A commander-in-chief, sometimes also called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government.
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The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium (command and other regal) powers.
In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639. It continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state (monarchical or republican) usually holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is ultimately dependent upon the will of the legislature; although the legislature does not issue orders directly to the armed forces and therefore does not control the military in any operational sense. Governors-general and colonial governors are also often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory.
A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, which is sometimes used as a specific term. The term is also used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, and as a subordinate (usually) to a head of state (see Generalissimo). The term is also used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations.
This includes heads of states who:
Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the President of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation". It also states that the President is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, and by itself on the battlefield; runs with its organization and distribution according to needs of the Nation and declares war and orders reprisals with the consent and approval of the Argentine National Congress.
Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that:
In practice, however, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, and the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet (chaired by the Prime Minister) de facto controls the ADF. The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:
The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, and the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, and the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister.
The commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, who was commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972. He retired on 7 April 1972 and relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, and are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who also uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia.
By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons. According to the National Defence Act, the Minister of National Defence is responsible and accountable to parliament for all matters related to national defence and the Canadian Armed Forces. In theory, the governor general could also use his or her powers as commander-in-chief to stop any attempts to use the Canadian Forces unconstitutionally, though this has never occurred and would likely be highly controversial.
Article 93 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China states the authority to direct the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China is vested with the Central Military Commission; composed of a Chairman, and numerous Vice-Chairmen and members. The same article also states that the Chairman of the Central Military Commission assumes overall responsibility for the work of the Central Military Commission, and that it is responsible to the National People's Congress and the Standing Committee.
Furthermore, Article 80 gives the President of the People's Republic of China (in addition to ceremonial head of state duties) the power to proclaim martial law, proclaim a state of war, and to issue mobilisation orders upon the decision of National People's Congress and its Standing Committee.
The CMC Chairman and the President are distinctly separate state offices and they have not always been held by the same persons. However, beginning in 1993, during the tenure of Jiang Zemin as CMC Chairman and General Secretary of the Communist Party, it has been standard practice to have the President, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and the General Secretary of the Communist Party to be normally held by the same person; although the slight differences in the start and end of terms for those respective offices means that there is some overlap between an occupant and his predecessor.
When Hong Kong was under British authority, the civilian Governor was ex officio Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong Kong. After the territory's handover to the People's Republic of China in 1997, the commanders of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison are PLA personnel from mainland China.
According to the Croatian constitution, the President of Croatia is the Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. In peace, the commander-in-chief exercises his command through the Minister of Defense. In war and in cases where the Minister of Defense is not fulfilling orders, the commander-in-chief exercises his command directly through the chief of General Staff.
According to the 1992 constitution, the President of the Czech Republic is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces according to Article 63(1)(c), and appoints and promotes generals under Article 63(1)(f). The President needs the countersignature of the Prime Minister for decisions concerning the above-mentioned provisions as per Articles 63(3-4), or otherwise they are not valid. The Prime Minister may delegate to other ministers the right to countersign these decisions of the President. The political responsibility for the Armed Forces is borne by the Government, which in Article 67 is defined as the "supreme body of executive power". According to Articles 39 & 43, the Parliament must give consent to the dispatch of Czech military forces outside the territory of the Czech Republic.
The Ministry of Defence is the central authority of the state administration for the control of the Armed Forces. The actual day-to-day management is vested in the Chief of the General Staff, the Czech chief of defence equivalent.
The position of the Danish monarch as the head of the military is deeply rooted in tradition. While the 1953 constitution does not explicitly designate the monarch as commander-in-chief; it is implicit, given the general provision in article 12 and the more specific wording of article 19 (2): "Except for purposes of defence against an armed attack upon the Realm or Danish forces, the King shall not use military force against any foreign state without the consent of the Folketing. Any measure which the King may take in pursuance of this provision shall forthwith be submitted to the Folketing".
However, when reading the Danish Constitution, it is important to bear in mind that the King in this context is understood by Danish jurists to be read as the Government (consisting of the Prime Minister and other ministers). This is a logical consequence of articles 12, 13 and 14, all of which in essence stipulates that the powers vested in the monarch can only be exercised through ministers, who are responsible for all acts. Thus, the Government, in effect, holds the supreme command authority implied in articles 12 and 19(2).
The Danish Defence Law (Danish: Forsvarsloven) designates in article 9 the Minister of Defence as the supreme authority in Defence (Danish: højeste ansvarlige myndighed for forsvaret). Under the Minister is the Chief of Defence, the senior-ranking professional military officer heading the Defence Command, who commands the Army, the Navy, the Air Force and other units not reporting directly to the Ministry of Defence.
According to the Constitution, Article 128, Section II, Title IV, the President is the head of foreign policy, the civil administration and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the National Police and all other state's security agencies.
In Egypt, the President of the Republic holds the ceremonial title of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. A member of the government, usually defence minister, is commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, the incumbent being Sedki Sobhi. The president still remains the only individual capable of declaring war. Until the election of Mohamed Morsi in June 2012, prior Egyptian presidents had all been former military officers, and during the Yom Kippur War the president played a major role at all levels of the planning of the war, and was in a literal sense Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces giving direct orders to the commanders from the headquarters during the war as field marshal of the army, marshal of the air force and air defence forces and admiral of the navy. Anwar Sadat often wore his military uniform, while former president Hosni Mubarak had abandoned this tradition.
