Comana Pontica

Comana Pontica (Komana Pontika) (Ancient Greek: Κόμανα Ποντική), was an ancient city located in ancient Pontus, now in modern Turkey.

History

Mithridates VI Louvre
Bust of Mithridates VI from the Louvre

Comana Pontica was located in the region of Pontus[1] (now part of modern Turkey). It was located in 2009 by the use of ground-sensor radar and excavation on the outer walls soon began. The Middle East Technical University (METU) located in Ankara, Turkey, undertook control of the diggings. Translate page KARP - Komana Arkeolojik Araştırma Projesi. Of four locations chosen, three proved to be sites of city settlements. As each layer was removed, beginning with the outer city walls, artifacts as well as skeletal remains revealed the presence of the Ottoman Empire, the Byzantine Greeks, the Roman Empire, and the Greeks. With each subsequent layer, it is hoped that proof of the Assyrians, the Hittites, the Lydians, and the Cimmerians presence will be authenticated. In this ancient city, there were regular festivals during which women residing at Komana during the Hittite period performed sacred prostitution.

The Pontic region was self-governing as the Kingdom of Pontus from 281 BCE with the ascension of Mithridates I of Pontus (Persian Mithridatic dynasty) until 63 BCE when Mithridates VI of Pontus was defeated at the Battle of Actium by Roman General Pompey. Mithridates VI committed suicide by poison rather than be captured and brought to Rome in a cage. The territory of the Kingdom of Mithridates VI of Pontus, Comana Pontica was a large temple-state[2] operating in the Hellenistic period which covers ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium[3] in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of the ancient Egyptian Ptolemaic Kingdom the following year. Tokat (pop. 129,879 2009 census), the capital city of Tokat province borders what once was Comana Pontica.[4] The Hittite temple in Comana Pontica was dedicated to the goddess Ma.[5][6] It was visited by the geographer Strabo and Julius Caesar. Large tracts of land around Mabed (site of the temple) was ceded to the temple by the King of Pontus. The land was cultivated and the temple claimed all profits for its maintenance. The temple was tended by 6,000 serfs (vassals/servants/slaves), many of whom were Persian (Strabo 12.3.34). Governing Comana Pontica was by the Chief Priest who was second in line behind the King of Pontus. Mithridates VI claimed to be a direct descendant of Alexander the Great and had fought against the Roman Generals: Sulla, Lucullus, and Pompey. According to Strabo (12.3.32), the Comana Pontica temple was a replica of the temple in Cappadocia and the methods of celebration were the same. The territory of Comana expanded under the rule of the Pontic Kings and throughout the Roman Empire periods. Pompey in Rome added 2 schoeni or 60 stades (11,100 meters) to the temple land. As a result, the area of the city reached a diameter of about 4 km (Magie 1950, 371, Wilson 1960, 229). Caesar or Antony, from the Roman emperors, gave four more schoeni (22,200 meters) worthy soil to the Comana Temple Priests (Wilson 1960, 229). These new lands are likely to have been added to the eastern, southern and western sides of the city. These areas are known as Zelitis and Megalopolitis. On the north side, it can be assumed that the cities of Magnopolis and Neocaesareia are very near, so that they are limited. It is known that during Augustus the area of the city had expanded to reach the size of civitates (City-State) in the region. Komana M.S. When Pontus was added to Galaticus territory in 34–35, Magnopolitic city was most likely included in Komana Pontika (IGR III, 105; Waddington et al. 1904, 109). The city was known both as Hierocaesareia and Komana until the time of Titus (39–81 CE) (IGR III, 105,106). The collapse of the temple accelerated the spread of Christianity. The name was Romanized from Komana Pontika to Comana Pontica. The surrounding lands were included in a much smaller but central settlement, Daximon. Ma, the main goddess of the temple state, has been on the coin since the time of the official emperor Caligula. The only available data for the architectural image of the temple is Caracalla, Septimius Severus, and later Trajan cocci (Fig. A tetrastil temple is depicted on these coins. It is thought that 8 gray columns used in the construction of Ali Pasha's Mosque in Tokat province center may belong to the temple. It is also possible that the columns and column headings used in the Ulu Mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands were also brought from the ancient city of Komana.

