Combat sport

"Combat Sports" redirects here, for The Vaccines' album, see Combat Sports (album).
Combat sport
Ouch-boxing-footwork
Boxing is a common fighting sport
Characteristics
ContactYes
Team membersNo
Mixed genderNo

A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the opponent. Common combat sports include mixed martial arts, boxing, wrestling, fencing, savate, kickboxing, Muay Thai, Sanda, Tae Kwon Do, Capoeira, Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, HMB, Sambo, Kyokushin, and Kūdō, sometimes even Ninjutsu.

History

Tradition styles of wrestling exist in most cultures; wrestling can be considered a cultural universal. Boxing contests date back to ancient Sumer in the 3rd millennium BCE and ancient Egypt circa 1350 BCE.[1] The ancient Olympic Games included several combat-related sports: armored foot races, boxing, wrestling, and pankration, which was introduced in the Olympic Games of 648 BCE.

In ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of lei tai. It was a no-holds barred combat sport that combined boxing and wrestling. There is evidence of similar combat sports in ancient Egypt, India and Japan.[2]

Through the Middle ages and Renaissance, the tournament was popular. Tournaments were competitions that featured several mock combat events, with jousting as a main event. While the tournament was popular among aristocrats, combat sports were practiced by all levels of society. The German school of late medieval martial arts distinguished sportive combat (schimpf) from serious combat (ernst). In the German Renaissance, sportive combat competitions were known as Fechtschulen, corresponding to the Prize Playing in Tudor England. Out of these Prize Playing events developed the English boxing (or prizefighting) of the 18th century, which evolved into modern boxing with the introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry rules in 1867.

Amateur boxing has been part of the modern Olympic Games since their introduction in 1904. Professional boxing became popular in the United States in the 1920s and experienced a "golden age" after World War II.

The creation of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is attributed to the Gracie family of Brazil in 1925 after Asian martial arts were introduced to Brazil. Vale-tudo, wrestling, muay thai kickboxing and luta livre gained popularity. Modern Muay Thai was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. Sambo was introduced in the Soviet Union. Modern Taekwondo also emerged after the Japanese occupation of Korea and became an Olympic sport in 2000. Sanshou as part of modern wushu was developed in the People's Republic of China since the 1950s. Kickboxing and full contact karate were developed in the 1960s and became popular in Japan and the West during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern Mixed Martial Arts developed out of the interconnected subcultures of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and shoot wrestling. It was introduced in Japan in the form of Shooto in 1985, and in the United States as Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993. The Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts were introduced in 2000, and the sport experienced peak popularity in the 2000s. During this period, multiple brands and promotions were established. The most well-known promotion for MMA is UFC.

José Aldo vs. Conor McGregor, UFC 189 World Tour London
A photo of Conor McGregor, Jose Aldo, and Dana White at a press conference for the fight between McGregor and Aldo. This shows the two fighters posing for media, increasing revenue and interest in the fight.

Popularity of combat sports by gender

Combat sports are generally more popular among men, both as athletes and as spectators. For many years, participation in combat sports was practically exclusive to men; USA Boxing had a ban on women's boxing until 1993[3]. A study conducted by Greenwell, Hancock, Simmons and Thorn in 2015 revealed that combat sports had a largely male audience.[4] Combat sport promotions such as UFC or Bellator MMA are generally advertised to men.

Modern sports

Combat athletes usually fight one-on-one. Different sports involve different skill sets and moves. For example, boxing only allows punches, taekwondo largely involves kicks, and both Muay Thai and Burmese boxing allow the use of elbows and knees. There are also combat sports based on grappling, such as both freestyle and Collegiate wrestling. Modern MMA is similar to the ancient Greek Olympic sport of pankration; Both allow a wide range of both striking and grappling techniques.

Some combat sports involve the use of weapons and armor, such as fencing, kendo, and the new sport SCA Heavy Combat; In Gatka and Modern Arnis, sticks are used.

