In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel (/ˈkɜːrnəl/) is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services.[n 1] The pay grade for colonel is O-6.
The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side (a mirror-image version is worn on the right side, such that the eagle always faces forward to the wearer's front; the left-side version is also worn centered on fatigue caps, helmets, Army ACU & ECWCS breasts, inter alia). By law, a colonel must have 22 years of service and a minimum of three years of service as a lieutenant colonel before being promoted.
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The insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle which is a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States (which is the coat of arms of the United States). As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U.S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons. However, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagle's mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the olive branch is always clutched in the eagle's right-side talons, while the bundle of arrows is always clutched in the left-side talons. The head of the eagle faces towards the olive branch, rather than the arrows, advocating peace rather than war. As a result, the head of the eagle always faces towards the viewer's left.
However, when worn as a single insignia with no matching pair, such as on the patrol cap, garrison cap/flight cap, or the front of the Army ACU, there is a split between the services on which mirror image of the eagle should be worn. In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is always worn with "the head of the eagle to the wearer's right," with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's right hand talons (see Department of the Army Pamphlet 670-1, paragraph 19-6 (a)(1)). In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the eagle is worn with "the head facing forward" on the wearer's right side of the garrison cover (see Marine Corps Order P1020.34G, Uniform Regulation, paragraph 4005d(1)). Since respective service's officer insignia is worn on the left side and the rank insignia is worn on the right hand side of the Marine, Navy, Coast Guard and NOAA garrison caps, the eagle is facing to the eagle's left with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's left hand talons, which is a mirror opposite to the wear of the single eagle for Army and Air Force officers.
The United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army. The first colonels in the U.S. were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the North American colonies. Upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonel. Thus, the first U.S. colonels were usually respected men with ties in local communities and active in politics.
With the post-war reduction of the U.S. Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, and was not re-introduced until 1802.
The first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army. The first recorded use of the eagle insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810.
The rank of colonel was relatively rare in the early 19th century, partly because the U.S. Army was very small, and the rank was usually obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew rapidly and many colonels were appointed, but most of these colonels were discharged when their regiments were disbanded at the war's conclusion. A number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion usually for distinguished service in combat.
The American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was commonly held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were state formations and were quickly raised, the colonels in command of the regiments were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held permanent commissions.
During the Civil War, the Confederate Army maintained a unique insignia for colonel, three stars worn on the collar of a uniform. Robert E. Lee wore this insignia due to his former rank in the United States Army and refused to wear the insignia of a Confederate general, stating that he would only accept permanent promotion when the South had achieved independence.
After the Civil War, the rank of colonel again became rare as the forces of the United States Army became extremely small. However, many colonels were appointed in the volunteers during the Spanish–American War, prominent among them Theodore Roosevelt and David Grant Colson.
World War I and World War II saw the largest numbers of colonels ever appointed in the U.S. military. This was mostly due to the temporary ranks of the National Army and the Army of the United States, where those who would normally hold the rank of Captain in the peacetime Regular Army were thrust into the rank of colonel during these two wars.
The Military Promotion System was revised and standardized for all the services in 1980 as a result of passage of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act.
Modern U.S. colonels usually command Army infantry, artillery, armor, aviation or other types of brigades, USMC regiments, Marine Expeditionary Units or Marine Aircraft Groups, and USAF groups or wings. An Army colonel typically commands brigade-sized units (4,000 to 6,000 soldiers), with another colonel or a lieutenant colonel as deputy commander, a major as executive officer, and a command sergeant major as a senior non-commissioned officer (NCO) advisor. An Air Force colonel typically commands a wing consisting of 1,000 to 4,000+ airmen with another colonel as the vice commander and a command chief master sergeant as principal senior NCO enlisted adviser. Some USAF colonels are commanders of groups, which are the four major components of wings. Colonels are also found as the chief of staff at divisional level-(Army) or Numbered Air Force-level staff agencies.
In the modern armed forces, the colonel's eagle is worn facing forward with head and beak pointing towards the wearer's front. Of all U.S. military commissioned officer rank, only the colonel's eagle has a distinct right and left insignia. All other commissioned officer rank insignia can be worn on either the right or left side.
Colonels are sometimes referred to (but not addressed as) full colonels, bird colonels, or full bird colonels because lieutenant colonels are also referred to and addressed in correspondence as "colonel." Referring to an "O-6", a colonel's pay grade, also may differentiate colonels and lieutenant colonels.