According to the Finnish constitution, the President of Finland is the commander-in-chief of all Finnish military forces. In practice, the everyday command and control is in the hands of Chief of Defence and the Commander of the Finnish Border Guard. The economic administration of the Finnish Defence Force is the responsibility of Ministry of Defence. The duty of the president is to decide upon:§31
Since the constitutional reform of 2000, the Minister of Defence has the right to be present when the president uses his command powers, unless the matter is of immediate concern. In questions of strategic importance, the Prime Minister has the same right.:§32
The president commissions and promotes officers and decides on activating reservists for extraordinary service and on the mobilisation of the Defence Forces.:§40:§ 128.2 If Parliament is not in session when a decision to mobilise is taken, it must be immediately convened.:§ 129 Declarations of a state of emergency (Finnish: valmiustila, literally, "state of preparedness") and state of war (Finnish: puolustustila, lit. "state of defence") are declared by a presidential decree, given after a motion by the government, which is then submitted to the Parliament for ratification.
The president has, in a state of emergency, the right to transfer the position of the commander-in-chief to another Finnish citizen.:§ 129
In France, the President of the Republic is designated as "Chef des Armées" (literally "Chief of the Armies") under article 15 of the constitution, and is as such the supreme executive authority in military affairs. Article 16 provides the president with extensive emergency powers.
However, owing to the nature of the semi-presidential system, the prime minister also has key constitutional powers under article 21: "He shall be responsible for national defence" and has "power to make regulations and shall make appointments to civil and military posts".
Since the reign of Louis XIV, France has been strongly centralized. After crushing local nobles engaged in warlord-ism, the Kings of France retained all authority with the help of able yet discreet Prime ministers (Mazarin, Richelieu).
The 1789 Revolution transferred the supreme authority to the King (in the context of the short-lived constitutional Monarchy), then to the multi-member Comité de Salut Public during the Convention, and later to the Directoire, before being regained in the hands of Consul Napoléon Bonaparte, later Emperor Napoléon I, alone.
The Restoration restored the authority of the King, first in an absolute monarchy, then the constitutional July Monarchy of Louis Philippe, before it was overthrown in turn by the Second Republic and later the Second Empire of Napoleon III.
The following Third Republic was a parliamentary system, where the military authority was held by the President of the Council of Ministers. During World War I, the many visits to the trenches by the elderly statesman Georges Clemenceau impressed the soldiers and earned him the nickname Father of Victory (French: Le Père de la Victoire).
During World War II, Maréchal Philippe Pétain assumed power and held the supreme authority in Vichy France, while Général Charles De Gaulle, acting on behalf of the previous regime, founded the Free French Forces, upon which he held supreme authority all through the war.
Prior 1992 Commander-in-chief of the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) military rank was held by GAF military personnel until the ratification of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana ratified by Ghana Air Force (GHF) Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings and in accordance to the Constitution of Ghana, The Head of State of Ghana and President of Ghana is the Commander-in-chief of GAF. The incumbent Commander-in-chief of GAF (Ghana Armed Forces) is Head of State of Ghana and President of Ghana John Dramani Mahama.
According to the Guyanese constitution, the President is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. Unusually; there is a rank insignia for the position.
Supreme command of the Indian Armed Forces is vested in the President of India, although effective executive power and responsibility for national defence resides with the Cabinet of India headed by the Prime Minister. This is discharged through the Ministry of Defence, headed by the Minister of Defence, which provides the policy framework and resources to the Armed Forces to discharge their responsibilities in the context of the defence of the country.
On 15 August 1947, each service was placed under its own commander-in-chief. In 1955, the three service chiefs were re-designated as the Chief of the Army Staff (rank of general), the Chief of the Naval Staff (rank of vice-admiral) and the Chief of the Air Staff (rank of air marshal) with the president as the supreme commander. The Chief of the Air Staff was raised to the rank of air chief marshal in 1965 and the Chief of the Naval Staff raised to the rank of admiral in 1968.
According to Article 10 of the Constitution of Indonesia, the President of Indonesia holds the supreme command of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. Day-to-day operations of the Armed Forces is handled by the commander of the Armed Forces (Indonesian: Panglima TNI, a 4-star officer whom can be General (Army/Marine), Admiral (Navy), or Air Chief Marshal (Air Force)).
Indonesian Armed Forces has three service branches: Indonesian Army, Indonesian Navy (including Indonesian Marine Corps), and Indonesian Air Forces. Each service branch is headed by a Chief of Staff (also a 4-star officer) who has the task of developing soldier professionalism in each branch. However, the commanding authority is held by Commander of Indonesian National Armed Forces. Commanders have direct commanding authority to Main Combatants Command (Indonesian: Komando Utama Tempur) from all service branches such as Army Special Forces Command, Army Strategic Reserve Command, Military Area Command, Fleet Command, Military Sea Traffic Command, National Air Defense Command and Air-Force Operational Command. The Commander of the Armed Forces is appointed by the president from active Chiefs of Staff (Army, Navy, or Air Force) and must get approval from the House of Representatives. Chief of Staff is also appointed by the president from senior military officers. The president as commander-in-chief also has authority in senior military officer mutation and promotion in tour of duty. Minister of Defense has responsibility to assist the president in defense issues and create policies about authorization use of military force, manage defense budget, etc. For authorization use of military forces or declaration of war, the president must get approval from House of Representatives. The Commander of Armed Forces gives recommendations to the Minister of Defense in creating national defense policies.
Before 1979, the Shah was the commander-in-chief in Iran. After the inception of the Islamic Republic, the President of Iran was initially appointed that task, with Abolhassan Bani Sadr being the first commander-in-chief. However, Abolhassan Bani Sadr was impeached on 22 June 1981. It was after this event that the role of commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran was given to the Supreme Leader of Iran.
The Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces is the President of Ireland, but in practice the Minister for Defence acts on the President's behalf and reports to the Government of Ireland. The Minister for Defence is advised by the Council of Defence on the business of the Department of Defence. The Defence Forces are organised under the Chief of Staff, a three star officer, and are organised into three service branches, the Army, Naval Service, and Air Corps.