Geography

Pontic Mountains
The Pontic Alps which divided the kingdom

Komana is located on a hill in the Gümenek district, 9 km northeast of Tokat (Proc.Pers.i.17.14). It is predicted from the remains of the wall on the hill where this large hill dominates the productive ovine in the region of the city. It is thought that the walls of these small and formless stones may have brought the inner filling of the foundation of the temple wall of the temple to the square. It was thought that the temple was connected to the other side of the River Yeşilırmak River by a lost bridge today and it was found during the researches of 2004 in the water regulator of the bridge. The fertile lands around the hill must have played an important role in the economic structure of the temple state (Strabo 12.3.34). Unfortunately, the site was damaged by modern irrigation channels and a newly constructed highway.

The Anderson Expedition (1896–99)

During the latter half of July 1899, J. G. C. Anderson, Fellow of Christ Church, Oxford University, England, explored the central and eastern district of Asia Minor, travelling through Pontus. Detail typographical maps were constructed using ancient Persian and Roman maps that took them along roadways that followed valleys through the Pontus Mountains, constructed initially by Persian King Darius I (c. 549–486) BCE), and maintained by the Romans until the emergence of the Kingdom of Pontus. After the death of Mithridates VI, the region came under Roman and Byzantine control. With the defeat of the Byzantines and the fall of Constantinople, the Empire of Trebizond was formed under the Komnenos dynasty until the Ottoman Empire seized it. After the Romans relinquished control of the area, road maintenance was nearly non-existent. In 1899, Anderson travelled in an oxcart throughout the Pontic region where most original road still existed. He located and noted possibly sighting of castles, bridges and temples. His fellow traveler, J. A. R. Munro together with D. G. Hogarth published a book entitled, Modern and Ancient Roads in eastern Asia Minor that included a chapter on Roads in Pontus, Royal and Roman. Their maps proved that the original roads were still in use after two thousand years with some variances due to erosion. They came upon an Armenian monetary in Bizeri, Tokat, Turkey approximately 15 miles from Comana Pontica. Stones identified as being from a dark marble quarry in Comana were found in abundance. At Comana, a mound was found near a bridge that crossed the Isis. An inscription identifies Comana as the site.

Map achaemenid empire en
The map of Achaemenid Empire and the section of the Royal Road noted by Herodotus

See also

References

  1. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Comana (Pontus)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 749.
  2. ^ Erciyas, Burcu A. (12 June 2001). "Studies in the Archaeology of Hellenistic Pontus". PhD Dissertation at Univ. of Cincinnati: 97.
  3. ^ Davis, Paul K. (1999). 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World's Major Battles and How They Shaped History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 63.
  4. ^ Wilson, D. R. (1960). "The Historical Geography of Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontos, in the Greek and Roman Periods". DPhil. dissertation at Oxford University: 228.
  5. ^ Wilson, 1960, p. 88
  6. ^ Eriyas, 2001, p. 54

Coordinates: 40°21′27″N 36°38′19″E / 40.35750°N 36.63861°E

Comana

Comana may refer to:

Comana (Cappadocia), an ancient city in Turkey

Comana Pontica, an ancient city of Pontus in Turkey

Comăna, a commune in Braşov County, Romania (including the villages of Comăna de Jos and Comăna de Sus)

