Commercial driver's license

A commercial driver's license is a driver's license required to operate large, heavy, or placarded hazardous material vehicles in commerce.

Kenworth W900 semi in red
A commercial driver's license is required to operate a tractor-trailer for commercial use.

United States

In the United States, the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986 established minimum requirements that must be met when a state issues a CDL.[1] It specifies the following types of license:

Class A – Any combination of vehicles with a GVWR/GVW (Gross Vehicle Weight Rating/Gross Vehicle Weight) of 26,001 or more pounds provided the GVWR/GVW of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.

Class B – Any single vehicle with a GVWR/GVW of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle not in excess of 10,000 pounds GVWR/GVW.

Class C – Any single vehicle, or combination of vehicles, that does not meet the definition of Class A or Class B, but is either designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or is required to be placarded for hazardous materials.

Pre-1992

Driving commercial motor vehicles (CMVs), which are primarily tractor-trailers (or Longer Combination Vehicles (LCVs)),[2] requires advanced skills and knowledge above and beyond those required to drive a car or other lightweight vehicle. Before implementation of the commercial driver's license (CDL) in 1992, licensing requirements for driving larger vehicles and buses varied from state to state.

This lack of training resulted in a large number of preventable traffic deaths and accidents.[3]

1992 onwards

In 1992, when the Act became law, all drivers have been required to have a CDL in order to drive a Commercial Motor Vehicle. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has developed testing standards for licensing drivers. U.S. states are able to issue CDLs only after a written and practical test have been given by the State or approved testing facility.

A driver needs a CDL if the vehicle meets one of the following definitions of a Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV): [4]

Class A: Any combination of vehicles which has a gross combination weight rating or gross combination weight of 11,794 kilograms or more (26,001 pounds or more) whichever is greater, inclusive of a towed unit(s) with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) whichever is greater.

Class B: Any single vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight of 11,794 or more kilograms (26,001 pounds or more), or any such vehicle towing a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross vehicle weight that does not exceed 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds).

Class C: Any single vehicle, or combination of vehicles, that does not meet the definition of Class A or Class B, but is either designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver, or is transporting material that has been designated as hazardous under 49 U.S.C. 5103 and is required to be placarded under subpart F of 49 CFR Part 172 or is transporting any quantity of a material listed as a select agent or toxin in 42 CFR Part 73.[5]

A state may also require a driver to have a CDL to operate certain other vehicles legally. A driver licensed in New Jersey must have a CDL to drive legally a bus, limousine, or van that is used for hire, and designed to transport 8 to 15 passengers.[6] A driver licensed in New York must have a CDL to legally transport passengers in school buses and other vehicles listed in Article 19-A of the state's Vehicle and Traffic Law.[7] Drivers licensed in California must have a CDL if their primary employment is driving, whether or not they actually drive a commercial vehicle. California defines a commercial vehicle as one that transports for hire either people or products.[8] In addition, possession of a CDL in California changes the threshold for a Driving Under the Influence citation from 0.08% to 0.04% Blood Alcohol Content.[9]

Prospective licensees should verify CDL requirements by referencing their state specific CDL Manual.[10]

The minimum age to apply for a CDL is usually 21, as mandated by the United States Department of Transportation, although some states allow drivers who are 18 to 20 years of age to apply for a CDL that is valid with a few restrictions such as they may only operate within the driver's state of residence. A single state CDL only restricts driving of CMVs within the holder's state (not non-commercial vehicles), and automatically converts to a 50 state CDL at the day their 21st birthday arrives.[11]

Endorsements

Additional testing is required to obtain any of the following endorsements on the CDL. These can only be obtained after a CDL has been issued to the driver:

T, P, S, N, H and X are Federal endorsements. Any other endorsements have been promulgated at the State level. i.e. New York DMV requires a "W" endorsement to legally operate a tow truck in New York.

Training

Depending on your State, the education requirements vary. Some states (Ohio) for example requires 160 hours or classroom and on the road training. Training may be obtained by completing a qualified CDL training program through a truck driving school. These training programs specialize in teaching potential truck drivers the necessary skills and knowledge to properly and safely operate a truck, including map reading, trip planning, and compliance with U.S. Department of Transportation laws, as well as backing, turning, hooking a trailer, and road driving. The overall purpose of these training schools is to help truckers-to-be pass the CDL knowledge and skills tests as well as advanced driving techniques such as skid avoidance and recovery and other emergency actions for situations such as a break away trailer and hydroplaning. These classes usually go well beyond the training the typical non-commercial driver receives, such as the drivers education provided in high school. There are a number of licensed CDL training schools around the United States and many trucking companies operate their own schools as well.