The Constitution of Italy, in article 87, states that the President of the Republic: "is the commander of the armed forces and chairman of the supreme defense council constituted by law; he declares war according to the decision of the parliament".
Chapter 131 of the Constitution of Kenya identifies the President as the Commander-in-Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces and the chairperson of the National Security Council. The President appoints a chief of general staff, known as the Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces, who acts as the principal military adviser to the President and the National Security Council. The Chief of the Kenya Defence Forces is drawn from one of the branches of the Armed Forces, the Kenya Army, the Kenya Navy or the Kenya Air Force.
In accordance with Article 41 of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces. As such, he is the highest-ranking officer in the military establishment, with the power to appoint the Chief of Staff (on the advice of the Armed Forces Council). He also appoints the service heads of each of the three branches of the military.
The Federal Constitution establishes that the office of Supreme Commander is attached to the person of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Federation's head of state:
The Federal Parliament passed the Federal Armed Forces Act to consolidate in one law all regulations that govern the three services ( Army, Navy, and Air Force ). It establishes the function and duties of the Federal Head of State in the capacity as Supreme Commander.
After independence in 1968, Mauritius continued to recognise the Queen of Mauritius, as represented by the Governor-General of Mauritius, as commander-in-chief. After the country was proclaimed a Commonwealth Republic in 1992, the new constitution stipulated that a President would assume the position of the head of state and commander-in-chief.
However, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the Monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government. Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Norwegian Armed Forces, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity.
In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, before the 1973 Constitution, the head of the armed forces, i.e., the Chief of the Army Staff, was referred as "Commander-in-Chief".:105 The term was replaced by "Chief of Staff" on 20 March 1972:62 The Chief of Staff is a four-star officer whose term is 3 years, but can be extended or renewed once. The Chief of Army/Air/Naval Staff is chosen by the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
During the Fourth Republic, the 1973 Constitution introduced by Ferdinand Marcos created a parliamentary system that split the Executive into two, with the prime minister retaining the office of commander-in-chief and the president reduced to a mere figurehead. The wording of Article VII, Section 9 in the previous constitution enabled Marcos as commander-in-chief to declare Martial Law and suspend the writ of habeas corpus on 21 September 1972. Marcos also issued an edict, conferring the rank of five-star general in the military to the President, as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. He consequently sat as both president and prime minister until 1981, when martial law was lifted and Cesar Virata succeeded him to the latter office and amendments were made to the 1973 Constitution to turn it into a strong president semi-presidential system in which the office of commander-in-chief was officially returned to the President. Salvador Laurel was the country's last prime minister when the office was abolished after the 1986 People Power Revolution, and the position's powers were again merged with the Presidency.
The President of the Republic, for a period of war, shall appoint the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on request of the Prime Minister. He may dismiss the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in accordance with the same procedure. The authority of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, as well as the principle of his subordination to the constitutional organs of the Republic of Poland, shall be specified by statute.
During the interbellum period, the General Inspector of the Armed Forces was appointed the commander-in-chief for the time of war (Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces). However, after the war this function ceased to exist—thus it is likely that if Poland formally participates in a war, Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces will be appointed Supreme Commander.
The President of the Portuguese Republic is the constitutional Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces (in Portuguese: Comandante Supremo das Forças Armadas). However, the operational command is delegated in the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.
In the Portuguese military parlance, the term "Commander-in-Chief" (in Portuguese: comandante-em-chefe or simply comandante-chefe) refers to the unified military commander of all the land, naval and air forces in a theater of operations.
As stipulated in the Constitution of the Republic of China, the President is also the Commander-in-Chief of the ROC Armed Forces (including the Military Police), the Special Forces, and the National Space Organization.
According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, (Chapter 4, Article 87, Section 1) the President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President approves the military doctrine and appoints the defense minister and the chief and other members of the general staff.
The Russian Armed Forces is divided into three services: the Russian Ground Forces, the Russian Navy, and the Russian Air Force. In addition there are three independent arms of service: Strategic Missile Troops, Russian Aerospace Defense Forces, and the Russian Airborne Troops. The Air Defence Troops, the former Soviet Air Defence Forces, have been subordinated into the Air Force since 1998.
Article 60 of the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia states: "The King is the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces. He appoints officers and puts an end to their duties in accordance with the law."
Article 61 further states: "The King declares a state of emergency, general mobilization and war, and the law defines the rules for this."
Lastly, Article 62 states: "If there is a danger threatening the safety of the Kingdom or its territorial integrity, or the security of its people and its interests, or which impedes the functioning of the state institutions, the King may take urgent measures in order to deal with this danger And if the King considers that these measures should continue, he may then implement the necessary regulations to this end."
In Slovenia, the commander-in-chief is formally the President of Slovenia, although he or she does not exercise this position in peacetime. Instead, this role is usually assumed by the Minister of Defence.
In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, the commander-in-chief is the President of South Korea.
As with most remaining European monarchies, the position of the Spanish monarch as the nominal head of the armed forces is deeply rooted in traditions going centuries back.
However, article 64 require that all official acts of the King must be countersigned, by the President of the Government or other competent minister, for them to become valid. Furthermore, article 97 stipulates that;
And article 98 furthermore specifies the composition of the Government (which the King is not a member of). No provision in the constitution requires the King/Government to seek approval from the Cortes Generales before sending the armed forces abroad.
Since 1984, the Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the armed forces and, under the authority of the Minister of Defence, is responsible for military operations and military organisation.
