Columbia Law School (often referred to as Columbia Law or CLS) is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League. It has always been ranked in the top five law schools in the United States by U.S. News and World Report. Columbia is especially well known for its strength in corporate law and its placement power in the nation's elite law firms.
Columbia Law School was founded in 1858 as the Columbia College Law School, and was known for its legal scholarship dating back to the 18th century. Graduates of the university's colonial predecessor, King's College, include such notable early-American legal figures as John Jay, the first chief justice of the United States, and Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, who were both co-authors of The Federalist Papers.
Columbia has produced a large number of distinguished alumni, including US presidents Teddy Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt; nine justices of the Supreme Court of the United States; numerous U.S. Cabinet members and presidential advisers; US senators; representatives; governors; and more members of the Forbes 400 than any other law school in the world.
According to Columbia Law School's 2013 ABA-required disclosures; 95% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment within nine months of graduation, with the 25th percentile median, and 75th percentile starting salary for graduates all being $180,000 (including the standard first year associate bonus of $15,000, this figure rises to $195,000). The law school was ranked #1 of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal in terms of sending the highest percentage of 2015 graduates to the largest 100 law firms in the US (52.6%).
|Columbia Law School|
|Parent school||Columbia University in the City of New York|
|Endowment||$450 million (2018)|
|Parent endowment||US $ 10.0 billion|
|Location||New York City, New York, U.S.|
|USNWR ranking||5th (2018)|
|Bar pass rate||95.6%|
|ABA profile||Columbia Law School Profile|
The teaching of law at Columbia reaches back to the 18th century. Graduates of the university's colonial predecessor, King's College, included such notable early American judicial figures as John Jay, who would later become the first Chief Justice of the United States. Columbia College appointed its first professor of law, James Kent, in 1793. The lectures of Chancellor Kent in the course of four years had developed into the first two volumes of his Commentaries, the second volume being published November 1827. Kent did not, however, succeed in establishing a law school or department in the College. Thus, the formal instruction of law as a course of study did not commence until the middle of the 19th century.
The Columbia College Law School, as it was then officially called, was founded in 1858. The first law school building was a Gothic Revival structure located on Columbia's Madison Avenue campus. Thereafter, the college became Columbia University and moved north to the neighborhood of Morningside Heights. As Columbia Law Professor Theodore Dwight observed, at its founding the demand for a formal course of study in law was still speculative:
It was considered at that time mainly as an experiment. No institution resembling a law school had ever existed in New York. Most of the leading lawyers had obtained their training in offices or by private reading, and were highly skeptical as to the possibility of securing competent legal knowledge by means of professional schools. Legal education was, however, at a very low ebb. The clerks in the law offices were left almost wholly to themselves. Frequently they were not even acquainted with the lawyers with whom, by a convenient fiction, they were supposed to be studying. Examinations for admission to the bar were held by committees appointed by the courts, who, where they inquired at all, sought for the most part to ascertain the knowledge of the candidate of petty details of practice. In general, the examinations were purely perfunctory. A politician of influence was not readily turned away. Few studied law as a science; many followed it as a trade or as a convenient ladder whereby to rise in a political career."
Indeed, Columbia Law School was one of the few law schools established in the United States before the Civil War. During the 18th and 19th centuries, most legal education took place in law offices, where young men, serving as apprentices or clerks, were set to copying documents and filling out legal forms under the supervision of an established attorney. For example, in New York John Jay, revolutionary founding father and first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, read law with Benjamin Kissam, whose busy practice kept his clerks occupied in transcribing records, pleadings, and opinions. Jay was fortunate to have attentive supervision because the quality and time of learning the law varied greatly within the profession. Theodore Dwight, who had been head of the law department of Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, believed formal legal education, conducted in the classroom with regular lectures, was far superior to casual law office instruction.
