stations are actively patrolled by vehicle.

Commercial Motor

Commercial Motor is a weekly magazine serving the road transport industry in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1905, it is notable for having been "the first journal to be devoted exclusively to the commercial vehicle engaged in the conveyance of goods or in passenger carrying".Originally named The Commercial Motor, the title was shortened to Commercial Motor for the first issue of 1966. The publication is commonly referred to as 'CM' by its readers and editorial staff.Commercial Motor was initially published by Temple Press and since 2011 it has been published by Road Transport Media.

FAW-GM

FAW-GM Light Duty Commercial Vehicle (FAW-GM) is a commercial vehicle manufacturing company headquartered in Changchun, China, and a 50:50 joint venture between FAW Group and General Motors. It was founded in 2009 and its activities include the Harbin Light Vehicle factory and FAW Hongta Yunnan Automobile Co Ltd. The plants were named as FAW Harbin Light Duty Vehicle Co., FAW-GM Hongta Yunnan Automobile Manufacturing Co., Ltd. and Changchun Plant. The company builds Jie Fang pickups and light commercial vehicles, with the possibility of building models for GM to sell under their marques.

Fiat Marengo

Marengo is a model name that Italian car maker Fiat has given to the van derivatives of its mid size cars, beginning with the "Fiat 131 Marengo" in 1979 and continuing with the Regata, Tempra, and Marea. The Marengo light commercial vehicle derivatives only have two seats, and have only been equipped with diesel engines.

The nameplate was retired in 2001, and succeeded by the van version of the Fiat Stilo Multiwagon. Fiat has a tradition of naming their commercial vehicle derivatives differently from the cars upon which they are based, compare with the Fiorino and the Penny.

GM Korea

GM Korea Company (Korean: 한국지엠주식회사, IPA: [hanɡuːk tɕi em]) is South Korea's third largest automobile manufacturer and a subsidiary of General Motors. GM Korea's roots go back to the former Daewoo which was split from its parent company, Daewoo Group, in 2001. It has 3 manufacturing facilities in South Korea as well as a vehicle assembly facility in Vietnam. In addition, GM Korea provides region and brand-specific vehicle assembly kits for assembly by GM affiliates in the United States, Australia, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, and Mexico. In 2008, GM Korea built more than 1.9 million vehicles, including CKD products. It now produces vehicles and kits for Chevrolet, Holden and Buick that are offered in more than 150 markets on six continents. GM Korea also has design, engineering, research & development facilities that are involved in development for various GM products, above all small-size cars.

Kentucky State Police

The Kentucky State Police (KSP) is a department of the Kentucky Justice and Public Safety Cabinet, and the official State Police force of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, responsible for statewide law enforcement. The department was founded in 1948 and replaced the Kentucky Highway Patrol. The department's sworn personnel hold the title State Troopers and are addressed as Trooper (with the exception of sworn Commercial Vehicle Enforcement and Facilities Security Branch personnel, both of which hold the title and are addressed as Officer) and its nickname is The Thin Gray Line.

Knorr-Bremse

Knorr-Bremse AG is a German manufacturer of braking systems for rail and commercial vehicles that has operated in the field for over 110 years. Other products in Group's portfolio include intelligent door systems, control components, air conditioning systems for rail vehicles, torsional vibration dampers, and transmission control systems for commercial vehicles.

In 2017, the Group's workforce of over 27,000 achieved worldwide sales of EUR 6.24 billion.The Group has a presence in over 30 countries, at 100 locations.

Large goods vehicle

A heavy goods vehicle (HGV), also large goods vehicle (LGV) or medium goods vehicle, is the European Union (EU) term for any truck with a gross combination mass (GCM) of over 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb). Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) and 12,000 kilograms (26,455 lb) and N3 for all goods vehicles over 12,000 kilograms (26,455 lb) as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to goods vehicles of between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes which according to the EU are also "large goods vehicles".Commercial carrier vehicles of up to 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) are referred to as light commercial vehicles and come into category N1. Confusingly though, parts of the UK government refer to these as "large goods vehicles" (also abbreviated "LGV"), with the term LGV" appearing on tax discs for these smaller vehicles. Tax discs use the term "HGV" or "LGV" for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes.

HGV/LGVs must not exceed 44 tonnes' laden weight or 18.75 metres (61.5 ft) in length to cross boundaries in the EU, but longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs) known as Gigaliner, EuroCombi, EcoLiner, innovative commercial vehicle, mega-truck, etc., typically 25.25 metres (82.8 ft) long and weighing up to 70 tonnes are used in some countries, and the implications of allowing them to cross borders was being considered.