As head of state, the President of Sri Lanka, is nominally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The National Security Council, chaired by the president is the authority charged with formulating and executing defence policy for the nation. The highest level of military headquarters is the Ministry of Defence, since 1978 except for a few rare occasions the president retained the portfolio defence, thus being the Minister of Defence. The ministry and the armed forces have been controlled by the during these periods by either a Minister of State, Deputy Minister for defence, and of recently the Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Defence. Prior to 1978 the prime minister held the portfolio of Minister of Defence and External Affairs, and was supported by a Parliamentary Secretary for Defence and External Affairs.
Responsibility for the management of the forces is Ministry of Defence, while the planning and execution of combined operations is the responsibility of the Joint Operations Command (JOC). The JOC is headed by the Chief of the Defence Staff who is the most senior officer in the Armed Forces and is an appointment that can be held by an Air Chief Marshal, Admiral, or General. The three services have their own respective professional chiefs: the Commander of the Army, the Commander of the Navy and the Commander of the Air Force, who have much autonomy.
The King is Commander in Chief of the Umbutfo Eswatini Defence Force
The "Head of the Thai Armed Forces" (Thai: จอมทัพไทย; RTGS: Chom Thap Thai) is a position vested in the Thai monarch, most recently held by King Bhumibol Adulyadej until his death in October 2016, who as sovereign and head of state is the commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Armed Forces.
President of the Republic of Turkey has the constitutional right to represent the Supreme Military Command of the Turkish Armed Forces, on behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, and to decide on the mobilization of the Turkish Armed Forces, to appoint the Chief of the General Staff, to call the National Security Council to meet, to preside over the National Security Council, to proclaim martial law or state of emergency, and to issue decrees having the force of law, upon a decision of the Council of Ministers meeting under his/her chairmanship. With all these issues above written in the Constitution of Turkey, the executive rights are given to the President of the Republic of Turkey to be represented as the commander-in-chief of the nation.
The British monarch is the "Head of the Armed Forces" and has also been described as "commander in chief of the armed forces of the Crown". Long-standing constitutional convention, however, has vested de facto executive authority, by the exercise of Royal Prerogative powers, in the Prime Minister and the Secretary of State for Defence. The Prime Minister (acting with the support of the Cabinet) makes the key decisions on the use of the armed forces. The Queen, however, remains the "ultimate authority" of the military, with officers and personnel swearing allegiance only to the monarch.
According to Article II, Section 2, Clause I of the Constitution, the President of the United States is “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States.” Since the National Security Act of 1947, this has been understood to mean all United States Armed Forces. U.S. ranks have their roots in British military traditions, with the President possessing ultimate authority, but no rank, maintaining a civilian status. The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.
In U.S. states, the governor also serves as the commander-in-chief of the National Guard, State Militia, and State Defense Forces. In the Commonwealth of Kentucky, for example, KRS 37.180 states:
According to the Venezuelan constitution, the President is Commander in chief of the Armed Forces. The office of the Venezuelan military supreme commander in chief has always been held by the President of Venezuela as per constitutional requirements. However, with a new law sanctioned in 2008, the "Comandante en Jefe" rank is not only a function attributed to the executive branch but a full military rank given to the president upon taking office. Upon assumption he receives a saber, epaulette, shoulder knot, shoulder board and sleeve insignia and full military uniform to be used in military events while performing the duties as president. The shoulder insignia mirrors Cuban practice but is derived from the German-styled officer rank insignia.
The commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the President of Vietnam, through his post as Chairman of National Defense and Security Council. Though this position is nominal and real power is assumed by the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of Vietnam. The Secretary of Central Military Commission (usually the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam) is the de facto Commander.
The Minister of Defence oversees operations of the Ministry of Defence, and the Vietnam People's Army. He also oversees such agencies as the General Staff and the General Logistics Department. However, military policy is ultimately directed by the Central Military Commission of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam.
Upon the re-militarization of West Germany in 1955, when it joined NATO, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany was amended in 1956 to include constitutional provisions for the command of the armed forces.
The rationale for placing the command authority over the armed forces directly with the responsible minister in charge of the military establishment, and thus breaking with the longstanding German constitutional tradition in both earlier monarchical and republican systems of placing it with the head of state, was that in a democratic parliamentary system the command authority should directly reside where it would be exercised and where it is subject to the parliamentary control of the Bundestag at all times. By assigning it directly to the responsible minister, instead of with the Federal Chancellor, this also meant that military affairs is but one of the many integrated responsibilities of the government; in stark contrast of earlier times when the separate division of the military establishment from the civil administration allowed the former to act as a state within a state (in contrast to the Federal Republic, the Weimar Republic began with the Ebert–Groener pact, which kept the military establishment as an autonomous force outside the control of politics; the 1925 election of Paul von Hindenburg as Reichpräsident, surrounded by his camarilla and the machinations of Kurt von Schleicher, did little to reverse the trend).
The legislature of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), the Volkskammer, enacted on 13 February 1960 the Law on the Formation of the National Defense Council of the GDR, which established a council consisting of a chairman and at least 12 members. This was later incorporated into the GDR Constitution in April 1968. The National Defense Council held the supreme command of the National People's Army (including the internal security forces), and the Council's chairman (usually the General Secretary of the ruling Socialist Unity Party) was considered the GDR's commander-in-chief.
During the Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire, Weimar Republic and the Nazi era, whoever was the head of state—the King of Prussia/German Emperor (under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Prussia/Constitution of the German Empire) to 1918, the Reichspräsident (under the Weimar Constitution) to 1934, and the Führer from 1934 to 1945—was the Head of the Armed Forces (German: Oberbefehlshaber: literally "Supreme Commander").
Below the level of the Head of State, each military branch (German: Teilstreitkraft) had its own head who reported directly to the Head of State and held the highest rank in his service; in the Reichsheer - Generalfeldmarschall, and in the Reichsmarine - Grossadmiral.
