Comboios de Portugal

CP — Comboios de Portugal, EPE (CP; English: Trains of Portugal) is a state-owned company which operates passenger trains in Portugal. Before June 2009, CP stood for Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses (English: Portuguese Railways) although the company has been using its current designation as a brand name since 2004.

In 2018, CP transported 126 million passengers.[3]

Comboios de Portugal
IndustryRail transport
Key people
Carlos Gomes Nogueira,
Sérgio Abrantes Machado,
Ana Maria dos Santos Malhó
ProductsRail Transport (Passenger)
RevenueRed Arrow Down.svg -266.017 million (2013)[1]
Green Arrow Down.svg -54.3 million (2016)[1]
Green Arrow Down.svg -144.6 million (2016)[1]
OwnerGovernment of Portugal (100%)
Number of employees
2,708 (2016)[2]
Comboios de Portugal
Rede Ferroviária Portuguesa - 2007
Map showing the railway lines in Portugal operated by CP in 2007. Some closures have been held since then.
Flickr - nmorao - Areia, Lousal, 2009.05.19
A CP freight train in 2009
Track gauge1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in) Iberian gauge and
1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
Alfa Pendular
CP's Alfa Pendular tilting train at Orient Station in Lisbon.
Alfa Pendular Oriente
Alfa Pendular train at Oriente Station Lisbon
CP suburban trains at São Bento Station in Porto.


On 28 October 1856, the first railway line was inaugurated in Portugal, between Lisbon and Carregado: the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses was born. The network was gradually expanded both south of the Tagus and to the north of the country, as well as in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Porto and to Spain. During the second half of the 20th century, much of CP's rolling stock was built in Portugal by Sorefame - notably carriages with stainless steel bodywork.

Gradually, electrification was put in place for a little less than half the network. In 1975, the company was nationalized, and its name was shortened to CP, A plan to finally connect all the district capitals by a fully electrified double line was to be implemented from 2010. Part of this plan is based on the Swiss Rail 2000 model.[4]

Manuel Antunes Frasquilho served as Chairman of the Board of directors between 1996 and 1997.[5]

The Vouga line is now the only narrow gauge line left in operation - it is also slated for closure.


The infrastructure of the Portuguese network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal, usually abbreviated to IP

Portuguese railway network extent:

  • Broad gauge (1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in)): 2,603 km (1,617 mi), 1,351 km (839 mi) electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz AC and 25 km (16 mi) at 1.5 kV DC.
  • Narrow gauge (metre gauge) 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in): 188 km (117 mi) not electrified.
  • The maximum extent of 3,592 km (2,232 mi) was reached in 1949, but in the late 1980s and early 1990s some lines were shortened and some totally closed.


CP is split into four divisions:

  • CP Longo Curso, long-distance mainline services (Alfa Pendular, Intercidades and International trains).
  • CP Regional, regional services (Interregional and Regional).
  • CP Lisboa, Lisbon's suburban network.
  • CP Porto, Porto's suburban network.


CP offers the following types of trains:

  • International (IN) is the service that connects Portugal and Spain (one reaches France). These are the Sud Express (Lisbon - Irún/ Hendaye), the Lusitânia (Lisbon - Madrid) and the Celta (Porto - Vigo). Both Sud Express and Lusitânia are night trains that run as Trenhotel (Hotel Train).
  • Alfa Pendular (AP) is the fastest service, whose speeds can reach 220 km/h. This service runs from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga or Guimarães (passing through Coimbra, Aveiro and Porto) or between Porto and Faro.
  • Intercidades (IC) is a fast long-distance service whose speeds can reach 200 km/h. All IC services (apart from the Beja Shuttle) run from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga, Guimarães, Guarda, Covilhã or Évora (with connection at Casa Branca to Beja), serving the majority of the Portuguese regions. Service to southern Portugal runs to cities including Tunes, Faro, and Albufeira.[6]
  • Inter-Regional (IR) is a medium distance service which stops only at the main stations. Runs mainly on the routes Porto-Viana do Castelo-Valença (Minho Line), Porto-Régua-Pocinho (Douro Line), Lisbon-Caldas da Rainha-Leiria-Coimbra (West Line) and Lisbon-Tomar (North Line). Services are operated by the same trains as Regional service.
  • Regional (R) is CP's local service, stopping at all stations, out of the Lisbon and Porto suburban areas.
  • Urbano (U) is the CP's suburban service, in the regions of Lisbon and Porto and in the Coimbra-Figueira da Foz Line.

