Comarcal council

The comarcal council (Catalan: consell comarcal, Galician: consello comarcal, Spanish: consejo comarcal), also somewhat misleadingly referred to as county council, is a local administration and government organ in the comarcas of some territories, such as the Spanish Autonomous Communities of Catalonia, Aragon and Galicia.

The comarcal council is normally constituted by the representatives of the municipalities within the comarcal demarcation, who are elected according to some defined mechanisms given by a promulgated law.

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Autoritat Territorial de la Mobilitat de l'Àrea de Lleida

Autoritat Territorial de la Mobilitat de l'Àrea de Lleida or ATM Àrea de Lleida (Lleida Area Territorial Mobility Authority) is one of the five transport authority corporations in Catalonia responsible for the coordination of public transport systems in Lleida and its surroundings, the Àrea de Lleida.

It's a consortium made up by the Lleida city council, the Generalitat of Catalonia and the comarcal council of el Segrià.

ATM is coordinating public transport in comarca of el Segrià and in three municipalities of la Noguera. In 2009 will incorporate to ATM comarca of les Garrigues and Pla d'Urgell and in 2010 la Segarra i l'Urgell.

Castile and León

Castile and León (UK: , US: ; Spanish: Castilla y León [kasˈtiʎa i leˈon] (listen); Leonese: Castiella y Llión [kasˈtjeʎa i ʎiˈoŋ]; Galician: Castela e León [kasˈtɛla e leˈoŋ]) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was constituted in 1983, although it existed for the first time during the First Spanish Republic in the 19th century. León first appeared as a Kingdom in 910, whilst the Kingdom of Castile gained an independent identity in 1065 and was intermittently held in personal union with León before merging with it permanently in 1230. It is the largest autonomous community in Spain and the third largest region of the European Union, covering an area of 94,223 square kilometres (36,380 sq mi) with an official population of around 2.5 million (2011).

From the beginning of the federalist debate in Spain in the 19th century during the First Spanish Republic there were projects of autonomy for a Castile and León region, as the project of Castilian Mancomunity, Bases de Segovia, Castilian Provincial League or Castilian Federal Pact, but also including current Cantabria and La Rioja. Same project that continued to exist during the Second Spanish Republic and that was finally carried out after the Constitution of 1978 , but without Cantabria and La Rioja that, although it was considered to include them, finally formed uniprovincial autonomies.

Its Statute of Autonomy declares in its preamble:

The Autonomous Community of Castile and León arises from the modern union of the historical territories that composed and gave name to the old crowns of León and Castile. Eleven hundred years ago, the Kingdom of León was constituted, from which that of Castile and Galicia were dislodged as kingdoms throughout the 9th century, and, in 1143, that of Portugal. During these two centuries the monarchs who held the government of these lands attained the dignity of emperors, as attested by the terms of Alfonso VI and Alfonso VII.

In Castile and León, more than 60% of all of Spain's heritage sites are found (architectural, artistic, cultural, etc.). All of which translate into: 8 World Heritage sites, almost 1800 classified cultural heritage assets, 112 historic sites, 400 museums, more than 500 castles, of which 16 are considered of high historical value, 12 cathedrals, 1 concathedral, and the largest concentration of Romanesque art in the world. With 8 World Heritage sites, Castile and León is the region of the world with more cultural assets distinguished by the highest protection figure granted by UNESCO, ahead of the Italian regions of Tuscany and Lombardy, both with 6 sites.Also, the Montes de Valsaín mountains and the Béjar and Francia mountain ranges, in the Sistema Central, the valleys of Laciana, Omaña y Luna and the Picos de Europa and Los Ancares, in the Cantabrian Mountains, and the Iberian Plateau, in the border area with Portugal, have been declared biosphere reserve by UNESCO, which also recognizes the geopark of La Lora with this figure of protection. In addition, Castile and León is strongly related to two of the records of the Memory of the World Programme of UNESCO which are the Decreta of the Cortes of León of 1188, curia regia considered the birthplace of worldwide parliamentarism by the institution itself, and the Treaty of Tordesillas.The Index of development of social services reflects that the community has one of the best social services in the country, positioning itself as the third autonomy that offers the best benefits to its citizens, after the Basque Country and Navarre. Its education, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment report of 2015, leads the scores in reading and sciences with a score comparable to that of the ten best countries in the study.23 April is designated Castile and León Day, commemorating the defeat of the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar during the Revolt of the Comuneros, in 1521.


Catalonia (; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə]; Aranese: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa];) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, the lineages of the rulers of Catalonia and rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, when the King of Aragon married his daughter to the Count of Barcelona. The de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese rulers in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts (parliament), and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.

During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.

In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.

On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.