List of combat sports

Unarmed sports

Striking sports

Grappling sports

Hybrid sports

Hybrid martial arts, combining striking and grappling elements:

Armed sports

Sports entertainment

Techniques

The techniques used can be categorized into three domains: striking, grappling, and weapon usage, with some hybrid rule-sets combining striking and grappling. In combat sports the use of these various techniques are highly regulated to minimize permanent or severe physical damage to each participant though means of organized officiating by a single or multiple referees that can distribute penalties or interrupt the actions of the competitors during the competition. In weapon based sports, the weapons used are made to be non-lethal by means of modifying the striking portions of the weapon and requiring participants to wear protective clothing/armor.

Olympic Combat Sports

  • Amateur boxing - (1904 - 2016). Boxing has been staged at every summer Olympic games since 1904 except Stockholm in 1912 due to Swedish law.[6]
  • Judo - (1964, 1972 - 2016). Judo was not included in the 1968 Mexico City summer Olympics. Women's judo was added to the Olympics in 1992 in Barcelona.[7]
  • Taekwondo - 1988 Seoul Games (demonstration sport), 2000 - 2016. Became an official medal sport at the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games.[8]
  • Wrestling (Greco-Roman) - (1908 - 2016). The first form of wrestling to be held at the Olympic Games.[9]
  • Wrestling (Freestyle) - (1920 - 2016). Was modified at the 2000 Sydney Games and reduced the amount of weight categories provided.[10]
  • Pankration and singlestick are two other forms of combat sports that have been included in the Olympics. These combat sports were introduced to the Olympic Games in the early 1900s however singlestick was only represented at the 1904 Olympic games and pankration whilst lasting four centuries in Ancient Greek Olympia's, was not included at all after 1900.
  • Fencing - (1896 - 2016) Competitive fencing is one of the five activities which have been featured in every modern Olympic Games, the other four being athletics, cycling, swimming, and gymnastics.

Protective Gear/Clothing

In combat sports, victory is obtained from blows, punches or attacks to the head to a point of physical injury that the opponent is unable to continue.[11] Different forms of combat sport have different rules and regulations into the equipment competitors have to wear. In Amateur boxing seen at the Olympics, competitors are permitted to wear head guards and correctly weighted padded gloves, mouth guards are optional and the canvas floor protection from a hard fall.[12] In sports such as Taekwondo, competitors are permitted to wear a trunk protector, head guard, gloves, groin guard and shin and forearm pads.[13] Professional boxing and UFC are two of the most dangerous combat sports in the world due to the lack of protective gear worn (compared to the protected fists). Competitors in these two sports have the option to wear a mouthguard and must wear suitable gloves. The lack of protective clothing makes competitors vulnerable to concussion and further traumatic head injuries. A scientific experiment, conducted last year by Dr Andrew McIntosh of ACRISP at the Federation University of Australia, tested the impact of 7 different head guards in combat sport. The results of the experiment revealed the benefits of the combination of a glove and headguard in maximising the impact energy attenuation.[14] A study conducted by Lystad showed that combat sports with little to no protective gear such as MMA or boxing has an injury incidence rate range of 85.1-280.7 per 1000 athletes in comparison to another striking combat sport like Taekwondo which has a large amount of protective gear such as pads, headgear, mouth guard and gloves, has an injury incidence rate range of 19.1-138.8 per 1000 athletes. This means that injury rates are drastically lowered when protective gear is used.[15]

List of Protective Gear/Clothing

  • Gloves
  • Head gear
  • Mouthguard
  • Shin Guards
  • Arm Guards
  • Groin Guard
  • Trunk Protector
  • Wraps (Material wrapped around the hand and wrist (and/or foot and ankle) that provides added alignment, support and protection)