After Chancellor Adolf Hitler assumed power as Führer (after the death of President Paul von Hindenburg), he would later grant his war minister, Generalfeldmarschall Werner von Blomberg, the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces in 1935, when conscription was reintroduced. However, in 1938 due to the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, Hitler withdrew the Commander-in-Chief title, abolished the war ministerial post and assumed personal command of the Armed Forces. The war ministerial post was de facto overtaken by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, which was headed by Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel until the German surrender.
According to Article 45 of the Greek Constitution, the President is the Head of the Greek Armed Forces, but their administration is exercised by the Government. The Prime Minister, the Minister for National Defence and the Chief of the General Staff are the ones who command the Armed Forces.
In Israel, the applicable basic law states that the ultimate authority over the Israel Defense Forces rests with the Government of Israel (chaired by the Prime Minister) as a collective body. The authority of the Government is exercised by the Minister of Defense on behalf of the Government. However, the Commander-in-Chief of the IDF is the Chief of General Staff who, despite being subordinate to the Minister of Defense, holds the highest level of command within the military.
In Japan, prior to the Meiji Restoration the role of the commander-in-chief was vested in the shōgun (the most militarily powerful samurai daimyō). After the dissolution of the Tokugawa shogunate the role of the commander-in-chief, resided with the Emperor of Japan. The present-day constitutional role of the Emperor is that of a ceremonial figurehead without any military role.
After Japan's move towards democracy, the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces is held by the Prime Minister of Japan. Military authority runs from the Prime Minister to the cabinet-level Minister of Defense of the Japanese Ministry of Defense.
The Malta Armed Forces Act does not directly establish the President of Malta as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. However, Maltese law allows the President to raise by voluntary enlistment and maintain an armed force. Likewise, the law allows the President to issue orders in order to the administrate the armed forces.
It is important to note that the Armed Forces do not swear allegiance to the President of Malta but rather to the Republic of Malta. On this basis, there is no direct link between the head of state and the armed forces. For this reason, this link is mediated by the Minister responsible for defence.
Nonetheless, the Presidential Palaces are guarded by the Armed Forces as a symbolic gesture of social cohesion.
In Myanmar, the Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services (Tatmadaw) is the commanding officer national military, a position vested in a military officer, not the President. The commander-in-chief is, however, a member of the National Defence and Security Council and reports to the President and the State Counsellor of Myanmar. The commander-in-chief is assisted in his/her role by the Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services.
The Constitution of the Netherlands states, in article 97, that "the Government shall have supreme authority over the armed forces". Article 42 defines the Government as the Monarch and the ministers, and that only ministers are responsible for acts of government. Article 45 further defines the ministers as constituting the Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister, with "authority to decide upon overall government policy".
Before a constitution change took place in 1983, even though the equivalent section stated that: "The King shall have supreme authority over the armed forces"; that did not give the monarch any autonomous command authority.
The Minister of Defence has the primary ministerial responsibility for the armed forces, which are formally a part of the Ministry of Defence. The Chief of Defence is the highest ranked professional military officer, and serves as an intermediary between the Minister of Defence and the Armed Forces, and is responsible to the Minister for military-strategic planning, operations and deployment of the Armed Forces.
In any case, the North Korean constitution, in article 102, is quite explicit regarding which official commands the armed forces:
The Chairman of the National Defence Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the supreme commander of the whole armed forces of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and commands and directs all the armed forces of the State.
The Chairman is formally elected by the Supreme People's Assembly (article 91:5) and serves for terms of office of five years (articles 101 & 90:1); but in practice, the office is hereditary within the Kim Dynasty, as the late Kim Jong-il was posthumously designated as "Eternal Chairman of the National Defence Commission", while his son, Kim Jong-un, was appointed as the "First Chairman of the National Defence Commission".
In Sweden, with the Ordinance of Alsnö in 1280, nobles were exempted from land taxation if they provided cavalrymen to the King's service. Following the Swedish War of Liberation (1521–53) from the Kalmar Union, a Guards Regiment was formed under the King and from there the modern Swedish Army has its roots. During the age of the Swedish Empire, several kings—Gustavus Adolphus, Charles X, Charles XI & Charles XII—personally led their forces into battle. Under the Instrument of Government of 1809, which was in force until the current Instrument of Government of 1974 went into force on 1 January 1975; the Monarch was in §§ 14-15 explicitly designated as the Commander-in-Chief of the Swedish Armed Forces (Swedish: Högste befälhavare).
At present, the Government (Swedish: Regeringen) as a collective body, chaired and formed by the Prime Minister of Sweden, holds the highest Executive Authority, subject to the will of the Riksdag; and is thus the present day closest equivalent of a command-in-chief, although not explicitly designated as such. The reason for this change was, apart from the fact that the King was since 1917 no longer expected to make political decisions without ministerial advice, that the new Instrument of Government was intended to be made as descriptive on the workings of the State as possible, and reflective on how decisions are actually made. Minister of Justice Lennart Geijer further remarked in the government bill that any continued pretensions of royal involvement in government decisions would be of a "fictitious nature" and "highly unsatisfactory".
Certain Government decisions regarding the Armed Forces (Swedish: Särskilda regeringsbeslut) may be delegated to the Minister for Defence, under the supervision of the Prime Minister and to the extent laid down in ordinances.
To add to some confusion to the above, the title of the agency head of the Swedish Armed Forces and highest ranked commissioned officer on active duty, is actually Supreme Commander of the Swedish Armed Forces (Swedish: Överbefälhavaren).
However, the Monarch (as of present King Carl XVI Gustaf), is still a four-star general and admiral à la suite in the Swedish Army, Navy and Air Force and is by unwritten convention regarded as the foremost representative of the Swedish Armed Forces. The King has, as part of his court, a military staff. The military staff is headed by a senior officer (usually a general or admiral, retired from active service) and is composed of active duty military officers serving as aides to the King and his family.