At its founding, four distinct courses of lectures of this class were then established: one on Philology, offered by distinguished scholar and statesman, George P. Marsh; a second by Dr. Francis Lieber, a standard writer upon topics of political science and of international law, then a professor at Columbia College; a third course on Ethics, by Professor Nairne, also of the College; and a fourth on Municipal Law, by Theodore W. Dwight, then Professor of Law in Hamilton College, New York, which at the time already had a flourishing law school. The original course of study to obtain a degree consisted of just two years, rather than the modern standard of three. The first lecture in the law school was delivered on Monday, Nov 1, 1858, by Mr. Dwight, at the rooms of the Historical Society. It was an introductory lecture, afterwards printed. The audience consisted mainly of lawyers. It was plain that many of them could be counted upon as friends of a system of legal education. The result was an immediate attendance of thirty-five students, who showed their intention of pursuing a regular course of study by at once paying a tuition fee for instruction throughout the year. Such assurances were given of a future increase of numbers that it was determined to divide each class at the beginning of the coming year into two sections, for their convenience. The next year, the number of students was sixty-two. In the third year there were one hundred and three. Many of these early students were members of the bar. In 1860, in order to stimulate excellence in attainments of the students, a series of annual prizes was established, commencing with $250, and diminishing regularly by $50, until the sum of $100 was reached. These were adjudicated by leading members of the bar upon the combined merits of written answers to printed questions, and of essays upon topics selected by the instructors. None could compete for the prizes except those who had fully completed the two years' course. The questions covered the range of studies for the whole course. Stringent rules were adopted in reference to the answers, so as to secure the absolute fidelity of the candidates in their work.
Professor Dwight believed a course of legal study should focus on the application of basic legal principles, as learned through the study of legal treatises, coupled with frequent moot courts which would permit students to demonstrate their proficiency in applying those principles to new legal problems. In this way, Dwight's method of teaching diverged significantly from the "case method" which had then been popularized by Dean Langdell of the Harvard Law School which focused on the study of individual cases and the use of inductive reasoning to distill governing legal principles from those case with little time spent on the practical application of those principles.
Dwight believed that his method was superior to the case method because it helped to create trained legal practitioners ready to enter the profession rather than academics more suited to teaching. In support of his position, Dwight cited the example of legal study throughout the Western World since the Roman empire: "It is not out of place in this connection to refer to the chosen methods of acquiring the Roman law, both as sanctioned by great jurists and by imperial authority, after an experience continuing through centuries . . .The Roman jurists had "cases" to deal with, precisely as we do. They were not mere legal philosophers, but disposed of practical and "burning" questions of their time. They were, however, in the habit of referring back to a legal principle in disposing of a concrete case, and believed that great principles could be so stated as to win the attention of students and give them a solid basis for future detailed acquisitions.".
By the late nineteenth century, Dwight's method give way to the case method which by the turn of the twentieth century had become the standard curriculum at all of the other premier American law schools at Harvard, Yale and the University of Pennsylvania. In 1891, in response to Columbia's adoption of the case method, Dwight and a number of Columbia professors left the law school to found New York Law School in Manhattan's Financial District.
After Dwight's departure, William Albert Keener of Harvard Law School became dean of the law school from 1891 to 1901 when he was succeeded by George Washington Kirchwey. Future Supreme Court Justice Harlan Fiske Stone graduated from the law school in 1898. While practicing law in New York, he began lecturing at Columbia Law School in 1899 and joined the faculty as a full professor. He subsequently became dean of the law school in 1910 and held the position until 1923 when he left to join Sullivan and Cromwell as a partner. Stone became Attorney General of the United States in 1924 and held that Office for almost a year before joining the Supreme Court of the United States as an associate justice.
In the 1920s and 30s, the law school soon became known for the development of the legal realism movement. Among the major realists affiliated with Columbia Law School were Karl Llewellyn, Felix S. Cohen and William O. Douglas.
Ever since U.S. News & World Report began ranking law schools in 1987, Columbia Law has appeared in the Top 5 each year, an honor shared only with Yale, Harvard, and Stanford. U.S. News & World Report consistently places Columbia Law among the top five law schools (for both academic reputation and national standing), and currently ranks Columbia Law 5th. U.S. News and World Report also ranks Columbia Law #4 in its 2011 Law Firm Recruiters' Ranking of Best Law Schools. Forbes magazine ranks Columbia Law #1 for Best Law Schools for Career Prospects as well as #1 for Highest Earning Law Graduates.
