Comarques Gironines

Comarques Gironines is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the north-east of Catalonia and will be formed by seven comarques: Gironès, Selva, Pla de l'Estany, Garrotxa, Ripollès, Alt Empordà and Baix Empordà.[1]

Àmbits de Catalunya 1995
Catalan regional plan 1995.
  •   Àmbit metropolità
  •   Alt Pirineu i Aran
  •   Camp de Tarragona
  •   Comarques Centrals
  •   Comarques Gironines
  •   Ponent
  •   Terres de l'Ebre

References

  1. ^ Vegueries (in Catalan) (in Spanish) (in English) (in French)

Coordinates: 42°04′01″N 2°38′26″E / 42.06694°N 2.64056°E

Alt Pirineu i Aran

Alt Pirineu i Aran (in Catalan Vegueria de l'Alt Pirineu i Aran) is one of the seven vegueries (territories) defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the Catalan High Pyrenees (in Catalan Alt Pirineu).

It is formed by six comarques (roughly equivalent to a county): Alt Urgell, Alta Ribagorça, Baixa Cerdanya, Pallars Jussà, Pallars Sobirà and Val d'Aran. Val d'Aran has an autonomous government called Conselh Generau d'Aran.

The veguerie of Alt Pirineu i Aran is the largest territory, with 18% of Catalonia's total surface area, but the one with the least population (69,335 inhabitants), with a density of 12.2 inhabitants/km2 (31.5/mi2).

Camp de Tarragona

Camp de Tarragona (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈkam də tərəˈɣonə]) is a natural and historical region of Catalonia, Spain. It includes a central plain, surrounded by the Serralada Prelitoral mountain chain on the west and in the north, with the Mediterranean sand beaches of the Costa Daurada on the east and limited in the south by the Coll de Balaguer. The main towns are Tarragona, Reus, Valls and Cambrils. Salou is an important resort destination.

The region is regarded as the second metropolitan area of Catalonia, hosting the most important chemical complex in Spain as well as one of the main ports. Among the most distinctive agricultural produce of the region are hazelnuts, olives, wine and fish. It is also one of the major tourist areas in Catalonia, mainly due to the variety of beaches, holiday attractions like the remains of the Roman important past of Tarragona (one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Spain), samples of the Catalan Modernisme style (particularly in Reus, Gaudí's hometown) and PortAventura World (PortAventura Park, the most visited theme park in Spain, Ferrari Land and also the PortAventura Caribe Aquatic Park).

The area has a common history going back to 1356. In 1936, the region was politically divided into three comarques: Alt Camp, Baix Camp and Tarragonès.

According to the General Territorial Plan of Catalonia, the Camp de Tarragona region is one of the seven functional territorial sections of Catalonia. It covers, however, a greater area, as the neighbouring comarques of Baix Penedès, Priorat and Conca de Barberà are also included. Under the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, the four provinces which make up Catalonia are due to be replaced by seven vegueries, which will also take over many of the functions of the comarques. While the final boundaries of the new vegueries have yet to be approved, the vegueria of Camp de Tarragona will most likely be formed by the same six comarques above mentioned, with the only possible exception of Baix Penedès if the historical region of the Penedès was finally accepted as an eighth vegueria, as requested by many local councils.

Catalonia

Catalonia (; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə]; Aranese: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa];) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, the lineages of the rulers of Catalonia and rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, when the King of Aragon married his daughter to the Count of Barcelona. The de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese rulers in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts (parliament), and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.

During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.

In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.

On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.

Centre Fraternal

The Centre Fraternal is a casino and cultural center placed in Palafrugell (Baix Empordà) active since 1887. It is placed in a nineteenth-century building which, protected as Local Cultural Interest Heritage building.

Comarques Centrals

Comarques Centrals is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the central part of Catalonia and will be formed by five comarques: Anoia, Bages, Berguedà, Osona and Solsonès.