Testing

Although each state may add additional restrictions, there are national requirements which are as follows.[14] A prospective driver must pass a written test on highway safety and a test about different parts of a truck with a minimum of 30 questions on the test. To pass this knowledge test, student drivers must answer at least 80 per cent of the questions correctly. To pass the driving skills test the student driver must successfully perform a set of required driving maneuvers. The driving skill test must be taken in a vehicle that the driver operates or expects to operate. For certain endorsements, such as Air Brakes, the driving skills test must be taken in a vehicle equipped with such equipment. You will also need to show you do in fact show the characteristics of an aware and fully operative driver. This does not exclude certain disabilities, however, you must meet standard requirements, required by the safety operators.

Employers, training facilities, States, governmental departments, and private institutions may be permitted to administer knowledge and driving test for the State. The test must be the same as those given by the State issuing the CDL and the instructors must meet the same professional certification as State instructors.

States are required to conduct an inspection of any testing facility and evaluates the programs by taking an actual test as if they were testing driver at least once a year, or by taking a sample of drivers tested by the third party and then comparing pass/fail rates.

In addition, the State's agreement with the third party testing centers must allow the FMCSA and the State to conduct random examinations, inspections, and audits without notice.

Medical certification

In 2014, the law regarding drivers in pursuit of a CDL was modified and requires a DOT medical examiner to authorize a person with a medical issue to be able to drive. Prior to the change, a private doctor was able to authorize a driver to obtain a CDL.[15] Most CMV drivers must prove they are healthy enough to safely drive a truck. A valid medical certificate must be filled out by a medical professional listed on the National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners at the conclusion of an extensive physical exam, with a copy provided to the state Bureau (or Department) of Motor Vehicles compliance unit. Some examples of an impairment which disqualifies a driver include the inability to grasp a steering wheel or operate foot pedals, insulin use, certain cardiac and respiratory problems, markedly elevated blood pressure, epilepsy, some severe psychiatric disorders, certain color blindness, poor corrected vision in either eye (worse than 20/40), bilateral hearing loss, active alcoholism, and other conditions which significantly increase the risk of a medical emergency behind the wheel. See Physical qualifications for drivers page of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

Not all medical providers are able to test and complete the medical certification form.

Contents

A CDL must contain the following information:

(a)(1) The prominent statement that the license is a “commercial driver’s license” or “CDL,” except as specified in §383.153(b);

(a)(2) The full name, signature, and mailing address of the person to whom such license is issued;

(a)(3) Physical and other information to identify and describe such person including date of birth (month, day, and year), sex, and height;

(a)(4) Color photograph of the driver;

(a)(5) The driver’s State license number;

(a)(6) The name of the State which issued the license;

(a)(7) The date of issuance and the date of expiration of the license;

(a)(8) The group or groups of commercial motor vehicle(s) that the driver is authorized to operate, indicated as follows:

(a)(8)(i) A for Combination Vehicle;

(a)(8)(ii) B for Heavy Straight Vehicle; and

(a)(8)(iii) C for Small Vehicle.

(a)(9) The endorsement(s) for which the driver has qualified, if any, indicated as follows:

(a)(9)(i) T for double/triple trailers;

(a)(9)(ii) P for passenger;

(a)(9)(iii) N for tank vehicle;

(a)(9)(iv) H for hazardous materials (which includes most all fireworks);

(a)(9)(v) X for a combination of the tank vehicle and hazardous materials endorsements;

(a)(9)(vi) S for school bus; and

(a)(9)(vii) At the discretion of the State, additional codes for additional groupings of endorsements, as long as each such discretionary code is fully explained on the front or back of the CDL document.

(b) If the CDL is a nonresident CDL, it shall contain the prominent statement that the license is a “nonresident commercial driver’s license” or “nonresident CDL.” The word “nonresident” must be conspicuously and unmistakably displayed, but may be noncontiguous with the words “Commercial Driver’s License” or “CDL.”

(c) If the State has issued the applicant an air brake restriction as specified in §383.95, that restriction must be indicated on the license. [16]

CDLIS Clearinghouse

The Commercial Driver's License Information System (CDLIS) and the National Driver Register (NDR) exchange information on traffic convictions and driver disqualifications of commercial drivers. States have to use both CDLIS and NDR to check a driver's record before a CDL can be issued. To gain permission to access to the CDLIS and NDR databases one should visit the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Technical Support Web site for instructions on how this information is accessed and who can access it. Trucking companies can use a commercial service that has clearance for providing this information as a means of screening prospective employees.