Fighting area

  • Mat
  • circular layout or rectangular layout
  • Ring
  • with ropes around the fighting area
  • boxing ring
  • no ropes around the fighting area
  • No-rope ring (sometimes referred by fans as "the pit")
- A circle which is 27 feet in diameter, of which the inner 24 feet is colored blue. The next 3 feet is yellow, which is the caution area. When the fighter gets to the yellow area, he knows he's getting close to stepping out-of-bounds. The last edge of the ring is the red zone, which features a 30-degree upward angle. When a fighter steps on the red area, he's stepping up slightly, letting him know he's out-of-bounds.
  • Fenced area (generically referred to as "cage")
- Can be round or have at least six sides. The fenced area is generally called a cage or more precisely, depending on the shape, a hexagon (if it has 6 sides) / an octagon (if it has 8 sides).
- Some replace the metal fencing with a net.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Boxing". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  2. ^ Brownell, Susan Elaine (1990). The olympic movement on its way into Chinese culture. University of California, Santa Barbara. pp. 29, 63. In both ancient China and Greece, the most popular sports were probably wrestling, boxing, and combinations thereof (Greek pankration, Chinese leitai). The same might be argued for ancient Egypt, India and Japan. [...] In both ancient China and Greece, the no-holds-barred combat sport (Greek pankration, Chinese leitai) was probably the most popular one.
  3. ^ "History of Amateur Boxing". Team USA. Retrieved 2018-03-21.
  4. ^ Greenwell, Hancock, Simmons, Thorn (2015). "The effects of gender and social roles on the marketing of combat sport". Sport Marketing Quarterly. 24 (1): 19. ISSN 1061-6934.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Armstrong, Walter (1890). Wrestling. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. p. 77.
  6. ^ "Boxing Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org". Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  7. ^ "Judo Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org". Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  8. ^ "Taekwondo Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org". Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  9. ^ "Wrestling Greco Roman Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org". Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  10. ^ "Wrestling Freestyle Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org". Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  11. ^ "Combat Sport - 2015". Australian Medical Association. 2015-11-21. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  12. ^ "Boxing Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org". www.olympic.org. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  13. ^ "Taekwondo Equipment, History and Rules | Olympic.org". www.olympic.org. Retrieved 2016-05-17.
  14. ^ "Sign In". PMID 26192195.
  15. ^ Lystad, Reidar (2015). "Epidemiology of injuries in full-contact combat sports". Australasian Epidemiologist. 22.
Brazilian jiu-jitsu

Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (; Portuguese: [ˈʒiw ˈʒit(i)su], [ˈʒu ˈʒit(i)su], [dʒiˈu dʒit(i)ˈsu]) (BJJ; Portuguese: jiu-jitsu brasileiro) is a martial art and combat sport system that focuses on grappling with particular emphasis on ground fighting. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu was developed from Kodokan judo ground fighting (newaza) fundamentals that were taught by a number of Japanese individuals including Takeo Yano, Mitsuyo Maeda, Soshihiro Satake, and Isao Okano. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu eventually came to be its own defined combat sport through the innovations, practices, and adaptation of judo/jujutsu.

BJJ is founded on the concept that a smaller, weaker person can successfully defend themselves against a bigger, stronger, heavier opponent. This is done by using technique, leverage, and most notably, taking the fight to the ground, and then applying joint locks and chokeholds to defeat the opponent. BJJ training can be used for sport grappling tournaments and in self-defense situations. Sparring (commonly referred to as "rolling" within the BJJ community) and live drilling play a major role in training and the practitioner's development. BJJ is considered a martial art, a sport, a method for promoting physical fitness and building character, and a way of life.

Card (sports)

In sports, a card lists the matches taking place in a title match combat-sport event. Cards include a main event match and the undercard listing the rest of the matches. The undercard may be divided into a midcard and a lower card, according to the perceived importance of the matches. Promoters schedule matches to occur in ascending order of importance.

Fighting Network Rings

Fighting Network Rings, trademarked as RINGS, is a Japanese combat sport promotion that has lived three distinct periods: puroresu promotion from its inauguration to 1995, mixed martial arts promotion from 1995 to its 2002 disestablishment, and the revived mixed martial arts promotion from 2008 onward.

RINGS was founded by Akira Maeda on May 11, 1991, following the dissolution of Newborn UWF. At that time, Maeda and Mitsuya Nagai were the only two people to transfer from UWF, wrestlers such as Kiyoshi Tamura, Hiromitsu Kanehara and Kenichi Yamamoto would later also transfer from UWF International.

Fighting and Entertainment Group

Fighting and Entertainment Group (FEG) was the leading Japanese combat sport promoter founded on September 3, 2003. Its current president is Sadaharu Tanikawa and it is the parent company behind the now-defunct mixed martial arts series Dream and formerly, the largest kickboxing promotion in the world, K-1.

FreeSports

FreeSports is a British free-to-air sports channel operated and owned by Premier Media S.à r.l. The channel is operated in the United Kingdom, launched on 31 August 2017.