A comarca (Spanish: [koˈmaɾka], Portuguese: [kuˈmaɾkɐ] or [koˈmaʁkɐ], Galician: [koˈmaɾka] pl. comarcas; Catalan: [kuˈmaɾkə], pl. comarques) is a traditional region or local administrative division found in Portugal, Spain and some of their former colonies: Panama, Nicaragua, and Brazil. The term is derived from the term marca, meaning a "march, mark", plus the prefix co-, meaning "together, jointly".

The comarca is known in Aragonese as redolada (IPA: [reðoˈlaða]) and in Basque as eskualde (IPA: [es̺kualde]). In addition, in Galician, comarcas are also called bisbarras (IPA: [bizˈβaras]).

Comarcas of Aragon

Here is a list of the administrative comarcas (counties) in the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. They were officially delimited in 1999, with substantial changes over a previously proposed division.

Comarques of Catalonia

This is a list of the 42 comarques (singular comarca, Catalan pronunciation: [kuˈmaɾkə]) into which Catalonia is divided. A comarca is a group of municipalities, roughly equivalent to a "county" in the U.S.A. or the U.K. However, in the context of Catalonia, the term "county" can be a bit misleading, because in medieval Catalonia, aside from the kings of Aragon, the most important rulers were counts, notably the Counts of Barcelona and of Urgell. Comarques have no particular relation to the "counties" that were ruled by counts.

Free Catalan Territory

The Free Catalan Territory are those declared municipalities or regions of Catalonia that had approved a motion in a plenary session by the councillors of the town or the region council, as they represent the municipality's local authority. Such motions declare that Spanish laws and regulations are considered provisional, waiting for the Government and Parliament of Catalonia to enact new Catalan laws after having assumed national sovereignty, and therefore turning Catalonia into an independent state.Free Catalan Territory (in Catalan, Territori Català Lliure) was the expression chosen by the councillors of Sant Pere de Torelló in order to define the status quo of the municipality on September 3, 2012, and was also the first town in Catalonia to give itself this name. From its new condition, the council of Sant Pere de Torelló announced that the October 12, holiday becomes an ordinary weekday, directly conflicting the Spanish legislation.Since then, more municipalities joined this initiative and approved similar declarations to Sant Pere de Torelló's. Also, there are some municipalities that preferred approving independentist motions, but without explicitly declaring themselves Free Catalan Territory, like Caldes de Montbui or Tàrrega.The October 11th 2012 the first comarcal declaration was approved. The Comarcal Council of La Garrotxa approved a collective motion to declare all that region "Free and Sovereign Catalan Territory". Also, the same day, the Comarcal Council of the Alt Penedès approved supporting those municipalities that approve that kind of motion, hanging an Estelada flag at the balcony of the offices of the Comarcal Council as a symbol "of Catalonia's people desires of sovereignty".After the first month since Sant Pere de Torelló's declaration, a Catalan newspaper stated that there are approximately 660,000 "free Catalan citizens", which represent almost 9% of Catalonia's total population.

Lleida Museum

Lleida Museum, officially the Diocesan and Comarcal Lleida Museum (Catalan: Museu de Lleida, Museu Diocesà i Comarcal de Lleida), is an art and history museum located in Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.It is owned by the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Lleida city council, Roman Catholic Diocese of Lleida and the comarcal council of Segrià, of which Lleida is the capital. The museum was established in 1997, while the current building in Rambla d'Aragó was inaugurated in 2007. It assembles a variety of collections, including Roman, Islamic, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque art. The museum was controversial from its onset: some of the pieces on display were found in the Catalan-speaking part of Aragon known as Franja de Ponent, adjacent to Lleida and previously belonging to its local diocese, which however were segregated by Vatican decree in 1995, and now belong to the neighbouring Roman Catholic Diocese of Barbastro-Monzón, a merger of former dioceses. They have been claimed by Aragonese institutions ever since.

Ramona Barrufet i Santacana

Ramona Barrufet i Santacana (born 1959) is a Spanish Catalan teacher and politician who has been a deputy in the Parliament of Catalonia for the IX, X and XI legislatures and has been the Fourth Secretary on the Parliament's Board since 2015. She is a member of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia party (CDC).

Unitat Municipal 9

Unitat Municipal 9 (UM9, Municipal Unity 9 in English language) is a local political party, with a independentist and anticapitalist socialist ideology, of Sant Pere de Ribes (Garraf, Catalonia). UM9 is currently a member party of the Popular Unity Candidates.

Xavier García Albiol

Xavier García Albiol (born 8 December 1967) is a Spanish politician and member of the People's Party. He has been the president of the Badalona branch of his party since 1990, and he was the mayor of Badalona between 2011 and 2015. At present, he is serving as a member in the Parliament of Catalonia, where he is president of the People's Party of Catalonia.

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