Colonia Junonia

Colonia Junonia (sometimes Iunonia) refers to an Ancient Roman colony established in 122 BC under the direction of Gaius Gracchus.[1]


It is significant as it was the first 'transmarine' Roman colony.[2] The colony was located at the site of the destroyed city of Carthage, a reason for its widespread unpopularity with Romans. Those superstitious about the site spread reports of ill omens, including a claim that wolves had carried off the boundary stakes.[2] The colony would only last 30 years.

Julius Caesar later advised the construction of a city on the site on 45 BC, but his death stopped the creation of the new Roman colony after the first veterans moved in. The new Carthage was built by his adopted-son Augustus and named Colonia Julia Carthago.[3]


  1. ^ Hooper, Finley (1979). Roman Realities. Wayne State University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-8143-1594-1.
  2. ^ a b E. T. Salmon, Roman Colonization Under the Republic (Aspects of Greek and Roman life). London: Thames and Hudson, 1969, p. 119
  3. ^ "Carthage (ancient city)". Archived from the original on October 28, 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2016.

See also

Juno (mythology)

Juno (English: ; Latin: IVNO, Iūnō, [ˈjuːnoː]) was an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. A daughter of Saturn, she is the wife of Jupiter and the mother of Mars, Vulcan, Bellona and Juventas. She is the Roman equivalent of Hera, queen of the gods in Greek mythology; like Hera, her sacred animal was the peacock. Her Etruscan counterpart was Uni, and she was said to also watch over the women of Rome. As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire, Juno was called Regina ("Queen") and was a member of the Capitoline Triad (Juno Capitolina), centered on the Capitoline Hill in Rome; it consisted of her, Jupiter, and Minerva, goddess of wisdom.

Juno's own warlike aspect among the Romans is apparent in her attire. She is often shown armed and wearing a goatskin cloak. The traditional depiction of this warlike aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena, who bore a goatskin, or a goatskin shield, called the 'aegis'.

Marcus Fulvius Flaccus (consul 125 BC)

Marcus Fulvius Flaccus was a Roman senator and an ally of the Gracchi. He became an administrator of the agrarian reform in 130 BC, and as a solution to the problem of land division among the allied cities, proposed Roman citizenship for the allies' citizens, thus introducing a question that vexed Roman politics for many years. Elected consul in 125 BC, he was ordered by the Roman Senate to assist Massilia (modern Marseille) against depredations of the Salluvii. He became the first to overcome the transalpine Ligurians in war and returned in 123 BC with a triumph.

Flaccus was appointed to the Agrarian Commission in 129 BC. In 122 BC he became a tribune to assist Gaius Gracchus in implementing an amended version of his policy of citizenship for Italians, making him the only ex-consul to hold the position of tribune.He founded a Roman colony, Colonia Junonia, on the ruins of Carthage. When he and Gracchus failed to win re-election in 121 BC, Flaccus led a mass protest on the Aventine Hill, but the consul Lucius Opimius suppressed it brutally, killing Flaccus, among many others, and resulting in the suicide of Gracchus.

Plutarch describes him as a born agitator. Cicero describes Flaccus as an orator of moderate gifts and comments that his writings reveal him as a student of letters rather than an orator.Flaccus had at least two sons: the elder son, possibly named Marcus Fulvius Flaccus after him due to Roman naming conventions, was executed along with the senior Flaccus after being discovered hiding in an abandoned bath or workshop; the younger son Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, who served only as a herald for his father and Gracchus, was also executed, with Lucius Opimius allowing the young boy to choose his own manner of death.

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