Almost all Army colonels have attended a war college or a senior staff college equivalent to study joint warfare and war itself. Most Army colonels receive postgraduate level senior joint professional military education (JPME) at the Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania prior to promotion. The 2009 graduating class was 336 including 198 army officers and the rest divided among other military branches, domestic inter-agency representatives and other foreign military leaders. The highest concentration of USAF colonels graduate from the Air War College at Maxwell AFB, Alabama via in-residence at Maxwell AFB. This program will include participation by officers from various other branches. Marine colonels may graduate from the Marine War College or, like all other branches, may receive credit via non-resident attendance at another installation, via correspondence, or will be graduates of an equivalent senior JPME program sponsored by the National Defense University or one of the other U.S. military services.
Some people known as "colonels" are actually recipients of honorary colonel ranks from a state governor and are not officers of the U.S. military. In the 19th century the honorary colonels were military appointments and they still are nominally appointed to a governor's staff, but without military rights or duties. Famous honorary colonels include Colonel Harland Sanders of KFC fame, a Kentucky colonel; Colonel Tom Parker, Elvis Presley's manager, who received the honor from a Louisiana governor; and Edward M. House, known as Colonel House, a Texas honorary colonel and adviser to President Woodrow Wilson.
Media related to Colonels of the United States at Wikimedia CommonsAhern Glacier (Montana)
Ahern Glacier is in Glacier National Park in the U.S. state of Montana. The glacier was named after George Patrick Ahern. Ahern Glacier is situated on a ridge between Ipasha Peak to the north and Ahern Peak to the south at an elevation between 8,800 feet (2,700 m) and 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level, immediately east of the Continental Divide. Meltwater from the glacier feeds Ahern Glacier Falls, a waterfall which descends an estimated 1,680 feet (510 m) in one sheer drop to a talus slope below en route to Helen Lake. Between 1966 and 2005, Ahern Glacier lost 13 percent of its surface area.Alfred A. Sanelli
Brigadier General Alfred A. Sanelli, Pennsylvania Guard (May 1, 1921 – December 12, 2005). (Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army.) Brigadier General Sanelli was a graduate of Valley Forge Military Academy, Class of 1939. Following Valley Forge, he attended the University at Buffalo, but his education was interrupted in 1942 with the outbreak of World War II. He returned to college in 1946 and received a bachelor's degree in English. He later earned a master's degree from Columbia University.
BG Sanelli was a member of the English Department at Valley Forge in 1947 and returned to active duty in 1948. During his US Army career, BG Sanelli served in various capacities as a commander and staff officer, stateside and overseas. In 1952 he was assigned as Assistant Professor of Military Science at the University of Wisconsin. In 1958 he was appointed Assistant Professor of English at West Point. His last Army assignment before retiring in 1965 was as Professor of Military Science at Valley Forge.
After his retirement, BG Sanelli was an Associate Professor of English at West Chester University. In 1967 he returned to Valley Forge as the Dean of the Academy, with the rank of Brigadier General, Pennsylvania Guard, a position he held for 17 years before assuming his post as Chaplain and Assistant to the President in 1984. During that period he was also the Dean of the College for two years. In addition, he served as an adjunct instructor of First Class English in the Academy and was an adjunct Professor of Ethics at the College.
As a cadet, BG Sanelli was the Company Commander of B Company and was Class President in his First and Second Class years. He was a member of the Honor Council and received the Order of Anthony Wayne.
In 1971 he was cited as a Leader in American Secondary School Education. In 1981 he was presented with the Distinguished Alumnus Award and at Homecoming 1999, he received the Valley Forge George Washington Award.Bernt Balchen
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Calvin Jackson Hobson III (born March 30, 1945) is an American politician in the state of Oklahoma.
A Democrat, Hobson served in the Oklahoma House of Representatives from 1978 to 1990. During his career in the House, Hobson served as Chairman of the House appropriations subcommittee on public safety and later was appointed Chairman of the House appropriations committee. In 1990, he was elected to the Oklahoma State Senate where he served as chairman of the Senate appropriations subcommittee on public safety and judiciary; chairman of the Senate appropriations subcommittee on education; and vice-chairman of the full Senate appropriations committee. He served until his retirement in 2006. Hobson also served as the President pro tempore of the Oklahoma State Senate from 2003 to 2005. In 2006, Hobson unsuccessfully ran for the office of Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma, ultimately losing the Democratic primary to Jari Askins.
Cal Hobson served in the United States Air Force in both active duty and reserve capacity from 1969 until his retirement at the rank of colonel (United States) in 1999. Hobson is a graduate of the University of Oklahoma. He currently resides in Lexington, Oklahoma on a fifth generation-owned family farm.Colonel
Colonel ( "kernel"; abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks. However, in some small military forces, such as those of Monaco or the Vatican, colonel is the highest rank. It is also used in some police forces and paramilitary organizations.
Historically, in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a colonel was typically in charge of a regiment in an army. Modern usage varies greatly, and in some cases, the term is used as an honorific title that may have no direct relationship to military service.
