Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another. This association is usually for mutual benefit such as stronger defense or the ability to attack bigger prey.[1] It is a cluster of identical cells (clones) on the surface of (or within) a solid medium, usually derived from a single parent cell, as in bacterial colony.[2] In contrast, a solitary organism is one in which all individuals live independently and have all of the functions needed to survive and reproduce.

Colonies, in the context of development, may be composed of two or more unitary (or solitary) organisms or be modular organisms. Unitary organisms have determinate development (set life stages) from zygote to adult form and individuals or groups of individuals (colonies) are visually distinct. Modular organisms have indeterminate growth forms (life stages not set) through repeated iteration of genetically identical modules (or individuals), and it can be difficult to distinguish between the colony as a whole and the modules within.[3] In the latter case, modules may have specific functions within the colony.

Some organisms are primarily independent and form facultative colonies in reply to environmental conditions while others must live in a colony to survive (obligate). For example, some carpenter bees will form colonies when a dominant hierarchy is formed between two or more nest foundresses[4] (facultative colony), while corals are animals that are physically connected by living tissue (the coenosarc) that contains a shared gastrovascular cavity.

Colony types

Social colonies

Colony Northern Gannet Morus bassanus
A breeding colony of Northern gannets on the Heligoland archipelago in the North Sea.

Unicellular and multicellular unitary organisms may aggregate to form colonies. For example,

  • Protists such as slime molds are many unicellular organisms that aggregate to form colonies when food resources are hard to come by, as together they are more reactive to chemical cues released by preferred prey.
  • Eusocial insects like ants and honey bees are multicellular animals that live in colonies with a highly organized social structure. Colonies of some social insects may be deemed superorganisms.
  • Animals, such as humans and rodents, form breeding or nesting colonies, potentially for more successful mating and to better protect offspring.

Modular organisms

Modular organisms are those in which a genet (or genetic individual formed from a sexually-produced zygote) asexually reproduces to form genetically identical clones called ramets.[6]

A clonal colony is when the ramets of a genet live in close proximity or are physically connected. Ramets may have all of the functions needed to survive on their own or be interdependent on other ramets. For example, some sea anemones go through the process of pedal laceration in which a genetically identical individual is asexually produced from tissue broken off from the anemone's pedal disc. In plants, clonal colonies are created through the propagation of genetically identical trees by stolons or rhizomes.

Colonial organisms are clonal colonies composed of many physically connected, interdependent individuals. The subunits of colonial organisms can be unicellular, as in the alga Volvox (a coenobium), or multicellular, as in the phylum Bryozoa. The former type may have been the first step toward multicellular organisms.[7] Individuals within a multicellular colonial organism may be called ramets, modules, or zooids. Structural and functional variation (polymorphism), when present, designates ramet responsibilities such as feeding, reproduction, and defense. To that end, being physically connected allows the colonial organism to distribute nutrients and energy obtained by feeding zooids throughout the colony. An example of colonial organisms that is well known are hydrozoans, like Portuguese man o' wars.[8]

Microbial colonies

A microbial colony is defined as a visible cluster of microorganisms growing on the surface of or within a solid medium, presumably cultured from a single cell.[9] Because the colony is clonal, with all organisms in it descending from a single ancestor (assuming no contamination), they are genetically identical, except for any mutations (which occur at low frequencies). Obtaining such genetically identical organisms (or pure strains) can be useful; this is done by spreading organisms on a culture plate and starting a new stock from a single resulting colony.

A biofilm is a colony of microorganisms often comprising several species, with properties and capabilities greater than the aggregate of capabilities of the individual organisms.

Life history

Individuals in social colonies and modular organisms receive benefit to such a lifestyle. For example, it may be easier to seek out food, defend a nesting site, or increase competitive ability against other species. Modular organisms' ability to reproduce asexually in addition to sexually allows them unique benefits that social colonies do not have.[6]

The energy required for sexual reproduction varies based on the frequency and length of reproductive activity, number and size of offspring, and parental care.[10] While solitary individuals bear all of those energy costs, individuals in some social colonies share a portion of those costs.

Modular organisms save energy by using asexual reproduction during their life. Energy reserved in this way allows them to put more energy towards colony growth, regenerating lost modules (due to predation or other cause of death), or response to environmental conditions.