The network

CP's flagship service, introduced in 1999, is the Alfa Pendular which operates between Braga - Porto - Lisbon - Faro, at a top speed of 220 km/h (138 mph) with FIAT/Siemens tilting trains. As of 2006, CP's network reaches most of the country.[7]

CP inaugurated new trains in suburban service in the 1990s.



Iberian gauge

Metre gauge

Former lines

Iberian gauge

Metre gauge

  • Póvoa line (transformed into Porto Metro between Porto and Póvoa de Varzim between 2002 and 2006, closed between Póvoa de Varzim and Famalicão in 1995)
  • Guimarães line (transformed into Porto Metro between Senhora da Hora and ISMAI in 2005, closed between ISMAI and Trofa in 2001, converted to Iberian gauge between Trofa and Guimarães in 2004 and closed between Guimarães and Fafe in 1986)
  • Corgo line (closed between Vila Real and Chaves in 1990, remaining section closed in 2009)
  • Dão line (closed in 1989)
  • Sabor line (closed in 1988)
  • Tâmega line (closed between Amarante and Arco de Baúlhe in 1990, remaining section closed in 2009)
  • Tua line (closed between Mirandela and Bragança in 1992 and between Tua and Cachão in 2008, Metro de Mirandela reopened Mirandela–Carvalhais section in 1995 and currently explores Cachão–Mirandela–Carvalhais section)
  • Viseu branch (closed in 1990)

Passenger rolling stock

Comboios de Portugal utilises the following rolling stock and commercial products:

Flickr - nmorao - IC 570, Alcácer, 2008.07.25

CP's 5600 Series are responsible for most Intercity services. Several sold to Medway for freight use. One is here seen on the Linha do Sul, near Alcácer do Sal.

CPA 4009

CP's 4009 Series work all Alfa Pendular services. Here on is seen on the Linha do Norte, near Entroncamento.

Train type 2240 Linha do Norte close to Entroncamento Portugal

CP's 2240 Series are responsible for Suburban (Sado Line), Regional, Inter-Regional and Intercity (Lisbon-Covilhã) services. Unit 2295 is here seen on the Linha do Norte, near Entroncamento.

Urbano, Santa Iria de Azóia, 2011.11.12

Most of Lisbon's suburban trains, are in the hands of CP's 2300/2400 Series. Two are here seen on the Linha do Norte, near Santa Iria de Azoia.

Flickr - nmorao - Urbano 19723, Apeadeiro de Cruz Quebrada, 2009.11.13

All Linha de Cascais suburban trains are in the hands of CP's 3150/3250 Series.Two are here seen near Cruz Quebrada.

Automotora Ume3400 01

CP's 3400 are responsible for all Porto suburban services. One is here seen at São Bento station.

Flickr - nmorao - InterRegional 806, Estação de Caldas da Rainha, 2009.01.24

CP's 0450 Series are responsible for some Regional and Inter-Regional services. They are also in charge of the Intercity shuttle service between Casa Branca and Beja. One is here seen at Caldas da Rainha.

Areia, Marateca, 2011.06.14

CP's 1900/1930 Series were responsible for passenger (1930 only) and freight (both) services. Several sold to Medway.

Flickr - nmorao - Locomotiva 1962, Estação de Campanhã, 2009.10.30

CP's 1960 Series were the most powerful locos in Portugal. They hauled both passenger (until the Beira Alta Line was electrified) and freight trains. Some sold to Medway. The remaining units are stored. One is here seen at Porto Campanhã.

Portuguese Railways 0370 railcar at Guarda Railway Station

CP's 0350 Series were once mainly used for Regional, on unelectrified rural lines. As of 2017, only 3 or 4 remain in service. One is here seen at Guarda.

Contentores, Grândola, 2009.08.10

CP's 4700 Series were the backbone of their freight business. All 25 units were sold to Medway.