Comana, Constanța, a commune in Constanţa County, Romania

Comana, Giurgiu, a commune in Giurgiu County, Romania

John Chrysostom

John Chrysostom (; Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father. He is known for his preaching and public speaking, his denunciation of abuse of authority by both ecclesiastical and political leaders, the Divine Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, and his ascetic sensibilities. The epithet Χρυσόστομος (Chrysostomos, anglicized as Chrysostom) means "golden-mouthed" in Greek and denotes his celebrated eloquence. Chrysostom was among the most prolific authors in the early Christian Church, exceeded only by Augustine of Hippo in the quantity of his surviving writings.He is honored as a saint in the Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, as well as in some others. The Eastern Orthodox, together with the Byzantine Catholics, hold him in special regard as one of the Three Holy Hierarchs (alongside Basil the Great and Gregory of Nazianzus). The feast days of John Chrysostom in the Eastern Orthodox Church are 13 November and 27 January. In the Roman Catholic Church he is recognized as a Doctor of the Church and commemorated on 13 September in the current General Roman Calendar and on 27 January in the older calendar. Other churches of the Western tradition, including some Anglican provinces and some Lutheran churches, also commemorate him on 13 September. However, certain Lutheran churches and Anglican provinces commemorate him on the traditional feast day of 27 January. The Coptic Church also recognizes him as a saint (with feast days on 16 Thout and 17 Hathor).

Kamani Monastery

The Kamani Monastery is located at the village of Kamani in Abkhazia/Georgia, north of Sukhumi. The monastery building is a 1980s construction on the foundations of a medieval church.The locale of Kamani, also known as Komani, is associated in the local Abkhaz-Georgian legends with Saint John Chrysostom, who allegedly died there after being exiled from Constantinople to the Black Sea coast. In 1884, the Greek scholar Konstantinos Vrissis visited the area and conjectured that it was Kamani, not Comana Pontica, where John Chrysostom died and was initially buried.Only the foundation survived of a medieval stone monastic building, a hall church design without a protruding apse. In the 1880s, under the Russian rule, a Christian convent was founded there, but it fell in disuse with the arrival of the Soviet power in the region. In the late 1980s, the church was rebuilt through the efforts of the Abkhaz Yuri Anua. In 1990, Ilia II, Catholicos Patriarch of Georgia, consecrated the church. In July 1993, during the War in Abkhazia, the monastery was stormed by the Abkhaz separatist forces; Yuri Anua and the Georgian priest Andria Kurashvili were killed.In 2001, a group of Abkhaz monks returned to the Kamani monastery, which was transferred by the Sukhumi government, in 2011, in possession of the self-proclaimed Abkhazian Orthodox Church. Georgia has inscribed the church on the list of cultural heritage and reported, in 2015, the physical condition of the monument as poor.

List of Catholic titular sees

This is the official list of titular sees of the Catholic Church included in the Annuario Pontificio. Archiepiscopal sees are shown in bold.

The Italian-language Annuario Pontificio devotes some 200 pages to listing these sees, with up to a dozen names on each page. It gives their names in Latin (which are generally the names used also in English) as well as in Italian, and indicates the ancient Roman province to which most of them belonged or other geographical particulars, their status as metropolitan see or suffragan see (of episcopal or archiepiscopal rank), and basic biographical information about their current bishops.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

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List of archaeological sites by country

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For one sorted by continent and time period, see the list of archaeological sites by continent and age.

List of renamed cities, towns and regions in Turkey

The names of many populated places and geographical features in Turkey have undergone changes over the centuries, and more particularly since the establishment of the present-day nation in the early 20th century, when there were extensive campaigns to change to recognizably Turkish names. Names changed were usually of Armenian, Greek, Georgian (including Laz), Bulgarian, Kurdish, Zazaki, Syriac or Arabic origin.

Mesyla

Mesyla was a town of ancient Pontus on the Iris near Comana Pontica.Its site is unlocated.