Light commercial vehicle

A light commercial vehicle (LCV) in the European Union, Australia, New Zealand is a commercial carrier vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of no more than 3.5 metric tons (tonnes). The LCV designation is also occasionally used in both Canada and Ireland (where Commercial Van is more commonly used).

Qualifying light commercial vehicles include pickup trucks, vans and three-wheelers – all commercially based goods or passenger carrier vehicles. The LCV concept was created as a compact truck and is usually optimised to be tough-built, have low operating costs and powerful yet fuel efficient engines, and to be utilised in intra-city operations.

Model commercial vehicle

A model commercial vehicle is a scale model or die-cast toy that represents a commercial vehicle: truck (lorry), bus, etc.

Nissan Clipper

The Nissan Clipper is a automobile nameplate that has been used for two separate commercial vehicle ranges of kei trucks in Japan. Originally this was just a relabeled version of Prince's "Clipper" light/medium duty commercial vehicle range. In 2003 the nameplate was revived for a relabelled version of the Mitsubishi Minicab, a Kei truck provided in an OEM deal. The nameplate was revived again in late 2013 for a relabelled version of the Suzuki Carry and Every.

TRATON

TRATON SE (formerly Volkswagen Truck & Bus AG) is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group and one of the world’s leading commercial vehicle manufacturers with its MAN, Scania, and Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus brands. In 2015, the Volkswagen Truck & Bus brands sold a total of around 180,000 vehicles. The range of products on offer includes light-, medium-, and heavy-duty trucks, as well as vans and buses. As of December 31, 2015, Volkswagen Truck & Bus employed around 76,000 people worldwide in its commercial vehicle brands. The Group aims to realign the transport system – with its products, its services, and as a partner to its customers. The registered office of the Company is in Braunschweig. The Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles brand, which is part of Volkswagen AG, is an associate partner of Volkswagen Truck & Bus.

Tata Daewoo

Tata Daewoo (officially Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company) is a commercial vehicle manufacturer headquartered in Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea and a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Motors. It is the second-largest heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer in South Korea.

Tata Motors

Tata Motors Limited, formerly Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is a part of Tata Group, an Indian conglomerate. Its products include passenger cars, trucks, vans, coaches, buses, sports cars, construction equipment and military vehicles.Tata Motors has auto manufacturing and assembly plants in Jamshedpur, Pantnagar, Lucknow, Sanand, Dharwad, and Pune in India, as well as in Argentina, South Africa, Great Britain and Thailand. It has research and development centres in Pune, Jamshedpur, Lucknow, and Dharwad, India and in South Korea, Great Britain and Spain. Tata Motors' principal subsidiaries purchased the English premium car maker Jaguar Land Rover (the maker of Jaguar and Land Rover cars) and the South Korean commercial vehicle manufacturer Tata Daewoo. Tata Motors has a bus-manufacturing joint venture with Marcopolo S.A. (Tata Marcopolo), a construction-equipment manufacturing joint venture with Hitachi (Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery), and a joint venture with Fiat Chrysler which manufactures automotive components and Fiat Chrysler and Tata branded vehicles.

Founded in 1945 as a manufacturer of locomotives, the company manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in a collaboration with Daimler-Benz AG, which ended in 1969. Tata Motors entered the passenger vehicle market in 1988 with the launch of the TataMobile followed by the Tata Sierra in 1991, becoming the first Indian manufacturer to achieve the capability of developing a competitive indigenous automobile. In 1998, Tata launched the first fully indigenous Indian passenger car, the Indica, and in 2008 launched the Tata Nano, the world's cheapest car. Tata Motors acquired the South Korean truck manufacturer Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company in 2004 and purchased Jaguar Land Rover from Ford in 2008.

Tata Motors is listed on the (BSE) Bombay Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index, the National Stock Exchange of India, and the New York Stock Exchange. The company is ranked 226th on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations as of 2016.On 17 January 2017, Natarajan Chandrasekaran was appointed chairman of the company Tata Group. Tata Motors increases its UV market share to over 8% in FY2019.

Vehicle tracking system

A vehicle tracking system combines the use of automatic vehicle location in individual vehicles with software that collects these fleet data for a comprehensive picture of vehicle locations. Modern vehicle tracking systems commonly use GPS or GLONASS technology for locating the vehicle, but other types of automatic vehicle location technology can also be used. Vehicle information can be viewed on electronic maps via the Internet or specialized software. Urban public transit authorities are an increasingly common user of vehicle tracking systems, particularly in large cities.

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