Major stations




See also


  1. ^ a b c Comboios de Portugal (2016). "Relatório & Contas Consolidado" (PDF) (in Portuguese).
  2. ^ Comboios de Portugal (2013). "Relatório & Contas" (PDF) (in Portuguese).
  3. ^
  4. ^ Stohler, Werner. "Modernização do sistema da exploração ferroviária da Região de Coimbra" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  5. ^ CEEP Portugal - A Regulação dos Preços Como Instrumento de Regulação Pública dos Serviços de Interesse Geral
  6. ^ See the timetable at
  7. ^ "CP route map" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2011.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2017-08-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links

Areeiro (Lisbon Metro)

Areeiro is a station on the Green Line of the Lisbon Metro serving the Areeiro neighbourhood. The station is located in the Praça Francisco Sá Carneiro, just south of the Roma-Areeiro railway station.

CP Class 5600

Class 5600 are a series of electric locomotives built by Siemens in association with Sorefame of Portugal for Comboios de Portugal, the state owned railway company of Portugal.

Cais do Sodré (Lisbon Metro)

Cais do Sodré is a station on the Green Line of the Lisbon Metro. It is located in the Praça Duque da Terceira, connecting to the Cais do Sodré railway station and with a boat station (allowing for quick travel between Lisbon and Cacilhas, Seixal and Montijo.

Entre Campos (Lisbon Metro)

Entre Campos station is part of the Yellow Line of the Lisbon Metro.

Faro station

Faro station (Portuguese: Estação de Faro) is the main railway station in the city of Faro, Portugal, operated by Comboios de Portugal. It opened on 1 July 1889.

The line to the north-west is electrified, using overhead catenary, the line east, to the terminus at Vila Real de Santo António, is not.

In 1999, following the creation of a rail crossing over the River Tagus at Lisbon, the Alfa Pendular high speed electric tilting train service was introduced on the Braga-Oporto-Lisbon-Faro line, with through trains south of Lisbon starting in 2003.

Faro currently receives Alfa Pendular, Intercities and regional trains.Although Seville is less than 200km away, Faro does not have any railway connection crossing the border to Spain.


Grândola (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɡɾɐ̃dulɐ] (listen)) is a town (vila) and municipality in Setúbal District in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 14,826, in an area of 825.94 km².Included in this municipality is Tróia (part of Carvalhal parish), a peninsula between the Atlantic Ocean and the Sado River. Also within the municipality is Serra de Grândola (Grândola Mountain). Nearest city: Alcácer do Sal.

The municipal holiday is October 22.

Grândola has its own railway station on the main line between Lisbon and Faro. Passenger trains are operated by Comboios de Portugal (CP).

Jardim Zoológico (Lisbon Metro)

Sete Rios station is part of the Blue Line of the Lisbon Metro.

Narrow-gauge railways in Portugal

Portugal formerly had several hundred kilometres of narrow-gauge railways, but by 2010 only two lines were still in operation – the Vouga line and the Metro de Mirandela. The lines were operated by Comboios de Portugal and maintained by REFER (or the predecessor CP).

Oriente (Lisbon Metro)

Oriente is a station on the Red Line of the Lisbon Metro. The station is located in Lisbon, between the Cabo Ruivo and Moscavide stations.

Portimão railway station

Portimão station (Portuguese: Estação de Portimão) is the main railway station in the city of Portimão, Portugal, operated by Comboios de Portugal. It opened on 30 July 1922.

Portuguese train type 592

{{Infobox train

| background =

| name = Série 592

| image = CP_592_(9308777899).jpg

| imagealt =

| caption = Série 592 train at Régua station, 2013

| interiorimage = CP Class 0592 interior (24588476403).jpg

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| interiorcaption = Interior

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| yearservice = 1981 (Spain)2011 (Portugal)

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| numberservice = 20

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| capacity = 196 (2nd class)

| operator = RENFE, propietario de los trenes[[Comboios de Portugal, Alquilados a RENFE

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| doors = Electric doors, 6 on each side

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| gauge = 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in)

| notes =


Série 592, nicknamed Espanholas and Camelos, is a Spanish train type currently used in Portugal by Comboios de Portugal on the Minho, Douro and Oeste lines.

Rail transport in Portugal

Several companies provide rail transport in Portugal.