Convictions

  • Driving without a CDL, or suspended CDL, incurs a civil penalty of up to US$2,500 or, in aggravated cases, criminal penalties of up to US$5,000 in fines and/or up to 90 days in prison.

An employer is also subject to a penalty of up to US$10,000 if they knowingly permit a driver to operate a CMV without a valid CDL.

  • Two or more serious traffic violations, including excessive speeding, reckless driving, improper or erratic lane changes, following the vehicle ahead too closely, and traffic offenses in connection with fatal traffic accidents, within a three-year period: a 90-day to five-year suspension.
  • One or more violations of a Motor vehicle declared out of service order within a 10-year period: one-year suspension.
  • Driving under the influence of a controlled substance or alcohol, or leaving the scene of an accident, or using a CMV to commit a felony: three-year suspension.
  • Any of the one-year offenses while operating a CMV for hazardous materials or second offense of any of the one-year or three-year offenses, or using a CMV to commit a felony involving manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing controlled substances: life suspension.

States can reduce certain lifetime disqualifications to a minimum disqualification period of 10 years if the driver completes a driver rehabilitation program approved by the State. Not all states do this: it is available in Idaho[4] and New York State[7] but not California[8] or New Jersey.[6]

If a CDL holder is disqualified from operating a CMV they cannot be issued a "conditional" or "hardship" CDL, but can continue to drive non-commercial vehicles.

Any convictions are reported to the driver's home State and Federal Highway Administration and these convictions are treated the same as convictions for violations that are committed in the home State.

The Commercial Drivers License Program collects and stores all convictions a driver receives and transmits this data to the home State so that any disqualification or suspension can be applied.

The FHWA has established 0.04% as the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level at or above which a CMV driver is deemed to be driving under the influence of alcohol and subject to lose his/her CDL. Additionally, an operator of a CMV that is found to have 'any detectable amount of BAC above 0.0%' will be put out of service for a minimum of 24 hours.

A driver must report any driving conviction within 30 days, except parking, to their employer regardless of the nature of the violation.

Employers must be notified if a driver's license is suspended, revoked, or canceled. The notification must be made by the end of the next business day following receipt of the notice of the suspension, revocation, cancellation, lost privilege or disqualification.

Employers cannot under any circumstances use a driver who has more than one license or whose license is suspended, revoked or canceled, or is disqualified from driving. Violation of this requirement may result in civil or criminal penalties.

Occupational outlook

The Bureau of Labor Statistics and additional publications identified a future need for over 90,000 truck drivers in the United States for the next 10 years.[17] In order to improve upon the shortage, full scholarships are being awarded to military veterans at CDL-A schools and truck driving companies.[18][19]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the PCV Licence (PCV stands for Passenger Carrying Vehicle) enables the holder to drive buses and/or minibuses, subject to what kind of Practical Driving Test the licence holder passes.

  • Category C+E Vehicles over 3500 kg with a trailer over 750 kg also known as Large Goods Vehicle normal max gross weight 44000 kg (97416 lbs): minimum age 21. 17 if in the Armed Forces & now 18 if you meet certain requirements regarding CPC
  • Category D1 allows the holder to drive a vehicle with between nine and sixteen passenger seats with a trailer up to 750 kg maximum authorised mass.
  • Category D1+E allows the holder to drive a vehicle with between nine and sixteen passenger seats with a trailer over 750 kg maximum authorised mass, provided that the maximum authorised mass of the trailer does not exceed the unladen mass of the vehicle being driven and the combined maximum authorised mass of both the vehicle and trailer does not exceed 12 t (12000 kg).
    • For example, a vehicle with an unladen mass of 2650 kg and a MAM of 4005 kg, with a trailer MAM of 2200 kg will give a combined MAM of 6205 kg - and the Unladen Mass of the vehicle being driven (2650 kg) is greater than the MAM of the trailer (2200 kg) so is acceptable. However, a vehicle with an unladen mass of 2650 kg and a MAM of 4005 kg, with a trailer MAM of 2700 kg will give a combined MAM of 6705 kg - but because the MAM of the trailer (2700 kg) exceeds the Unladen Weight of the vehicle being driven (2650 kg), you would need a Category D+E licence to drive that vehicle.
  • Category D allows the holder to drive a vehicle with more than eight passenger seats with a trailer up to 750 kg maximum authorised mass.
  • Category D+E allows the holder to drive a vehicle with more than eight passenger seats with a trailer over 750 kg maximum authorised mass.

Australia

All places in Australia have a mostly similar driver licence system, although some things can change in each state or territory (e.g. what classes of license are available).