Columbia Law is ranked #1 for "Best Career Prospects" by Princeton Review and is widely ranked as one of, and often the best, law school for job placement nationally. Professor Brian Leiter's scholarly law school rankings placed Columbia #1 for job placement at the nation's "most prestigious" law firms for three years straight (2006–09) and ranked Columbia #3 for student numerical quality (average LSAT/GPA) for the last five years (surpassed only by Yale and Harvard). Columbia ranked #1 in The National Law Journal survey of "Go-To Law Schools" two years in a row (2007, 2008) for having the highest percentage of graduates hired by the nation's top 250 law firms (#2 in 2009; #3 in 2010; #3 in 2011).
The law school was ranked first among of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal in terms of sending the highest percentage of 2015 graduates to the largest 100 law firms in the US (52.6%).
Today, Columbia Law's faculty is well regarded for its exemplary teaching and scholarship in a number of different areas. Several of the faculty are recipients of the MacArthur Fellows Program "genius grant". The following list of disciplines enumerates some—but not nearly all—of Columbia Law School's notable scholars:
Widely cited scholars in other specialties include Jody Kraus, Robert E. Scott (contract law); Lance Liebman (employment law); Michael I. Sovern (labor law); Matthew Waxman (national security law); Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, Patricia J. Williams (critical race theory, gender ); Michael A. Heller (real estate law); Henry P. Monaghan (federal courts and civil procedure); and Marvin Chirelstein, Michael J. Graetz, and David Schizer (tax law). Jagdish Bhagwati is University Professor of Economics and Law.
For the year ending December 2009, Columbia Law School's faculty ranked #2 in the nation for the number of academic papers authored and downloaded on the Social Science Research Network (SSRN), according to cumulative statistics, exceeded only by Harvard Law School's faculty. In 2007 (the prior such ranking by SSRN) Columbia Law School's faculty also was the #2 most downloaded law faculty in the United States.
Columbia was among the first schools to establish both comparative and international law centers, as well as an effective space law department. The law school also has major centers for the study of international law, including the Center for Chinese Legal Studies, the Center for Korean Legal Studies, the Center for Japanese Legal Studies (the first and only center of its kind in the United States), the Center for European Legal Studies, as well as centers for Corporate Governance, Climate Change Law, Gender and Sexuality Law, Law and Economics, Law and Politics, thirteen other law centers, and numerous law programs. In July 2012, the law school launched three new centers: i) the Ira M. Millstein Center for Global Markets and Corporate Ownership to "study global financial markets and their diverse, interdependent actors"; ii) the Center for Constitutional Governance to "bring together a dynamic roster of constitutional scholars who are deeply engaged in the study of governmental structure and relationships, including experts on separation of powers and issues of federalism"; and iii) the Center for International Commercial and Investment Arbitration Law to "further the teaching and study of international arbitration, building on the Law School's considerable expertise in this rapidly growing area of legal practice."
In 2006, the law school embarked on an ambitious campaign to increase the number of faculty by fifty percent without increasing the number of students.
On May 26, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Judge Sonia Sotomayor, a Lecturer-in-Law at Columbia since 1999, to be a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Judge Sotomayor created and co-taught a course entitled "The Federal Appellate Externship" every semester at the law school since the fall 2000. Federal Appellate Externships and many other externships, including Federal District Externships, are offered each year at Columbia.
Among other externships, the law school offers a full-semester externship on the federal government in Washington, D.C., which provides students hands-on experience in government law offices. In addition to their placements at federal agencies, students in the program are also required to attend a weekly seminar and write a substantive research paper. The Federal Government Externship has the following three specific components:
Columbia Law School's Arthur W. Diamond Library is one of the most comprehensive libraries in the world and is the second largest academic law library in the United States, with over 1,000,000 volumes and subscriptions to more than 7,450 journals and other serials.
The Columbia Law Review is the third-most-cited law journal in the world and is one of the four publishers of the Bluebook. Columbia publishes thirteen other student-edited journals, including the Columbia Business Law Review, Columbia Human Rights Law Review (which in turn publishes A Jailhouse Lawyer's Manual), Columbia Journal of Asian Law, Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, Columbia Journal of European Law, Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Columbia Journal of Law & the Arts, Columbia Journal of Law & Social Problems, Columbia Journal of Race & Law, Columbia Journal of Tax Law, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, and the American Review of International Arbitration.