Comboios de Portugal


Lisbon Metro

Porto Metro

Metro Transportes do Sul (light rail)Portugal is a member of the International Union of Railways (UIC). The UIC Country Code for Portugal is 94. There are rail links with Spain, which uses the same gauge.

Ramal de Alfarelos

Ramal de Alfarelos is a railway branch in Portugal, which connects the Western Line (at Bifurcação de Lares) to the Northern Line (at Alfarelos), offering a connection between Figueira da Foz and Coimbra.CP offers both urban and regional services on this branch, as part of the Coimbra urban trains (connecting Coimbra to Figueira da Foz through Alfarelos) and of the Western Line.

Ramal de Aveiro

Ramal de Aveiro is a Portuguese metre gauge railway line operated by Comboios de Portugal. It connects Aveiro and Sernada, where it connects with Linha do Vouga.

Since 2002, services on the line have largely been operated by CP's Série 9630 diesel multiple units, which replaced the previous ex-Yugoslav Série 9700 diesel multiple units and the Dutch-built Série 9300 railcars.

Reboleira (Lisbon Metro)

Reboleira station is the northern terminus on the Blue Line of the Lisbon Metro.

Restauradores (Lisbon Metro)

Restauradores station is on the Blue Line of the Lisbon Metro.

Roma (Lisbon Metro)

Roma is a station on the Green Line of the Lisbon Metro. The station is located on Avenida de Roma, near the intersection with Av. dos Estados Unidos da América, enabling access to the Roma-Areeiro railway station nearby.

Santa Apolónia (Lisbon Metro)

Santa Apolónia station is the southern terminus on the Blue Line of the Lisbon Metro.

Transport in Portugal

Transport in Portugal is well-developed and diversified. Portugal has a 68,732 km (42,708 mi) network of roads, of which almost 3,000 km (1,864 mi) are part of a 44 motorways system. Brisa is the largest highway management concessionaire. With 89,015 km2, Continental Portugal has 4 international airports located near Lisbon, Porto, Faro and Beja. The national railway system service is provided by Comboios de Portugal. The major seaports are located in Leixões, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz, Lisbon, Setúbal, Sines and Faro.

Rolling stock of Portugal
Type ↓ diesel / gasoline / gas steam:
 ​/ oil
(IP: 25 kV / 50 kHz or (*) 1500 V; other networks q.v.)
← Traction
Status → in service withdrawn (or used occasionally) in service Gauge
IP network (Note: In italic, classes shared by CP and other companies, simult. or not; in underlined italic, classes used exclusively by other companies.)
railbuses 592 refurbished M1 0050 0100 0500 0750 0600 0650 1001 Z1 2000 2050 2080


refurbished 2300 2400 3400 3500 4000 1668 mm
 2100⎫ 2150⎬ 


9630 9500
ME1 ME21 9050 9100 9300 9600 (Vale do Lima) (there is currently no electric traction on IP's metre gauge) 1000 mm
locomotives 9000 9020 Lydya
E1 E21 E31 E41 E51 E61 E71 E81 E91 E101 E111 E121 E131 E141 E151 E161 E181 E201 1-2
1200 1400 1500 1520 1900 1930 6000 1300 1320 1550 1800 1960
D. Luiz S. Inauguração 001 01 1 09 011 17 021 21 031 32 41 041 41 070 71 81 91 101 103 110 141 151 175 181 0151 0181 0201 201 211 221 261 281 291 301 351 401 501 551 601 701 751 801 831 851 951 2068 01002 1008 2000 02012 02049 2133 51 (BA) 11 (CFE)
2500 2550 3300* 2600 2620 4700 5600 1668 mm
shunters 1150 1000 1020 1050 1100 005
Local networks (excl. funiculars and cable cars)
STCP200 STCP270 STCP280 1435 mm
railbuses ML7 ML79 ML90 ML95 ML97 ML99
light rail, articulated MP000 MP100 C000
CCFL501 900 mm
trams TUB1
locomotives (CSA23074‎) (Pomarão)
(Transpraia) (P.d’El-Rei) (Mira) (CFPL) 600 mm
(JAPH) N0(JAPPD) 2140 mm
Status → in service withdrawn in service Gauge
Type ↑ diesel / gasoline / gas steam:
 ​/ oil
electric ← Traction
see also: Railway lines in Portugal
National railway companies of Europe


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