Pontic Greeks

The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Greek: Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Turkish: Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, Georgian: პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia. Many later migrated to other parts of Eastern Anatolia, to the former Russian province of Kars Oblast in the Transcaucasus, and to Georgia in various waves between the Ottoman conquest of the Empire of Trebizond in 1461 and the second Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829. Those from southern Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea are often referred to as "Northern Pontic [Greeks]", in contrast to those from "South Pontus", which strictly speaking is Pontus proper. Those from Georgia, northeastern Anatolia, and the former Russian Caucasus are in contemporary Greek academic circles often referred to as "Eastern Pontic [Greeks]" or as Caucasian Greeks, but also include the Turkic-speaking Urums.

Pontic Greeks have Greek ancestry and speak the Pontic Greek dialect, a distinct form of the standard Greek language which, due to the remoteness of Pontus, has undergone linguistic evolution distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world. The Pontic Greeks had a continuous presence in the region of Pontus (modern-day northeastern Turkey), Georgia, and Eastern Anatolia from at least 700 BC until 1922.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Machala

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Machala (Latin: Dioecesis Machalensis) is a diocese located in the city of Machala in the Ecclesiastical province of Cuenca in Ecuador. Established on July 26, 1954 as the Territorial Prelature of El Oro from territory of the Dioceses of Guayaquil and Cuenca, it was elevated as the Diocese of Machala on January 31, 1969.

Sulusaray

Sulusaray or Çiftlik, in Antiquity and the early Middle Ages known as Sebastopolis (Greek: Σεβαστούπολις) or Heracleopolis (Ἡρακλειούπολις), is a town and a district of Tokat Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Sulusaray is about 68 km from the center of Tokat, and about 30 km from Artova town. The site is situated on a plain surrounded by mountains and the Çekerek river runs near it. The mayor is Şahin Hasgül (MHP).

Theme (Byzantine district)

The themes or themata (Greek: θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main military/administrative divisions of the middle Byzantine Empire. They were established in the mid-7th century in the aftermath of the Slavic invasion of the Balkans and Muslim conquests of parts of Byzantine territory, and replaced the earlier provincial system established by Diocletian and Constantine the Great. In their origin, the first themes were created from the areas of encampment of the field armies of the East Roman army, and their names corresponded to the military units that had existed in those areas. The theme system reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries, as older themes were split up and the conquest of territory resulted in the creation of new ones. The original theme system underwent significant changes in the 11th and 12th centuries, but the term remained in use as a provincial and financial circumscription until the very end of the Empire.

Tokat Castle

Tokat Castle, is an ancient citadel with 28 towers built on top of a rocky peak in the center of Tokat, Turkey.

While its first residents are unknown, the city's history dates back to 3,000 BC. The Hittites and Persians ruled over the area. The earliest known artifacts of the castle date back to the 5th century, and its first recorded residents were Christian groups migrating from Comana Pontica. The castle was under the control of the Byzantine Empire until its takeover by Danishmend Gazi in 1074 and eventual rule by the Great Seljuq Empire. It went through renovations in the Seljuq and Ottoman periods. Because it was used as a prison for rebels and government administrators at times, it was also called Çardar-ı Bedevi, meaning the Wild Arbor.

Vlad the Impaler, also known as Count Dracula, was one of its inmates early in the 15th century. The castle is being restored and its secret passage is open to visitors.

Yeşilırmak (river)

The Yeşilırmak (Turkish: Yeşilırmak, "Green River"; classical Ancient Greek: Ἶρις, Iris) is a river in northern Turkey. From its source north-east of Sivas, it flows past Tokat and Amasya, and reaches the Black Sea at Samsun after 418 km (260 mi).

Its tributaries include the Çekerek (ancient Scylax) and the Kelkit (ancient Lycus).

Strabo's Geographica describes it as flowing through Comana Pontica, the plain of Dazimonitis (Kaşova) (40°17′41″N 36°17′48″E), and Gaziura (probably modern Turhal) before receiving the waters (40°33′42″N 35°45′34″E) of the Scylax, then flowing through Amaseia (Amasya) before reaching the valley of Phanaroea.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

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