In December 2010, the law school announced the addition of an accelerated JD/MBA joint degree program, which allows students to obtain both a JD and MBA within three years. The accelerated program will not replace the existing four-year JD/MBA joint degree program. Interested students will be able to choose between the two programs. A joint degree can prove to be beneficial to law students' career objectives. To enable interested students to achieve this goal, the law school may approve a joint degree with any of the following of Columbia's graduate or professional schools:
Additionally, in recent years, students have successfully petitioned the law school's Rules Committee for permission to create a joint degree program with schools that have agreed to grant advanced standing toward their master's degree for work completed in the Columbia J.D. program:
Columbia has cultivated alliances and dual degree programs with overseas law schools, including the University of Oxford, King's College London, University College London, and the London School of Economics in London, England; the Institut d'études politiques de Paris ("Sciences Po") and the Université Panthéon-Sorbonne in Paris, France; the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands; and the Institute for Law and Finance (ILF) at Goethe University Frankfurt in Frankfurt, Germany. The double degree options include JD/Masters in French Law (4 year program in Paris), JD/Masters Program in Global Business (3 Year program in Paris), JD/LLM (3 year program in London), LLB/JD (4 year program in London), and JD/LLM (4 year program in Frankfurt).
Columbia Law School has one of the largest international alliances with China, and with Peking University, specifically, a joint exchange program that begin in 2006 when students could be exchanged for a semester, which was expanded as a program in 2011 to allow faculty to teach or co-teach courses abroad, and which was expanded as a program again in 2013 when Columbia Law School dean David Schizer and Peking University Law School dean Zhang Shouwen signed a memorandum of understanding between the universities, allowing for joint publications and joint seminars between faculty at the respective universities.
The law school runs nine vigorous clinical programs that contribute to the community, including the nation's first technology-based clinic, called Lawyering in the Digital Age. This clinic is currently engaged in building a community resource to understand the collateral consequences of criminal charges. In April 2006, Columbia announced that it was starting the nation's first clinic in sexuality and gender law. In 2007, Columbia opened a new program in law and technology.
Given that Columbia is well known for its strength in corporate law, the law school offers, for example, a "Deals" course that includes participants from the Columbia Business School and the law school. In addition, the Columbia Business and Law Association (CBLA), the law school's principal student group dedicated to the interaction between law and business, routinely sponsors lectures, workshops, and networking events from traditional areas of interest such as investment banking, management consulting, venture capital, private equity, hedge funds, and entrepreneurship. CBLA also serves as a center for members of the Columbia Law School community interested in many aspects of business law, including corporate governance and securities regulation. The student-run organization Unemployment Action Center has a chapter at Columbia Law School.
Columbia Law School's main building, Jerome L. Greene Hall (or simply "the Law School"), was designed by Wallace Harrison and Max Abramovitz, architects of the United Nations Headquarters and Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts (which for many years served as the site of Columbia Law School's graduation ceremonies). It is located at the intersection of Amsterdam Avenue and West 116th Street. One of the building's defining features is its frontal sculpture, Bellerophon Taming Pegasus, designed by Jacques Lipchitz, symbolizing man's struggle over (his own) wild side/unreason.
In 1996, the law school was given an extensive renovation and expansion by Polshek Partnership (now Ennead Architects), including the addition of a new entrance façade and three story skylit lobby, as well as the expansion of existing space to include an upper level students' commons, lounge areas, and a café. In the summer of 2008, construction of a new floor in Jerome Greene Hall was completed providing 38 new faculty offices. Other Columbia Law School buildings include William and June Warren Hall, the Jerome Greene Learning Annex (which Jerome Greene's representatives politely declined to have renamed after the building of Jerome Greene Hall), and William C. Warren Hall (or "Little Warren").
Lenfest Hall, the law school's premier residence, opened in August 2003. The hall was named for H. F. Lenfest '58 and his wife Marguerite. Lenfest contains more than 200 luxury student residences, including private studio apartments and one-bedroom apartments. In addition to Lenfest Hall, the majority of Columbia Law students live in the university's Graduate Student Housing consisting of single and shared apartments in buildings throughout Morningside Heights. All Columbia Law students are guaranteed housing on campus for the duration of their law school studies.