List of registered political parties in Spain (1985–93)

Below are listed political parties registered at the Ministry of Interior of Spain 1985–1993.[1]

Note that:

The Ministry does not appear to remove registrations if parties are dissolved or become dormant, and a large part of the groups mentioned no longer exists today.

In several cases the groups listed were electoral alliances formed to contest a specific election.

In several cases, the registered parties are regional affiliates or branches of a nationwide party.

Some of the organizations listed are not political parties per se. For example, a handful of youth wings of political parties are listed.

Parties listed in the order by which they were registered.

Lloret de Mar

Lloret de Mar (Catalan: [ʎuˈɾɛd də ˈmaɾ], locally [ʎoˈɾəd də ˈma]; Spanish: [ʎoˈɾe(ð) ðe ˈmaɾ]) is a Mediterranean coastal town in Catalonia, Spain. One of the most popular holiday resorts on the Costa Brava, it is 40 kilometres (25 miles) south of Girona and 75 kilometres (47 miles) northeast of Barcelona. With a population of 39,363 in 2009, it is the second largest town in the Selva comarca of Catalonia.

Lloret de Mar attracts summer visitors on package tours. Its main beach (length: 1,630 m; width: 45 m; small, gravel-like stones) is one of the most popular Costa Brava beaches and is consistently awarded the Blue Flag for cleanliness.

Mediterranean cuisine

Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950), though she wrote mainly about French cuisine. She and other writers including the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid define the three core elements of the cuisine as the olive, wheat, and the grape, yielding olive oil, bread and pasta, and wine; other writers emphasize the diversity of the region's foods and deny that it is a useful concept. The geographical area covered broadly follows the distribution of the olive tree, as noted by David and Essid.

The region spans a wide variety of cultures with distinct cuisines, in particular (going anticlockwise around the region) the Maghrebi, Egyptian, Levantine, Ottoman (Turkish), Greek, Italian, Provençal (French), and Spanish. However, the historical connections of the region, as well as the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the region's climate and economy, mean that these cuisines share dishes beyond the core trio of oil, bread, and wine, such as roast lamb or mutton, meat stews with vegetables and tomato (for example, Spanish andrajos and Italian ciambotta), and the salted cured fish roe, bottarga, found across the region. Spirits based on anise are drunk in many countries around the Mediterranean.

The cooking of the area is not to be confused with the Mediterranean diet, made popular because of the apparent health benefits of a diet rich in olive oil, wheat and other grains, fruits, vegetables, and a certain amount of seafood, but low in meat and dairy products. Mediterranean cuisine encompasses the ways that these and other ingredients, including meat, are dealt with in the kitchen, whether they are health-giving or not.

Outline of Catalonia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Catalonia:

Catalonia – nationality and one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain, located on the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.

Ponent

Ponent, Lleida or Terres de Lleida is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is not clear what name will have, being all of them traditionally accepted names for the region.It is located in the westernmost part of Catalonia, around the city of Lleida, its administrative capital and most populated municipality, and will be formed by five existing comarques: Segrià, Noguera, Pla d'Urgell, Urgell, Segarra and Garrigues.

Rail transport in Catalonia

Rail transport in Catalonia operates on three rail gauges and services are operated by a variety of public operators:

Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya lines (FGC):

Metro de Barcelona lines

Línia Barcelona-Vallès

Llobregat–Anoia line

Broad gauge lines (Renfe):

Rodalies Barcelona lines

Regionals lines (Mitjana distància in catalan)

Long distance lines (Llarga distància)

Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona lines (TMB):

Metro de Barcelona

Tramway lines:

Tramvia Blau (TMB)

Tram lines (TRAM)

High speed lines in Catalonia (Renfe)

AVE lines (in Standard gauge)

High speed trains (in broad gauge)

Funicular and aerial tramway of Catalonia (Funiculars i telefèrics de Catalunya)

Tabarnia

Tabarnia (Catalan pronunciation: [təβəɾˈni.ə]; Spanish: [taˈβaɾnja]) is a fictional region within Catalonia, a satirical parody of the Catalan independence movement and a movement against the independence of Catalonia from Spain advocating a referendum to create a new Spanish autonomous community out of coastal urban parts of Catalonia that would decide to remain part of Spain in case of a hypothetical Catalan independence. It would encompass the current Catalan comarques of Maresme, Baix Camp, Baix Penedès, Alt Penedès, Garraf, Baix Llobregat, Barcelonès, Vallès Oriental, Vallès Occidental and Tarragonés.