Australian license classes

  • C Car: A 'Class C' licence covers vehicles up to 4.5 tonnes gross vehicle mass (GVM)

GVM is the maximum recommended weight a vehicle can be when loaded. A 'Class C' Licence allows the holder to drive cars, utilities, vans, some light trucks, car-based motor tricycles, tractors and implements such as graders. You can also drive vehicles that seat up to 12 adults, including the driver.

  • R Rider: Motorcycle riders require a 'Class R' licence.
  • LR Light Rigid: 'Class LR' covers a rigid vehicle with a GVM of more than 4.5 tonnes but not more than 8 tonnes. Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 tonnes GVM. This class also includes vehicles with a GVM up to 8 tonnes which carry more than 12 adults including the driver and vehicles in class 'C'.
  • MR Medium Rigid: 'Class MR' covers a rigid vehicle with 2 axles and a GVM of more than 8 tonnes. Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 tonnes GVM. This class also includes vehicles in class 'LR'.
  • HR Heavy Rigid: 'Class HR' covers a rigid vehicle with 3 or more axles and a GVM of more than 8 tonnes. Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 tonnes GVM. This class also includes articulated buses and vehicles in class 'MR'.
  • HC Heavy Combination: This licence covers heavy combination vehicles like a prime mover towing a semi-trailer, or rigid vehicles towing a trailer with a GVM of more than 9 tonnes. This class also includes vehicles in class 'HR'.
  • MC Multi-Combination: This licence covers multi-combination vehicles like Road Trains and B-Double Vehicles. It also includes vehicles in class 'HC'.

Medical standards

The medical standards for drivers of commercial vehicles are set by the National Transport Commission and Austroads, and are set out in 'Assessing Fitness to Drive' (available from the Austroads website).

For those applying for heavy vehicle licence classes MR (Medium Rigid), HR (Heavy Rigid), HC (Heavy Combination) or MC (Multi Combination), it is strongly recommended that the applicant ensures they meet the medical requirements before commencing any training or tests for a heavy vehicle licence.

Paying passengers

The driver of a vehicle carrying paying passengers (such as a school bus or tourist coach) requires an appropriate driver licence and a 'Public Passenger Vehicle Driver Authority' which is issued by the Ministry of Transport.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, driver licensing is controlled by the NZ Transport Agency. There are six classes of motor-vehicle licence[20] and nine licence endorsements. Class 1 governs vehicles with a GLW (gross laden weight) or GCW (gross combined weight) of less than 6,000 kg, and Class 6 governs motorcycles. Classes 2–5 govern heavy vehicles.

A Class 2 licence allows the holder to drive:

  • any rigid vehicle (including any tractor) with a GLW of more than 6,000 kg but less than 18,001 kg
  • any combination vehicle with a GCW of 12,000 kg or less
  • any combination vehicle consisting of a rigid vehicle with a GLW of 18,000 kg or less towing a light trailer (GLW of 3500 kg or less)
  • any rigid vehicle with a GLW of more than 18,000 kg that has no more than two axles
  • any vehicle covered in Class 1.

Class 3 allows the holder to drive:

  • any combination vehicle with a GCW of more than 12,000 kg but less than 25,001 kg
  • any vehicle covered in classes 1 and 2.

Class 4 allows the holder to drive:

  • any rigid vehicle (including any tractor) with a GLW of more than 18,000 kg
  • any combination vehicle consisting of a rigid vehicle with a GLW of more than 18,000 kg towing a light trailer (GLW of 3500 kg or less)
  • vehicles covered in classes 1 and 2, but not Class 3.

Class 5 allows the holder to drive:

  • any combination vehicle with a GCW of more than 25,000 kg
  • vehicles covered by classes 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Before getting a Class 2 licence, a driver must be at least 18 years of age and have held an unrestricted Class 1 licence for at least six months. Gaining a Class 5 is not dependent on holding a Class 3. Once a driver has a Class 2 they can progress straight through to Class 4 and Class 5. Each progression (2 to 3, 2 to 4, or 4 to 5) requires having held an unrestricted licence of the preceding class for at least six months. For drivers aged 25 or over the minimum period for holding the unrestricted time is reduced to three months, or waived entirely on completion of an approved course of instruction.