Columbia offers a Graduate Legal Studies Program, including the Master of Laws (LL.M.) and the Doctor of the Science of Law (J.S.D.) degrees. The LL.M. Program is considered one of the best in the United States and has been ranked very highly according to private studies. Each year the law school enrolls approximately 210 graduate students from more than 50 countries with experience in all areas of the legal profession, including academia, the judiciary, public service, civil rights and human rights advocacy, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, and private practice. Graduate students are an important component of the law school community. They participate in many co-curricular activities, including student journals, moot courts, and student organizations. Graduate students also organize and speak at conferences, workshops, and colloquia on current legal issues.
Since 2005, 24 Columbia Law alumni have served as judicial clerks at the U.S. Supreme Court, one of the most distinguished appointments a law school graduate can obtain. This record gives Columbia a ranking of fifth among all law schools for supplying such law clerks for the period 2005-2017. Columbia has placed 135 clerks at the U.S. Supreme Court in its history, one of the top five law schools for clerks; this group includes Lee Bollinger, who clerked for Chief Justice Warren Burger in the 1972 Term, and is now the president of Columbia University.
According to Columbia Law School's official 2014 ABA-required disclosures, 93.8% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment ten months after graduation. Columbia Law School's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 1.6%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2013 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation.
The total cost of attendance (indicating the cost of tuition, fees, and living expenses) at Columbia Law School for the 2014-2015 academic year is $85,755. The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $313,097.
Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and the 25th vice president of the United States, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd president of the United States, were students at CLS; neither graduated from CLS, but they both received honorary J.D.s in October 2008. Former President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili, received his LL.M. at Columbia; Giuliano Amato, twice former Prime Minister of Italy (1992–93 and 2000–2001), was also a CLS graduate. Graduates of the law school have served as members of the United States President's Cabinet and non-U.S. government executive cabinets, including U.S. Secretary of State, Secretary of Treasury, Secretary of War (now U.S. Secretary of Defense), and Attorney General, amongst others.
Three of the school's graduates have served as Chief Justice of the United States: Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan Fiske Stone and John Jay. Columbia Law School is the only law school to have graduated more than one chief justice. Nine alumni of Columbia Law School have served on the Supreme Court of the United States, including current member Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Several alumni have served as United States Solicitor General. There are over 90 current and past members of the U.S. federal courts who have graduated from CLS. Internationally, CLS graduates also have occupied prominent judicial positions, including Shi Jiuyong, former president of the International Court of Justice (ICJ); Xue Hanqin, current member of the ICJ; Giuliano Amato, current member of the Constitutional Court of Italy; Jan Schans Christensen ('88 LL.M.), current member of the Supreme Court of Denmark; Susan Denham, current Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Ireland; Marvic Leonen ('04 LL.M.), current member of the Supreme Court of the Philippines; Hironobu Takesaki, current Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Japan; Umu Hawa Tejan-Jalloh, current Chief Justice, Supreme Court of Sierra Leone; Karin Maria Bruzelius, former member of the Supreme Court of Norway; Lawrence Collins, former Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; and Francis M. Ssekandi, former justice of the Supreme Court of Uganda, among others.
Notable legal academics who are graduates of CLS include Barbara Black, Lee Bollinger, Felix S. Cohen, Lawrence Collins, Robert Cover, Samuel Estreicher, E. Allan Farnsworth, Charles Fried, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Harvey Goldschmid, Kent Greenawalt, Jack Greenberg, Geoffrey C. Hazard, Jr., Benjamin Kaplan, Jessica Litman, Louis Lusky, Yale Kamisar, Soia Mentschikoff, Richard B. Morris, Paula Franzese, Robert Pitofsky, Barbara Ringer, Lawrence Sager, Michael I. Sovern, Arthur T. Vanderbilt, Charles Warren, Herbert Wechsler, and Mark D. West.
In 2015, the positions of Attorney General of the United States (Eric Holder), Solicitor General (Don Verrilli) and the Assistant Attorney General for the Criminal Division (Lanny Breuer) were all occupied by graduates of the law school.