Gracie family

The Gracie family (Portuguese: [ˈɡɾejsi]) is a prominent martial arts family from Brazil known for their development of Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ). They have been successful in combat sport competitions including mixed martial arts, vale tudo, and submission wrestling events. As a family, they uphold the Gracie challenge, which promotes their style of modern jiu-jitsu. Members are affinally and consanguineously related to the Machado family.

Jobbarer Boli Khela

Boli Khela or Bali Khela (Bengali: বলীখেলা) is a traditional form of wrestling in Bangladesh, particularly popular in the Chittagong area considered as a national game of the district. It is a form of combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. It is one of the oldest traditions of the Chittagong. The sporting event, held in the first month of the Bengali year date of 7th, always takes place at Madarsha Union as Mokkaro boli khela & same month date of 12th, always takes place at Laldighi Maidan as Jabbarer Boli khela.

Judo Canada

Judo Canada, formerly known as The Canadian Kodokan Black Belt Association, is the non-profit national governing body of the Japanese martial art and combat sport Judo in Canada, and a federation of Judo associations in each of the ten provinces and three territories. It was incorporated in 1956 and recognized by the International Judo Federation in 1958.

List of martial arts

There are a large number of distinct styles and schools of martial arts. Sometimes, schools or styles are introduced by individual teachers or masters, or as a brand name by a specific gym. Martial arts can be grouped by type or focus, or alternatively by regional origin. This article focuses on the latter grouping.

For hybrid martial arts, as they originated from the late 19th century and especially after 1950, it may be impossible to identify unique or predominant regional origins. It is not trivial to distinguish "traditional" from "modern" martial arts. Chronology is not the decisive criterion, as, for example, "traditional taekwondo" was developed in the 1950s, while the "modern" hybrid martial art of Bartitsu was developed in ca. 1900.

A large portion of traditional martial arts can be categorized as folk wrestling (see the separate article), although in some cases a folk wrestling style and a modern combat sport may overlap or become indistinguishable from each other once the sport has been regulated.

Muay Thai

Muay Thai (Thai: มวยไทย, RTGS: muai thai, pronounced [mūa̯j tʰāj] (listen)) or literally Thai boxing is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques.

This discipline is known as the "art of eight limbs" as it is characterized by the combined use of fists, elbows, knees, and shins.

Muay Thai became widespread internationally in the 20th century, when practitioners from Thailand began competing in kickboxing, mixed rules matches, as well as matches under Muay Thai rules around the world. The professional league is governed by The Professional Boxing Association of Thailand (P.A.T) sanctioned by The Sports Authority of Thailand (SAT), and World Professional Muaythai Federation (WMF) overseas.

It is similar to related styles in other parts of the Indian cultural sphere, namely Lethwei in Myanmar, Pradal Serey in Cambodia, Muay Lao in Laos, and Tomoi in Malaysia.

Riposte

In fencing (a combat sport), a riposte (French for "retort") is an offensive action with the intent of hitting one's opponent, made by the fencer who has just parried an attack. In military usage, a riposte is the strategic device of hitting a vulnerable point of the enemy, thereby forcing him to abandon his own attack.In everyday language, a riposte is synonymous with a retort and describes a quick and witty reply to an argument or an insult.

Sanshou

Sanshou (Wushu Sanshou), also known as Sanda (Wushu Sanda), Chinese boxing or Chinese kickboxing, is a Chinese self-defense system and combat sport. Wushu Sanshou is a martial art which was originally developed by the Chinese military based upon the study and practices of traditional Kung fu and modern combat fighting techniques; it combines full-contact kickboxing, which includes close range and rapid successive punches and kicks, with wrestling, takedowns, throws, sweeps, kick catches, and in some competitions, even elbow and knee strikes.

Wushu Sanshou is not seen as a style itself, but rather is considered as just one of the two components of Chinese martial arts training and is often taught alongside Wushu Taolu (forms) training. However, as part of the development of sport wushu by the Chinese government, a standard curriculum for sanshou was developed. It is to this standard curriculum that the term Wushu Sanshou is usually applied.