See also


  1. ^ Jackson, J.B.C. (1977). "Competition on Marine Hard Substrata: The Adaptive Significance of Solitary and Colonial Strategies". The American Naturalist. 111 (980): 743–767. doi:10.1086/283203.
  2. ^ "Colony – Biology-Online Dictionary". Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  3. ^ Begon, Michael; et al. (2014). Essentials of Ecology (4th ed.). Wiley. ISBN 0-470-90913-7.
  4. ^ Dunn, T.; Richards, M.H. (2003). "When to bee social: interactions among environmental constraints, incentives, guarding, and relatedness in a facultatively social carpenter bee". Behavioral Ecology. 14 (3): 417–424. doi:10.1093/beheco/14.3.417.
  5. ^ Grove, Noel (December 1988). "Quietly Conserving Nature". National Geographic. 174 (6): 822.
  6. ^ a b Winston, J. (2010). "Life in the Colonies: Learning the Alien Ways of Colonial Organisms". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 50 (6): 919–933. doi:10.1093/icb/icq146. PMID 21714171.
  7. ^ Alberts, Bruce; et al. (1994). Molecular Biology of the Cell (3rd ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-1620-8. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  8. ^ "Hydrozoa". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  9. ^ Tortora, Gerard J.; Berdell R., Funke; Christine L., Case (2009). Microbiology, An Introduction. Berlin: Benjamin Cummings. pp. 170–171. ISBN 0-321-58420-1.
  10. ^ Kunz, T.H.; Orrell, K.S. (2004). "Energy Costs of Reproduction". Encyclopedia of Energy. 5: 423–442.
Colonisation (biology)

Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas. Colonisation often refers to successful immigration where a population becomes integrated into a community, having resisted initial local extinction.One classic model in biogeography posits that species must continue to colonize new areas through its life cycle (called a taxon cycle) in order to achieve longevity. Accordingly, colonisation and extinction are key components of island biogeography, a theory that has many applications in ecology, such as metapopulations.

Pioneer species

Pioneer species are hardy species which are the first to colonize previously biodiverse steady-state ecosystems. Some lichens grow on rocks without soil, so may be among the first of life forms, and break down the rocks into soil for plants. Since some uncolonized land may have thin, poor quality soils with few nutrients, pioneer species are often hardy plants with adaptations such as long roots, root nodes containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and leaves that employ transpiration. Note that they are often photosynthetic plants, as no other source of energy (such as other species) except light energy is often available in the early stages of succession, thus making it less likely for a pioneer species to be non-photosynthetic. The plants that are often pioneer species also tend to be wind-pollinated rather than insect-pollinated, as insects are unlikely to be present in the usually barren conditions in which pioneer species grow; however, pioneer species tend to reproduce asexually altogether, as the extreme or barren conditions present make it more favourable to reproduce asexually in order to increase reproductive success rather than invest energy into sexual reproduction. Pioneer species will die creating plant litter, and break down as "leaf mold" after some time, making new soil for secondary succession (see below), and nutrients for small fish and aquatic plants in adjacent bodies of water.

Examples of the plants and organism that colonize such areas are pioneer species:

Barren sand - lyme grass (Leymus arenarius), sea couch grass (Agropyron pungens), Marram grass (Ammophila breviligulata)

Salt water - green algae, marine eel grass (Zostera spp.), pickleweed (Salicornia virginica), and cordgrass (hybrid Spartina × townsendii) and (Spartina anglica).

Clear water - algae, mosses, freshwater eel grass (Vallisneria americana).

Solidified lava flows - in Hawaii: swordfern (Polystichum munitum), ‘ōhi‘a lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), ‘ohelo (Vaccinium reticulatum) and ‘āma‘u (Sadleria cyatheoides); on Surtsey: lichen (Stereocaulon vesuvianum and Placopsis gelida) and moss (Racomitrium ericoides); green algae

Disturbed areas such as construction sites, road cuttings and verges, cultivated lands - Buddleia davidii, Nettles, Tagetes minuta, Bidens pilosa, Argemone mexicana

Bare clay - Orchids

Mountains - Lichens

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