CLS alumni are also notable in the arts, business and elsewhere. For example, civil rights activist, recording artist, and actor Paul Robeson received his law degree from CLS in 1923. Academy Award-winning lyricist and playwright Oscar Hammerstein II attended the law school. Moe Berg was a Major League Baseball player, and a spy for the United States. Alumni of the law school have been the president or founder of more than 30 colleges and universities in the nation.
David Joel Stern (born September 22, 1942) is an American businessman and lawyer who served as the fourth commissioner of the National Basketball Association. He started with the Association in 1966 as an outside counsel, joined the NBA in 1978 as General Counsel, and became the league's Executive Vice President in 1980. He became Commissioner in 1984, succeeding Larry O'Brien. He is credited with increasing the popularity of the NBA in the 1990s and 2000s.Stern has served on the Rutgers University Board of Overseers and is a Chair Emeritus of the Board of Trustees of Columbia University. He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.On October 25, 2012, Stern announced that he would step down as NBA commissioner on February 1, 2014, 30 years to the day after beginning his tenure as commissioner. His deputy, Adam Silver, was his successor. At the time of his departure, he was the NBA's longest-serving commissioner. Stern received the Olympic Order in 2012. On February 14, 2014, the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame announced that Stern would be a member of its 2014 induction class. In 2016, he became a member of the FIBA Hall of Fame.Ellen V. Futter
Ellen Victoria Futter (born September 21, 1949) is president of the American Museum of Natural History. She previously served as president of Barnard College for 13 years.George P. Lawrence
George Pelton Lawrence (May 19, 1859 – November 21, 1917) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts.Gerard E. Lynch
Gerard Edmund Lynch (born September 4, 1951) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. He was confirmed to that seat on September 17, 2009 after previously having been appointed in 2000 by President Bill Clinton to serve on the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. Judge Lynch was the first appeals-court judge nominated by President Barack Obama to win confirmation from the United States Senate.
Lynch is also the Paul J. Kellner Professor of Law at Columbia Law School.Harlan F. Stone
Harlan Fiske Stone (October 11, 1872 – April 22, 1946) was an American lawyer. He served as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1925 to 1941 and as the 12th Chief Justice of the United States from 1941 to 1946. He was also the 52nd United States Attorney General. His most famous dictum was: "Courts are not the only agency of government that must be assumed to have capacity to govern."Born in Chesterfield, New Hampshire, Stone practiced law in New York City after graduating from Columbia Law School. He became the dean of Columbia Law School and a partner with Sullivan & Cromwell. During World War I, he served on the War Department Board of Inquiry, which evaluated the sincerity of conscientious objectors. In 1924, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Stone as the Attorney General. Stone sought to reform the Department of Justice in the aftermath of several scandals that occurred during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. He also pursued several antitrust cases against large corporations.
In 1925, Coolidge nominated Stone to succeed retiring Associate Justice Joseph McKenna, and Stone won Senate confirmation with little opposition. On the Taft Court, Stone joined with Justices Holmes and Brandeis in calling for judicial restraint and deference to the legislative will. On the Hughes Court, Stone and Justices Brandeis and Cardozo formed a liberal bloc called the Three Musketeers that generally voted to uphold the constitutionality of the New Deal. His majority opinions in United States v. Darby Lumber Co. and United States v. Carolene Products Co. were influential in shaping standards of judicial scrutiny.
In 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt nominated Stone to succeed the retiring Charles Evans Hughes as Chief Justice, and the Senate quickly confirmed Stone. The Stone Court presided over several cases during World War II, and Stone's majority opinion in Ex parte Quirin upheld the jurisdiction of a United States military tribunal over the trial of eight German saboteurs. His majority opinion in International Shoe Co. v. Washington was influential with regards to personal jurisdiction. Stone was the Chief Justice in Korematsu v. United States, ruling the exclusion of Japanese Americans into internment camps as constitutional. Stone served as Chief Justice until his death in 1946. He had one of the shortest terms of any Chief Justice, and was the first Chief Justice not to have served in elected office.Horace White
Horace White (October 7, 1865 – November 27, 1943) was an American lawyer and politician from New York. He was the 37th Governor of New York from October 6, 1910 to December 31, 1910.Howard Alexander Smith
Howard Alexander Smith (January 30, 1880 – October 27, 1966) was an American lawyer and politician. A member of the Republican Party, he served as a United States Senator from New Jersey from 1944 to 1959. He was the uncle of Peter H. Dominick, who was a Senator from Colorado (1963–1975).Jack Greenberg
Jack Greenberg (December 22, 1924 – October 12, 2016) was an American attorney and legal scholar. He was the Director-Counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund from 1961 to 1984, succeeding Thurgood Marshall.He was involved in numerous crucial cases, including Brown v. Board of Education, which ended segregation in public schools. In all, he argued 40 civil rights cases before the U.S. Supreme Court.He was Alphonse Fletcher Jr. Professor of Law Emeritus at Columbia Law School, and had previously served as dean of Columbia College and vice dean of Columbia Law School. He died on October 12, 2016.John A. Thayer
John Alden Thayer (December 22, 1857 – July 31, 1917) was a Representative from Massachusetts.