Additional endorsements on an NZ driver's licence govern provision of special commercial services. The endorsements are:

  • D - Dangerous Goods: transporting hazardous substances. Must be renewed every five years
  • F - Forklift operator
  • I - Driving Instructor: An "I" endorsement is awarded for a specific Class of licence, e.g.: 5-I
  • O - Testing Officer: Driving assessors who test a person prior to being granted a particular class of licence
  • P - Passenger: Transport of fare-paying passengers (bus and taxi drivers, limo-for-hire drivers, and dail-a-driver services)
  • R - Roller: Special vehicle equipped with rollers
  • T - Tracks: Special vehicle equipped with tracks
  • V - Vehicle recovery: Operating a tow truck
  • W - Wheels: Special vehicle equipped with wheels, other than fire appliances, buses, tractors, vehicle-recovery vehicles, or trade vehicles.

The F, R, T and W endorsements are for operating special types of vehicle on the road. Where the holder also has a heavy vehicle (Class 2 or Class 4) licence, they are permitted to drive heavy special vehicles. Otherwise the limits for Class 1 (6,000 kg) apply.

Being granted an I, O, P and/or V endorsement requires that the applicant passes a "fit and proper person" check, to screen for people with criminal convictions or serious driving infringements. These endorsements are issued for one or five years, at the option of the applicant at the time of purchase.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, Transport Department is responsible for issuing driver licences. Private light bus (class 4), public light bus (class 5), taxi (class 6), private bus (class 9), public bus (class 10), franchised public bus (class 17), medium goods vehicle (class 18), heavy goods vehicle (class 19), articulated vehicle (class 20) and special purpose vehicle (class 21) are vehicles requiring commercial driving licences.,[21] whereas private car (class 1), light goods vehicle (class 2), motorcycle (class 3), and motor tricycle (class 22) are considered non-commercial vehicles.

To apply for a commercial driving licence, a driver must: - be of age 21 or above; - have obtained a private car or light goods vehicle full driving licence for at least 3 years (2 years if converted from probationary licence) immediately before the application; - be a Hong Kong permanent resident or not subject to any condition of stay other than a limit of stay; - have not been convicted of some serious driving offences specified in law within 5 years before the application; and take a driving test of the class of vehicle the driver is going to apply.

In Hong Kong, driving licences are issued separately for each class of vehicle and printed on the licence, although passing a driving test of a heavier vehicle automatically gives the driver the right to apply for corresponding lighter vehicles:

  • 6 (Taxi) — Only a written test has to be taken, including traffic regulations, taxi regulations and places.
  • 4 (Private light bus), 5 (Public light bus) — Passenger vehicles with 8 to 16 seats. The driving tests for both are the same, but only class 4 (private light bus) licence can be applied after passing the test. In order to apply for a class 5 (public light bus) licence, a driver has to take an additional Pre-service Training Course for Public Light Bus Drivers before submitting the application
  • 9 (Private bus), 10 (Public bus) — Passenger vehicles with 17 seats or more. The driving tests for both are the same, and class 4 (private light bus) licence is issued automatically at the same time when applying class 9, 10 licences after passing the test. In addition, class 5 (public light bus) licence can be applied after taking an additional Pre-service Training Course for Public Light Bus Drivers.
  • 17 (Franchised public bus) — This is obtained through training within a franchised bus company, for example, Kowloon Motor Bus. The driving test requirement is the same with public bus (class 10), and is only retained with historical interest. A driver passing a test on a franchised bus will be issued classes 4, 9, 10 in addition to 17, and 5 after taking an additional Pre-service Training Course for Public Light Bus Drivers, enabling him/her to drive any public buses, whereas a driver holding class 10 (public bus) licence can also drive franchised public bus. Class 17 exists because the government had to protect the interests of franchised bus companies, in the past, drivers trained by a franchised bus company could only get a class 17 licence, enabling him/her to drive franchised public bus only but not other public buses. This has been relaxed such that a driver passing test on a franchised public bus can get classes 9, 10 in addition to class 17, and original drivers holding class 17 without classes 9, 10 can also apply them for free without taking tests.
  • 18 (Medium goods vehicles) — Goods vehicles with maximum gross weight above 5.5 tonnes and not exceeding 24 tonnes. Class 2 (light goods vehicles) licence is issued in addition to class 18 after passing the test.
  • 19 (Heavy goods vehicles) — Goods vehicles with maximum gross weight above 24 tonnes. Class 2 (light goods vehicles) and class 18 (medium goods vehicles) licences are issued in addition to class 19 after passing the test.
  • 20 (Articulated vehicle) — The driver has to obtain full licence of class 18 (medium goods vehicles) before applying. Class 19 (heavy goods vehicles) licence is issued in addition to class 20 after passing the test.
  • 21 (Special purpose vehicle) — Includes street washing vehicles, arrow vehicles, road maintenance vehicles, ice cream vehicles, etc. A driver has to apply with endorsement from his/her company, and holding a full licence of class 2 (light goods vehicle), 18 (medium goods vehicles) or 19 (heavy goods vehicles). Class 21 licence has to be used in conjunction with a class 2, 18 or 19 licence, allowing the driver to drive special purpose vehicles with maximum gross vehicle weight up to the goods vehicle licence the driver holds.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Commercial Driver's License Program". Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Archived from the original on 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-03-15.
  2. ^ "Part 391: Qualifications of drivers and longer combination vehicle (LCV) driver instructors (subpart 391.65)". Federal Motor Carrier Safety Association (FMCSA). Archived from the original on 2009-04-08. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
  3. ^ "Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Program". Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). Archived from the original on 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
  4. ^ a b "CDL Class Definitions". Itd.idaho.gov. Archived from the original on 2006-08-11. Retrieved 2006-08-20.
  5. ^ "Drivers". Fmcsa.dot.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  6. ^ a b "New Jersey Commercial Driver License Manual". State.nj.us. March 8, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c "New York State Commercial Driver's Manual". Dmv.cca.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-10-09. Retrieved 2006-10-25.
  8. ^ a b "State of California Commercial Driver's Manual" (PDF). Dmv.cca.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-05-23. Retrieved 2012-06-21.
  9. ^ "Actions Resulting in Loss of License - Alcohol Impairment Charts - Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and/or Drugs / is illegal" (PDF). Dmv.ca.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  10. ^ "Directory of State CDL Manuals". Exam-test.com. Archived from the original on 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  11. ^ "What Should I Know Before Trying to Get My CDL License?". Delta Technical College. 05/24/2019. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  12. ^ "California Commercial Driver Handbook". Dmv.cca.gov. Archived from the original on 2006-10-25. Retrieved 2006-10-25.
  13. ^ "Appendix C to Part 658". Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
  14. ^ "US CDL Requirements by State". Findatruckingjob.com. Archived from the original on 2010-08-15. Retrieved 2010-08-13.
  15. ^ Vehicles, Department of Motor. "DMV: CDL - Certified Medical Examiners". www.ct.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-09-02.
  16. ^ "Part 383: Commercial driver's license standards; requirements and penalties". Federal Motor Carrier Safety Association. Archived from the original on 2009-04-08. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
  17. ^ "Heavy and Tractor-trailer Truck Drivers : Occupational Outlook Handbook: : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". Bls.gov. 2015-12-17. Archived from the original on 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  18. ^ "Swift Transportation - Veterans". Swifttrans.com. Archived from the original on 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  19. ^ "Scholarship | United Truck Driving School". Unitedtruckschool.net. Archived from the original on 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  20. ^ "Classes of driver licence in New Zealand". drivingtests.co.nz. Archived from the original on 2017-07-01. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  21. ^ "Transport Department - Procedures for Obtaining a Full Driving Licence with Driving Test". Td.gov.hk. Archived from the original on 2017-05-16. Retrieved 2017-04-06.

[1]

External links

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
Black Dog (film)

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Commercial driver's license

Cecil Price

Cecil Ray Price (April 15, 1938 – May 6, 2001) committed the murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner in 1964. At the time of the murders, he was 26 years old and a deputy sheriff in Neshoba County, Mississippi. He was a member of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.Although he was never charged with the murders, Price was convicted in October 1967 of violating the civil rights of the three victims. He was sentenced to a six-year prison term and served four and a half years at the Sandstone Federal Penitentiary in Minnesota. Following his release from prison he returned to Philadelphia, Mississippi and worked a variety of jobs. Cecil Price died following a fall from a piece of equipment at his job on May 6, 2001.

Commercial Driver's License Information System

Mandated by the Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act 1986 (CMVSA) and revised in accordance with various other federal laws subsequent to CMVSA, CDLIS helps document the issuance of a Commercial driver's license (CDL) and the withdrawal of a commercial driver by the State Driver Licensing Agencies (SDLAs) of the CDLIS jurisdictions (the 50 U.S. States and the District of Columbia). The purpose of CDLIS is to keep a record of each driver nationwide and help ensure only one driver license and one record for each driver and to enable authorized users nationwide, such as local law enforcement officials, to check whether a driver is withdrawn, through the cooperative exchange of commercial driver information between the CDLIS jurisdictions.

CDLIS has operated in all 51 CDLIS jurisdictions since April 1, 1992. As of February 25, 2013, CDLIS had 14.6 million driver records, growing at an average rate of nearly 40,000 new records per month.

Intercity bus driver

An intercity bus driver is a bus driver whose duties involve driving a bus between cities. It is one of four common positions available to those capable of driving buses (the others being school, transit, or tour bus driving). Intercity bus drivers may be employed for public or private companies. It varies by country which is more common. But many countries have regulations on the training and certification requirements and the hours of intercity drivers.