Supreme authority over the military belongs to the Federal Council, which is the Swiss collegial head of state. Notwithstanding the previous sentence, under the Constitution, the Federal Council can only, in the operational sense, command a maximum of 4,000 soldiers, with a time limit of three weeks of mobilisation. For it to field more service personnel, the Federal Assembly must elect a General who is given four stars. Thus, the General is elected by the Federal Assembly to give him the same democratic legitimacy as the Federal Council.
In peacetime, the Armed Forces are led by the Chief of the Armed Forces (Chef der Armee), who reports to the head of the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports and to the Federal Council as a whole. The Chief of the Armed Forces has the rank of Korpskommandant or Commandant de corps (OF-8 in NATO equivalence).
In a time of declared war or national emergency, however, the Federal Assembly, assembled as the United Federal Assembly, specifically for the purpose of taking on the war-time responsibilities elect a General as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces under Article 168 of the Constitution. Whilst the General acts as the highest military authority with a high degree of autonomy, he is still subordinate to the Federal Council (See Articles 58, 60, 174, 177, 180 & 185). The Federal Assembly retains the sole power to dismiss the General, but the General remains subordinate to the Federal Council by the Council's ability to demobilise and hence making the position of General redundant.
Four generals were appointed in Swiss history, General Henri Dufour during the Swiss Civil War, General Hans Herzog during the Franco-Prussian War, General Ulrich Wille during the First World War, and General Henri Guisan during the Second World War ("la Mob", "the Mobilisation"). Although Switzerland remained neutral during the latter three conflicts, the threat of having its territory used as a battlefield by the much bigger war parties of Germany and France required mobilization of the army.
Within NATO and the European Union, the term Chief of Defence (CHOD) is usually used as a generic term for the highest-ranked office held by a professional military officer on active duty, irrespective of their actual title or powers.
Other Articles of Interest
Under the direction of the President, and subject to the provisions of this Act, the military command of, and all executive and administrative powers in relation to, the Defence Forces, including the power to delegate command and authority, shall be exercisable by the Government and, subject to such exceptions and limitations as the Government may from time to time determine, through and by the Minister.
the Minister for Defence [...] shall be assisted by a Council of Defence
The Chief of Air Staff (Urdu: سربراہ پاک فضائيہ) (reporting name: CAS), is a military appointment and a statutory office held by an Air Chief Marshal in the Pakistan Air Force, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan. The CAS is the highest-ranking officer of the Pakistan Air Force and only pilots are appointed in this post.
The Chief of Air Staff is a senior most military appointment in the Pakistani military who is a senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, usually providing necessary consultation to the Chairman joint chiefs to act as a principle military adviser to the Prime Minister and its civilian government in the line of defending and guarding the nations's airspace and aerial borders.The Chief of Air Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, administration, combatant, logistics, and training commands within the Air Force, as an oppose to its U.S. Air Force's Chief of Staff. Due to its statue, the Chief of Air Staff maintain its importance of providing the strategic control and final decision-making issues relating the nation's national security.The appointment, in principle, is constitutionally subjected for three years but extensions may be granted by the President upon recommendations and approvals from the Prime Minister. The Chief of Air Staff is based on the Air AHQ, and the current Chief of Air Staff is Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan.Chief of the Naval Staff (India)
The Chief of the Naval Staff is the commander and the highest-ranking officer in the Indian Navy. The position is abbreviated CNS in Indian Navy cables and communication, and usually held by a four-star officer in the rank of Admiral.
The current CNS is Admiral Sunil Lanba. The 23rd Navy Chief, he took over from Admiral Robin K. Dhowan, who retired on 31 May 2016 after four decades of service from the navy.Commander-in-Chief, India
During the period of the British Raj, the Commander-in-Chief, India (often "Commander-in-Chief in or of India") was the supreme commander of the British Indian Army. The Commander-in-Chief and most of his staff were based at General Headquarters, India, and liaised with the civilian Governor-General of India. Following the Partition of India in 1947 and the creation of the independent dominions of India and Pakistan, the post was abolished. It was briefly replaced by the position of Supreme Commander of India and Pakistan before the role was abolished in November 1948. Subsequently, the role of Commander-in-Chief was merged into the offices of the Governors-General of India and Pakistan, respectively, before becoming part of the office of President of India from 1950, of the President of Pakistan from 1956.
Prior to independence, the official residence was the Flagstaff House, which later became the residence of the first Prime Minister of India; as Teen Murti House, it is now a museum.
This is a list of people who were the military Commander-in-Chief, India until 1947. The rank and title are the final ones for the officer's career and not necessarily applicable to his tenure as Commander-in-Chief, India.Commander-in-Chief, The Nore
The Commander-in-Chief, The Nore was an operational commander of the Royal Navy. His subordinate units, establishments, and staff were sometimes informally known as the Nore Station or Nore Command.Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces
The Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed Forces (French: Commandant en chef des Forces armées canadiennes) is the supreme commander of Canada's armed forces. Constitutionally, command-in-chief is vested in the Canadian sovereign, presently Queen Elizabeth II. As the representative of the Queen, the Governor General of Canada, presently Julie Payette, has been authorized to exercise the powers and responsibilities belonging to the sovereign and has consequently been bestowed with the title Commander-in-Chief. By viceregal protocol, the title used with Canadian audiences is Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces and, in international contexts, Commander-in-Chief of Canada.Commander in Chief (TV series)
Commander in Chief is an American drama television series that focused on the fictional administration and family of Mackenzie Allen (portrayed by Geena Davis), the first female President of the United States, who ascends to the post from the Vice Presidency after the death of the sitting President from a sudden cerebral aneurysm.