He was born in Worcester, Massachusetts. He was the son of Eli Thayer. He graduated from Harvard College in 1879. He studied law at Columbia Law School in New York City. He was admitted to the bar in 1889 and was a clerk of the central district court of Worcester from 1892 to 1897.
He was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-second Congress from March 4, 1911 to March 3, 1913. He failed reelection in 1912 to the Sixty-third Congress. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1912. In 1915, he was appointed postmaster of Worcester, and served until his death.Kyle Duncan
Stuart Kyle Duncan (born 1972) is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit.Luis Villa
Luis Villa is an American attorney and programmer who worked as Deputy General Counsel and then as Senior Director of Community Engagement at the Wikimedia Foundation. Previously he was an attorney at Mozilla, where he worked on the revision of the Mozilla Public License (MPL). He continued that work in his next job at Greenberg Traurig where he was part of the team defending Google against Oracle's claims concerning Android. Prior to graduating from Columbia Law School in 2009, he was an employee at Ximian, which was acquired by Novell in 2003. He spent a year as a "senior geek in residence" at Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet & Society working on StopBadware.org. He has been elected four times to the board of the GNOME Foundation. He was editor-in-chief of the Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, and blogs regularly. He was a director of the Open Source Initiative from April 2012 to March 2015.Mark Attanasio
Mark L. Attanasio (born September 29, 1957) is a Los Angeles businessman and owner of the Milwaukee Brewers. In September 2004, he reached a deal, on behalf of an investment group, to purchase the Brewers from the family of Major League Baseball (MLB) commissioner Bud Selig for an estimated US$223 million. The deal was approved by MLB at the owners' winter meeting on January 13, 2005.Peter A. Allard School of Law
The Peter A. Allard School of Law is the law school of the University of British Columbia. The Faculty offers the Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree as well as the Master of Laws (LL.M.), Master of Laws in Common Law (LL.M.C.L.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees. The Faculty features courses on business law, tax law, environmental and natural resource law, indigenous law, Pacific Rim issues, and feminist legal theory.
It was renamed from the University of British Columbia Faculty of Law in 2015 to honor a $30M gift from Peter Allard, an alumnus, which followed a 2011 gift from him of about $12M.Philip J. Philbin
Philip Joseph Philbin (May 29, 1898 – June 14, 1972) was a Democratic U.S. Congressman from Massachusetts. He was born in Clinton, Massachusetts where he attended the public and high schools. From 1917 until 1919, during the First World War, served as a seaman in the United States Navy. He then went on to Harvard University, was center on the Harvard Football Team that won the Rose Bowl game in 1919 against Oregon. He graduated in 1920 and from Columbia University Law School, New York City, in 1924.
He was admitted to the bar the same year and commenced practice in Boston and later in Clinton, Ma. He also engaged in the realty and fuel businesses and in agricultural pursuits. From 1921 through 1940, he served as the secretary, campaign manager, and personal representative at intervals for Senator David I. Walsh and from 1934 though 1936, served as special counsel for the United States Senate Committee on Education and Labor. He was a referee in the United States Department of Labor in 1936 and 1937, a member of the advisory board of the Massachusetts Unemployment Compensation Commission between 1937 and 1940, and in 1935 became chairman of the town of Clinton Finance Committee.