The rank of colonel is typically above the rank of lieutenant colonel. The rank above colonel is typically called brigadier, brigade general or brigadier general.
Equivalent naval ranks may be called captain or ship-of-the-line captain. In the Commonwealth air force rank system, the equivalent rank is group captain.F. Jay Nimtz
F. Jay Nimtz (December 1, 1915 – December 6, 1990) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana.
Nimtz was born in South Bend, Indiana, the youngest child of Frederick and Bertha Baske Nimtz; his father and maternal grandparents were German immigrants. Nimtz attended the public schools, graduating from Central High School in 1933.
He was in the Indiana University, A.B., 1938 and from the same university law school, LL.B. (J.D.), 1940.
He was admitted to the bar in 1940 and commenced the practice of law in South Bend, Indiana.
Inducted in the United States Army as a private June 13, 1941, and served until February 14, 1947, attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel, with overseas service in England, France, and Germany.
He served fourteen months as assistant executive officer, Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, OCCPAC.
He served as colonel, United States Army Reserve, retired.
He served as vice-chairman of the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, 1958, and co-sponsored the legislation in Congress creating the commission.
He served as member of board of directors, Saint Joseph County Department of Public Welfare.
He was an unsuccessful candidate in 1947 for South Bend city judge and in 1948 for prosecutor of Saint Joseph County.
Nimtz was elected as a Republican to the Eighty-fifth Congress (January 3, 1957 – January 3, 1959).
He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1958 to the Eighty-sixth Congress and for election in 1960 to the Eighty-seventh Congress.
He resumed the practice of law.
Graduate, United States Army Command and General Staff College, 1965.
He served as member of the Indiana Air Pollution Control Board from 1979 to 1986, and Indiana Environmental Management Board from 1981 to 1986.
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Henry Latrobe Roosevelt (October 5, 1879 – February 22, 1936) was an Assistant Secretary of the United States Navy and a member of the Roosevelt family.Lieutenant colonel
Lieutenant colonel (pronounced Lef-ten-ent Kernel (UK & Commonwealth) or Loo-ten-ent Kernel (US)) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence. Sometimes, the term, 'half-colonel' is used in casual conversation in the British Army. A lieutenant colonel is typically in charge of a battalion in the army.Lieutenant colonel (United States)
In the United States Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force, a lieutenant colonel is a field-grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel. It is equivalent to the naval rank of commander in the other uniformed services.
The pay grade for the rank of lieutenant colonel is O-5. In the United States armed forces, the insignia for the rank consists of a silver oak leaf, with slight stylized differences between the Army/Air Force version and the Navy/Marine Corps version.
Promotion to lieutenant colonel is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act (DOPMA) of 1980 for officers in the Active Component and its companion Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act (ROPMA) for officers in the Reserve Component (e.g., Reserve and National Guard). DOPMA guidelines suggest 70% of majors should be promoted to lieutenant colonel after serving a minimum of three years at their present rank and after attaining 15–17 years of cumulative commissioned service.List of people from Pittsburgh
This article contains a list of notable people who were born or lived a significant amount of time in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The city of Pittsburgh is the second-largest city and the center of the second largest metro area in the U.S. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.Lyman Ward Military Academy
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Mark Kellogg (March 31, 1831 – June 25, 1876) was a newspaper reporter killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Kellogg rode with George Armstrong Custer during the battle and was evidently one of the first men killed by the Sioux and Cheyenne. His dispatches were the only press coverage of Custer and his men in the days leading up to the battle. As a newspaper stringer whose reports were picked up around the country, Kellogg is considered the first Associated Press correspondent to die in the line of duty.Montague, Massachusetts
Montague is a town in Franklin County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 8,437 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts metropolitan statistical area.
The villages of Montague Center, Montague City, Lake Pleasant, Millers Falls, and Turners Falls are located in the town of Montague; Turners Falls, comprising over half the population of the town and its main business district, is generally used as a metonym for the entire town of Montague.Oliver L. Spaulding
Oliver Lyman Spaulding (August 2, 1833 – July 30, 1922) was a soldier and politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.Stephen Rose Gilkyson
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William Smith Culbertson (August 5, 1884 – August 12, 1966) was an American diplomat and soldier.
He was born in Greensburg, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. U.S. Ambassador, Romania, 1925–1928, Chile, 1928 - 1933. Colonel, United States Army. President, United States Tariff Commission 1922 - 1925. Member, United States Tariff Commission, 1916–1922, American Bar Association, Council on Foreign Relations, American Economic Association, Phi Alpha Delta, Phi Beta Kappa. Graduate, Yale Law School, J.D., College of Emporia, B.A.