This curriculum was developed with reference to traditional Chinese martial arts. This general Wushu Sanshou curriculum varies in its different forms, as the Chinese government developed a version for civilians for self-defense and as a sport. Some of the most famous fighters in Sanshou are Fang Bian (Sanda), Cung Le (MMA), Liu Hailong (Sanda), Muslim Salikhov Tom Moody (rainworth)(Sanda), Zabit Magomedsharipov (Sanda), Zhang Tiequan (MMA), Hossein Ojaghi (sanda) and Zhenwei Wang (sanda).

Shoot wrestling

Shoot wrestling (also known as shoot style or strong style) is a combat sport that has its origins in Japan's professional wrestling circuit of the 1970s. Professional wrestlers of that era attempted to use more realistic or even "full contact" moves in their matches to increase their excitement. The name "shoot wrestling" comes from the professional wrestling term "shoot", which refers to any unscripted occurrence within a scripted wrestling event. Prior to the emergence of the current sport of shoot wrestling, the term was commonly used in the professional wrestling business, particularly in the United Kingdom, as a synonym for the sport of catch wrestling. Shoot wrestling can be used to describe a range of hybrid fighting systems such as shootfighting, shoot boxing and the styles of mixed martial arts done in the Shooto, Pancrase and RINGS promotions.

Shootfighting

Shootfighting is a martial art and combat sport, with competitions governed by the International Shootfighting Association (ISFA). Shootfighting incorporates techniques from a multitude of traditional martial arts, the most principal of these being wrestling and kenpo.

Shootfighting was previously used synonymously with mixed martial arts competitions in Japan, as opposed to shoot-style professional wrestling competitions. This usage of the term is retired from common usage because it became a registered trademark of Bart Vale, who uses it to describe his hybrid fighting system derived from shoot wrestling. However, it is still sometimes used colloquially.

Examples which were once considered shootfighting styles, tournaments or organizations are Pancrase, Shoot boxing and Shooto, where many fighters still considered themselves to be shootfighters. Ken Shamrock is possibly the most recognisable shoot fighter, as this was the discipline he was credited as using in the early days of the UFC.

Shooto

Shooto is a combat sport and mixed martial arts organization that is governed by the Shooto Association and the International Shooto Commission. Shooto was originally formed in 1985, as an organization and as a particular fighting system derived from shoot wrestling. Practitioners are referred to as shooters, similarly to practitioners of shoot wrestling. Shooto rules have evolved such that their events are now true mixed martial arts competitions.

The word shooto is an English transliteration of 修斗 (pronounced shū-to), an ateji derived from the English word "shoot". The word shooto contains 修 meaning to practice or train in, and 斗 which is just used for its pronunciation, as its literal meaning is a spoon or ladle.

Submission (combat sports)

A submission is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. The submission - then also referred to as a "tap out" or "tapping out" - is often performed by visibly tapping the floor or the opponent with the hand or in some cases with the foot, to signal the opponent and/or the referee of the submission. In some combative sports where the fighter has cornermen, the cornerman can also stop the fight by "throwing in the towel", which may count as a submission.

Vale tudo

Vale Tudo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvali ˈtudu]; English: anything goes) is an unarmed, full-contact combat sport with relatively few rules. It became popular in Brazil during the 20th century. It uses techniques from many martial arts. Vale Tudo is the precursor of mixed martial arts.

Wrestling

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. The sport can either be theatrical for entertainment (see professional wrestling), or genuinely competitive. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two (occasionally more) competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position. There are a wide range of styles with varying rules with both traditional historic and modern styles. Wrestling techniques have been incorporated into other martial arts as well as military hand-to-hand combat systems.

The term wrestling is attested in late Old English, as wræstlunge (glossing palestram).

Wrestling in Canada

The combat sport wrestling has been practised in Canada for more than a century, with the first amateur wrestling championships being held at Toronto's Argonaut Rowing Club in 1901. The sport has grown considerably since that time, and in 1969 the Canadian Amateur Wrestling Association was formed. Now known as Canada Wrestling Lutte, it is the national governing body for Olympic style wrestling in Canada, and its purpose is to encourage and develop the widest participation and highest proficiency in Olympic wrestling in Canada.At the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, Carol Huynh won bronze in the women's -48 kg category, and Tonya Verbeek won silver in the -55 kg freestyle competition.

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