The series began broadcasting on ABC on Tuesday, September 27, 2005, at 9 p.m. Eastern Time, although most countries outside North America began screening the series in mid-2006.
The show was #1 on Tuesday nights until FOX's American Idol started in January. The show was also the #1 new show of the season until CBS' Criminal Minds surpassed it. Its major competitor in the 9:00 p.m. timeslot was FOX's House, which aired after American Idol.
The series was created by American director Rod Lurie, director of the films The Contender and Deterrence.
The network replaced Lurie with Steven Bochco as show runner, but after he failed to increase ratings he was also replaced with Dee Johnson while further declining ratings brought about a hiatus, a timeslot change and ultimately cancellation.Home Fleet
The Home Fleet was a fleet of the Royal Navy that operated in the United Kingdom's territorial waters from 1902 with intervals until 1967. Before the First World War, it consisted of the four Port Guard ships. During the First World War, it comprised some of the older ships of the Royal Navy. During the Second World War, it was the Royal Navy's main battle force in European waters.List of United States Air Force four-star generals
This is a complete list of four-star generals in the United States Air Force. The rank of general (or full general, or four-star general) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Air Force. It ranks above lieutenant general (three-star general) and below General of the Air Force (five-star general).
There have been 218 four-star generals in the history of the U.S. Air Force. Of these, 214 achieved that rank while on active duty, 3 were promoted after retirement, and one was promoted posthumously. Generals entered the Air Force via several paths: 60 were commissioned via the U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 49 via the aviation cadet program, 40 via the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), 40 via Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC) at a civilian university, 12 via AFROTC at a senior military college, 8 via Air Force Officer Training School (OTS), 4 via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 2 via direct commission (direct), one via Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university, one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the Army National Guard (ARNG), and one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).List of United States Army four-star generals
This is a complete list of four-star generals in the United States Army, past and present. The rank of general (or full general, or four-star general) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Army. It ranks above lieutenant general (three-star general) and below General of the Army (five-star general).
There have been 238 four-star generals in the history of the U.S. Army. Of these, 219 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Army; eight were promoted after retirement; five were promoted posthumously; and one (George Washington) was appointed to that rank in the Continental Army, the U.S. Army's predecessor. Generals entered the Army via several paths: 152 were commissioned via the U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 46 via Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university, 16 via direct commission (direct), 13 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 7 via ROTC at a senior military college, one via ROTC at a military junior college, one via direct commission in the Army National Guard (ARNG), one via the aviation cadet program, and one via battlefield commission.List of United States Navy four-star admirals
This is a complete list of four-star admirals in the United States Navy. The rank of admiral (or full admiral, or four-star admiral) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Navy. It ranks above vice admiral (three-star admiral) and below fleet admiral (five-star admiral).
There have been 267 four-star admirals in the history of the U.S. Navy. Of these, 225 achieved that rank while on active duty, 40 were promoted upon retirement in recognition of combat citations, and one was promoted posthumously. Admirals entered the Navy via several paths: 234 were commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 18 via Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC), 8 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 2 via warrant, 2 via Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS), one via direct commission (direct), one via the Naval Aviation Cadet (NAVCAD) program, and one via the U.S. Merchant Marine.Mediterranean Fleet
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station was part of the Royal Navy. The Fleet was one of the most prestigious commands in the navy for the majority of its history, defending the vital sea link between the United Kingdom and the majority of the British Empire in the Eastern Hemisphere. The first Commander-in-Chief for the Mediterranean Fleet was the appointment of General at Sea Robert Blake in September 1654 (styled as Commander of the Mediterranean Fleet) the Fleet was in existence until 1967.Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States
The Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS), or simply as the Loyal Legion is a United States patriotic order, organized April 15, 1865, by officers of the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States who "had aided in maintaining the honor, integrity, and supremacy of the national movement" during the American Civil War. It was formed by loyal union military officers in response to rumors from Washington of a conspiracy to destroy the Federal government by assassination of its leaders, in the immediate aftermath of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. They stated their purpose as the cherishing of the memories and associations of the war waged in defense of the unity and indivisibility of the Republic; the strengthening of the ties of fraternal fellowship and sympathy formed by companionship in arms; the relief of the widows and children of dead companions of the order; and the advancement of the general welfare of the soldiers and sailors of the United States. As the original officers died off, the veterans organization became an all-male hereditary society. The modern organization is composed of male descendants of these officers (hereditary members), and others who share the ideals of the Order (associate members), who collectively are considered "Companions". A female auxiliary, Dames of the Loyal Legion of the United States (DOLLUS), was formed in 1899 and accepted as an affiliate in 1915.Powers of the President of the United States
The powers of the President of the United States include those powers explicitly granted by Article II of the United States Constitution to the President of the United States, powers granted by Acts of Congress, implied powers, and also a great deal of soft power that is attached to the presidency.
The Constitution explicitly assigns the president the power to sign or veto legislation, command the armed forces, ask for the written opinion of their Cabinet, convene or adjourn Congress, grant reprieves and pardons, and receive ambassadors. The President oversees federal law execution by directing and removing executive officers. The president may make treaties, which need to be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate, and is accorded those foreign-affairs functions not otherwise granted to Congress or shared with the Senate. Thus, the President can control the formation and communication of foreign policy and can direct the nation's diplomatic corps. The president may also appoint Article III judges and some officers with the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. In the condition of a Senate recess, the president may make a temporary appointment.President of Vietnam
The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Cộng hoà Xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam) is the head of state of Vietnam. Since Vietnam is a single-party state, the President is generally considered to hold the second highest position in the political system, after the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In addition, the president appoints the head of government, the Prime Minister. As head of state, the President represents Vietnam both domestically and internationally, and maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country.