In 1942, as the Democratic nominee, Philbin was elected to the 78th United States Congress and to the thirteen succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1943 - January 3, 1971). In his reelection campaign of 1970, he was unsuccessful in his primary, losing to the anti-war candidate, Father Robert Drinan, SJ. At the very end of the 91st United States Congress, he served as chairman of the Committee on Armed Services, due to the death of L. Mendel Rivers on December 28, 1970. He died at home on Philcrest Farms, in Bolton, Massachusetts. He is buried in St. John’s Cemetery, Lancaster, Massachusetts.
United States Congress. "Philip J. Philbin (id: P000303)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg (; born Joan Ruth Bader; March 15, 1933) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Ginsburg was appointed by President Bill Clinton and took the oath of office on August 10, 1993. She is the second female justice (after Sandra Day O'Connor) of four to be confirmed to the court (along with Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan, who are still serving). Following O'Connor's retirement, and until Sotomayor joined the court, Ginsburg was the only female justice on the Supreme Court. During that time, Ginsburg became more forceful with her dissents, which were noted by legal observers and in popular culture. She is generally viewed as belonging to the liberal wing of the court. Ginsburg has authored notable majority opinions, including United States v. Virginia, Olmstead v. L.C., and Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, Inc.
Ginsburg was born in Brooklyn, New York. Her older sister died when she was a baby, and her mother, one of her biggest sources of encouragement, died shortly before Ginsburg graduated from high school. She then earned her bachelor's degree at Cornell University, and became a wife and mother before starting law school at Harvard, where she was one of the few women in her class. Ginsburg transferred to Columbia Law School, where she graduated tied for first in her class. Following law school, Ginsburg turned to academia. She was a professor at Rutgers Law School and Columbia Law School, teaching civil procedure as one of the few women in her field.
Ginsburg spent a considerable part of her legal career as an advocate for the advancement of gender equality and women's rights, winning multiple victories arguing before the Supreme Court. She advocated as a volunteer lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union and was a member of its board of directors and one of its general counsels in the 1970s. In 1980, President Jimmy Carter appointed her to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, where she served until her appointment to the Supreme Court. Ginsburg has received attention in American popular culture for her fiery liberal dissents and refusal to step down; she has been dubbed the "Notorious R.B.G."S. Jay Plager
Sheldon Jay Plager (born May 16, 1931, Long Branch, New Jersey) is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.Stan Kasten
Stan Kasten (born February 1, 1952, in Lakewood Township, New Jersey) is the former president of the Atlanta Braves and Washington Nationals and the current president, and part-owner, of the Los Angeles Dodgers. Long involved in Atlanta professional sports, he also served as general manager of the NBA's Atlanta Hawks and president of the NHL's Atlanta Thrashers.Tim Wu
Tim Wu is an American lawyer, professor at Columbia Law School, and contributing opinion writer for The New York Times. He is best known for coining the phrase network neutrality in his 2003 paper Network Neutrality, Broadband Discrimination, and popularizing the concept thereafter. Wu has also made significant contributions to antitrust policy and wireless communications policy, most notably with his "Carterfone" proposal.Wu is a scholar of the media and technology industries, and his academic specialties include antitrust, copyright, and telecommunications law. Wu was named to The National Law Journal's "America's 100 Most Influential Lawyers" in 2013, as well as to the "Politico 50" in 2014 and 2015. Additionally, Wu was named one of Scientific American's 50 people of the year in 2006, and one of Harvard University's 100 most influential graduates by 02138 magazine in 2007. His book The Master Switch was named among the best books of 2010 by The New Yorker magazine, Fortune magazine, Publishers Weekly, and other publications.
From 2011 to 2012, Wu served as a Senior Advisor to the Federal Trade Commission, and from 2015–2016 he was senior enforcement counsel at the New York Office of the Attorney General, where he launched a successful lawsuit against Time-Warner cable for falsely advertising their broadband speeds. In 2016 Wu joined the National Economic Council in the Obama White House to work on competition policy.William Russell Willcox
William Russell Willcox (April 11, 1863 – April 9, 1940) was an American politician from New York. On January 1, 1905 he became the Postmaster of New York City. By 1909 he was chairman of the New York Public Service Commission. He served on the Railway Wage Commission in 1918.