Proponents believe the area somewhat corresponds to the historic County of Barcelona, although its extent is considerably different.

This proposal, from a platform created in 2011, was shown to map the electoral results of the Catalan regional election of 21 December 2017, which provoked renewed interest. The word 'Tabarnia' went viral on 26 December 2017, reaching worldwide top-trending status with over 648,000 mentions. The first major demonstration organized by the Tabarnia movement took place in Barcelona on 4 March 2018, with 15,000 participants according to the Guarda Urbana and 200,000 according to organizers.The reaction from Catalan pro-secession movements has been very critical, with some separatists using the same arguments against the proposal to create Tabarnia as those used by those who oppose the creation of an independent Catalan Republic. Jaume Vives, the self-claimed spokesman for the Tabarnia proposal, stated: "It is starting to achieve its objective, that the (Catalan) independentists start debunking their own arguments."Currently it is not known who is in charge of the so-called Tabarnia movement and who invented the original concept of Tabarnia. Jaume Vives, sympathizer of the far-right Spanish party Vox, and Albert Boadella, considered one of the founders of Ciudadanos, have self-proclaimed to be the spokesman and president of Tabarnia. Miquel Martinez presents itself as the representative of Platform for Tabarnia, but in the association registry of Catalonia only exists the "Associació Somos Tabarnia" (Association We are Tabarnia). At a Spain level two other platforms exist: "Coordinadora por Tabarnia" and "Asamblea Nacional de Tabarnia".Several unionist parties have publicized and participated in events in support of the idea of Tabarnia, those include Ciudadanos, Partido Popular and the far-right anti-immigrant parties Vox and Plataforma per Catalunya.

Terres de l'Ebre

Les Terres de l'Ebre (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈtɛrəz ðə ˈleβɾə], literally in English 'The Ebre Lands') is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the south-west of Catalonia, in the southern part of river Ebre, and will be formed by four comarques: Baix Ebre, Montsià, Terra Alta and Ribera d'Ebre.The northern coastal limit of the territory is marked by the Coll de Balaguer, a natural limit with the Camp de Tarragona.

Vegueria

The vegueria (Catalan pronunciation: [bəɣəˈɾi.ə]; pl. vegueries) was the feudal administrative territorial jurisdiction of the Principality of Catalonia (to the Crown of Aragon) during the Middle Ages and into the Modern Era until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1716. The vegueria was headed by a veguer (Latin: vigerius) and its office was called a vigeriate (Latin: vigeriatus).

Vegueries were also in place during the Crown of Aragon dominion of Sardinia, and –briefly– during the same in the Duchy of Athens .

Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona

Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈambid mətɾupuliˈta ðə βəɾsəˈlonə]) is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia (Catalan: Pla territorial general de Catalunya). It is located in the central coast of Catalonia, in Barcelona (capital city of Catalonia) and its influence area.

It is formed of five comarques: Baix Llobregat, Barcelonès, Maresme, Vallès Occidental and Vallès Oriental. It has been suggested by local authorities that Alt Penedès and Garraf should form a separate administrative entity called Vegueria del Penedès, as Penedès was a historical territory, or vegueria, with two comarques: Baix Penedès (Camp de Tarragona) and Anoia (Comarques Centrals). To a large extent coincides with the Barcelona metropolitan area.

Àmbit metropolità is the most populous vegueria with 5,012,961 inhabitants (2010), and a density of 1,549 inhabitants/km2.

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