In the United States, intercity bus driving is one of the fastest growing jobs, with attractive wages and good benefits.

Motor vehicle declared out of service

A motor vehicle is declared in the United States as out of service by personnel authorized to perform inspections of commercial motor vehicles and are designated as Special Agents of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. These authorized personnel are by law able to enter upon and perform inspections of any and all Commercial Motor Vehicles in operation.

An inspection report named Form MCS 63 is a Driver Equipment Compliance Check, and shall be used to record findings from a motor vehicle selected for inspection.

Movin' On (TV series)

Movin' On is an American drama television series. It ran for two seasons from 1974 to 1976 on the NBC network.

Nancy LeMay

Nancy LeMay (born May 3, 1936) is an American car enthusiast and collector.

Nancy met Harold LeMay in the early 1960s, and they were married in 1963; between them they had eight children.One thing Nancy and Harold bonded over was their collections. This included hundreds of vintage cars, but also a great deal of Americana, from toys to signs to dental equipment. While Harold is often cited as the collector of the family, Nancy was just as passionate about it as him. She even got her commercial driver's license endorsement, in case it was needed for some of the larger vehicles in their collection.Harold and Nancy started the Annual LeMay Car Show in the late 1970s. Then, it was a small gathering of family friends. In the decades since then, Nancy has continued to host the show as it has grown into a much-anticipated annual event, drawing thousands of people each year.By 1998, the LeMay family collection was listed in the Guinness Book of World Records as the “Largest Antique & Vintage Vehicle Collection." At that point, the collection held more than 1,900 vehicles. Harold lived just past his 81st birthday, dying in 2000. By then, the couple’s collection was estimated to have over 3,000 cars.After Harold’s death, Nancy continued to build and maintain their collections. At one point, Harold had hoped to have a museum for his cars so that the public could view them and the collection wouldn’t be broken up after his death. For more than a decade, Nancy LeMay and her family worked to fundraise and build support to open the LeMay - America’s Car Museum in downtown Tacoma. Though cars from a number of collections are displayed, Nancy sits on the board for the museum and the LeMay family has donated hundreds of cars to America’s Car Museum.

The LeMay Family Collection Foundation [1] is a non-profit started by Nancy LeMay and family in 2010. Directly owned and overseen by the family, this museum houses over 500 cars in 3 buildings and is open to the public for tours 6 days a week. This collection is housed at historic Marymount in Tacoma, Washington.

Nancy has been active in the community in a variety of other ways; she donated $100,000 to Pierce County Parks and Recreation to build the Harold LeMay Skatepark at Sprinker Recreation Center.

On May 28, 2011, Harold and Nancy LeMay were inducted into the Washington State Hot Rod Hall of Fame.

In 2013, Nancy was a recipient of the Lee Iacocca Award, given to honor “a person who, over time, has demonstrated an extraordinary dedication to the classic car hobby through vehicle preservation, club participation, and one who has unselfishly assisted and encouraged others in perpetuating an ‘American Automotive Tradition.’”

Professional Truck Driver Institute

The Professional Truck Driver Institute (PTDI) is a non-profit organization that provides certification of training courses for drivers of commercial motor vehicles. It was formed in 1986 during the standardization of commercial driver's licensing by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration in the United States. Its management was taken over by the TCA in 1996. PTDI is the first nonprofit organization to develop uniform skill performance, curriculum, and certification standards for the trucking industry and to award course certification to entry-level truck driver training courses and motor carrier driver-finishing programs.

PTDI is now working with NATMI, another non-profit transportation industry education institute.

Schacht (automobile)

Schacht was an American manufacturer of automobile, trucks and fire trucks from 1904 to 1940. The company was started by William and Gustav Schact in Cincinnati, Ohio. Production of automobiles was from 1904 to 1914 with over 8,000 automobiles produced. The company was renamed the G.A. Schacht Motor Truck Company and production of trucks and fire trucks continued until 1940.

Traffic stop

A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

Truck classification

Truck classifications are typically based upon the maximum loaded weight of the truck, typically using the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and sometimes also the gross trailer weight rating (GTWR), and can vary among jurisdictions.

Trucker (film)

Trucker is a 2008 independent drama film by Plum Pictures written and directed by James Mottern, and produced by Scott Hanson, Galt Niederhoffer, Celine Rattray and Daniela Taplin Lundberg. It stars Michelle Monaghan, Nathan Fillion and Benjamin Bratt.