The President appoints the Vice President, Prime Minister, Ministers and other officials with the consent of the National Assembly. The President is furthermore the Supreme Commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces, Chairman of the Council for Defense and Security. Moreover, Member of Political Bureau, Standing Member of the Central Military Commission and the Central Police Party Committee. Since September 2011, the President is also the Head of the Central Steering Committee for Judicial Reform. The tenure of the President is five years, and a president can only serve three terms. If the President becomes unable to discharge duties of office, the Vice President assumes the office of acting president until the President resumes duty, or until the election of a new president.
The powers and prestige of the office of President have varied over the years. For instance, while the inaugural president, Hồ Chí Minh, was also the Chairman of the Communist Party, making him (in that capacity) the first ranking member of the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, his successor, Tôn Đức Thắng, served as a symbolic figure along with the General Secretary Lê Duẩn. Since Trường Chinh's ascension to the presidency, the President has been ranked 1st (he was sometimes also chairman of the party) or 2nd in the order of precedence of the Communist Party's Politburo except President Nguyễn Minh Triết ranked fourth and President Võ Chí Công ranked third.
The current President is Nguyễn Phú Trọng, who was elected by the National Assembly in October 2018 after former President Trần Đại Quang died in office. Trọng is the third person to concurrently serve as head of the Party and State, with the other two people to have done so being Hồ Chí Minh and Trường Chinh.United States European Command
The United States European Command (EUCOM) is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. Its area of focus covers 21,000,000 square miles (54,000,000 km2) and 51 countries and territories, including Europe, Russia, Greenland, and Israel. The Commander of the United States EUCOM simultaneously serves as the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR) within NATO—an intergovernmental military alliance. During the Gulf War and Operation Northern Watch, EUCOM controlled the forces flying from Incirlik Air Base.United States Fleet Forces Command
The United States Fleet Forces Command (USFF) is a service component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to a wide variety of U.S. forces. The naval resources may be allocated to Combatant Commanders such as United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) under the authority of the Secretary of Defense. Originally formed as United States Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) in 1906, it has been an integral part of the defense of the United States of America since the early 20th century. In 2002, the Fleet comprised over 118,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving on 186 ships and in 1,300 aircraft, with an area of responsibility ranging over most of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the waters of the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Central and South America (as far west as the Galapagos Islands). The command is based at Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia and is the navy's service component to U.S. Northern Command and is a supporting command under the U.S. Strategic Command.The command's mission is to organize, man, train, and equip Naval Forces for assignment to Unified Command Combatant commanders; to deter, detect, and defend against homeland maritime threats; and to articulate Fleet warfighting and readiness requirements to the Chief of Naval Operations.United States Indo-Pacific Command
United States Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM) is a unified combatant command of the United States Armed Forces responsible for the Indo-Pacific region. It is the oldest and largest of the unified combatant commands. Its commander, the senior U.S. military officer in the Pacific, is responsible for military operations in an area which encompasses more than 100 million square miles (260,000,000 km2), or roughly 52 percent of the Earth’s surface, stretching from the waters off the west coast of the United States to the west coast of India, and from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The commander reports to the President of the United States through the Secretary of Defense and is supported by service component and subordinate unified commands, including U.S. Army Pacific, Marine Forces Pacific, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Pacific Air Forces, U.S. Forces Japan, U.S. Forces Korea, Special Operations Command Korea, and Special Operations Command Pacific. USINDOPACOM also has two direct reporting units (DRUs) - U.S. Pacific Command Joint Intelligence Operations Center (JIOC) and the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (CFE-DMHA) as well as a Standing Joint Task Force, Joint Interagency Task Force West (JIATF-W). The USINDOPACOM headquarters building, the Nimitz-MacArthur Pacific Command Center, is located on Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii.
Formerly known as United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) since its inception, the command was renamed to U.S. Indo-Pacific Command on 30 May 2018, in recognition of the increasing connectivity of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.United States Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa
United States Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa (NAVEUR-NAVAF) is the United States Navy component command of the United States European Command and United States Africa Command.
NAVEUR-NAVAF provides overall command, operational control, and coordination of U.S. Naval Forces in the European and African Command area of responsibility. As the Navy component in Europe, COMUSNAVEUR, plans, conducts, and supports naval operations in the European theater during peacetime, contingencies, in general war and as tasked by Commander, U.S. European Command. As the component command in Africa, NAVAF aims for cooperative solutions to security challenges in Africa and its surrounding waters by closely working with its Europe, African, and South American partners to disrupt terrorist networks, deter illicit trafficking, and defeat piracy and maritime crime.
With its headquarters now at Naval Support Activity Naples, Italy, NAVEUR-NAVAF directs all its naval operations through Commander, United States Sixth Fleet co-located in Naples, Italy, and support activities ashore through Commander, Navy Region Europe, Africa, and Southwest Asia (CNREURAFSWA), also headquartered in Naples, Italy.
Naval Forces Europe - Naval Forces Africa is commanded by Admiral James G. Foggo III, who also serves as NATO's Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples. The deputy commander is currently Vice Admiral Lisa Franchetti, who concurrently serves as the Sixth Fleet commander.Vice Chief of Naval Operations
The Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO) is the second highest-ranking commissioned United States Navy officer in the Department of the Navy and functions as the principal deputy of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO); and by statute, the VCNO is appointed as a four-star admiral.The current VCNO is Admiral William F. Moran.
|Field marshal or
General of the Army
the air force
|Admiral||General||Air chief marshal|
|Vice admiral||Lieutenant general||Air marshal|
|Rear admiral||Major general||Air vice-marshal|
|Commander||Lieutenant colonel||Wing commander|
junior grade or
|Second lieutenant||Pilot officer|
|Officer cadet||Officer cadet||Flight cadet|
|Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
|Warrant officer or
|Leading seaman||Corporal or
|Operations and history|