Trucking industry in the United States

The trucking industry serves the American economy by transporting large quantities of raw materials, works in process, and finished goods over land—typically from manufacturing plants to retail distribution centers. Trucks are also used in the construction industry, as dump trucks and portable concrete mixers move the large amounts of rocks, dirt, concrete, and other building materials used in construction. Trucks in America are responsible for the majority of freight movement over land and are tools in the manufacturing, transportation, and warehousing industries.

Driving large trucks and buses require a commercial driver's license (CDL) to operate. Obtaining a CDL requires extra education and training dealing with the special knowledge requirements and handling characteristics of such a large vehicle. Drivers of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) must adhere to the hours of service, which are regulations governing the driving hours of commercial drivers. These and all other rules regarding the safety of interstate commercial driving are issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). The FMCSA is a division of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), which governs all transportation-related industries such as trucking, shipping, railroads, and airlines. Some other issues are handled by another branch of the USDOT, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).

Developments in technology, such as computers, satellite communication, and the Internet, have contributed to many improvements within the industry. These developments have increased the productivity of company operations, saved the time and effort of drivers, and provided new, more accessible forms of entertainment to men and women who often spend long periods of time away from home. In 2006, the United States Environmental Protection Agency implemented revised emission standards for diesel trucks (reducing airborne pollutants emitted by diesel engines) which promises to improve air quality and public health.

United States commercial driver's license training

Commercial driver's license training (or CDL training) is a specialized instructional program or course designed to prepare a student to obtain a commercial driver's license (CDL), which is required for a career as a truck driver in the United States. During training, students are taught the necessary knowledge and skills to pass a series of tests to obtain their CDL. Such a program generally begins with classroom instruction geared towards passing the written exams for a CDL permit, a learner's permit that allows a student to practice driving skills on public roads with a CDL licensed driver or instructor. Students graduate from CDL training upon receiving their CDLs and proving that they can comfortably and safely drive and maneuver a truck. Most CDL training schools train drivers for a class A CDL, which allows the holder to drive a tractor trailer weighing over 26,000 pounds.

The CDL is issued by Department of Transportation (DoT). The minimum age for intra-state CDL is 18 years while for inter-state CDL is 21 years. There are different classes of CDL and endorsements along with it which are required to operate special types of vehicles.There are three basic types of truck driving schools: programs offered through community colleges, private truck driving schools and schools operated by trucking companies. Each type of program has different characteristics, so prospective students need to evaluate which type of school is right for them. The length of CDL training programs varies from school to school. Programs can range from a few weeks up to six months to complete, depending on whether the program is part-time or full-time.

Each type of school can have advantages and disadvantages; for example, community college programs are often less expensive than private schools, but the private schools may offer faster completion with more flexibility in enrollment schedules. Community colleges may also offer more advanced facilities since campuses are developed and supported by the state in most cases.

Private truck driving schools are in business to provide training, so they are often "results-oriented." Most private truck driving schools offer financial aid and job placement assistance. Some private schools work only with certain employers and provide training on behalf of those employers. This is known as "sponsored" or "contract" training. In this situation, some or all of the up-front costs of training are paid to the school by the employer, and the student reimburses the employer during a period of employment as a driver. This may be an option for students who wish to avoid up-front payment, but students should understand the legal and financial implications of this type of training. As with all financial commitments for CDL training schools, potential students should inquire about tuition and fees, loans, credit checks, and other terms and conditions that apply to attending any truck driving school.

Schools operated by trucking companies can allow students to learn to drive with lower up-front costs, but there are conditions and obligations that go along with this arrangement. These programs are usually quicker than both private schools and community colleges (2–4 weeks). Drivers usually agree to drive for the carrier for at least a year in exchange for the training, and there can be tuition reimbursement costs and penalties for drivers who fail to complete this legal obligation. One advantage is that usually employment with the carrier that operates the school is guaranteed (as long as the student obtains a CDL and meets all hiring requirements upon completion of the training).

Wig wag (truck braking systems)

A wig wag is a warning device for low air pressure found in air brake systems on large commercial trucks. This device drops a mechanical arm into view when the pressure in the system drops below the threshold of sufficient pressure to reliably deploy the brakes.An automatic wig wag will rise out of view when the pressure in the system rises above the threshold. The manual-reset type must be placed in the out-of-view position manually. Neither will stay in place unless the pressure in the system is above the threshold. The photo to the left shows a manual wig wag which the operator swings to the right out of view when the air pressure is above the threshold where it will remain as long as the pressure is sufficient.

Most U.S. state commercial driver's license manuals, published by the states’ Departments of Motor Vehicles or equivalents, describe this term.

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