Colombian weasel

Colombian weasel (Mustela felipei), also known as the Don Felipe's weasel, is a very rare species of weasel only known with certainty from the departments of Huila and Cauca in Colombia[2] and nearby northern Ecuador (where only known from a single specimen).[1] Both its scientific and alternative common name honours the mammalogist Philip "Don Felipe" Hershkovitz.[3]

It appears to be largely restricted to riparian habitats at an altitude of 1,100 to 2,700 m (3,600 to 8,900 ft). There is extensive deforestation within its limited distribution within the northern Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, and with less than ten known specimens,[1] it is probably the rarest carnivoran in South America.[4] It is considered vulnerable by the IUCN.[1]

It is the second smallest living carnivore on average, being only slightly larger than the least weasel (Mustela nivalis) and slightly smaller than the ermine or stoat (M. erminea).[5] The upperparts and tail are blackish-brown, while the underparts are orange-buff.[4]

Colombian weasel
Scientific classification
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M. felipei
Binomial name
Mustela felipei
Izor and de la Torre, 1978
Colombian Weasel area
Colombian weasel range

Description

M. felipei has an elongated body with an average length of 22 cm (8.7 in), and a tail 11.5 cm (4.5 in) long. Weight ranges between 120 and 150 g (4.2 and 5.3 oz). M. felipei has a dark dorsal color with no variation, ventrally the weasel has a light orange color with gradual fading of color up to the head. Hair color from the tail to the nose is uniform with no striping or spotting. M. felipei has an inflated auditory bulla located near the dorsal midline on the body, along with a wide mesopterygoid fossa. The soles of the feet lack any fur, and extensive webbing is located on the second, third, and fourth digits, suggesting a semi-aquatic lifestyle.[6]

Distribution and habitat

M. felipei is one of the least studied carnivore species in the Americas, and is expected to maintain a larger geographical range that currently known. Reports of sightings have placed M. felipei in the mountain ranges of western Colombia to northern Ecuador. M. felipei was originally thought to be endemic to Colombia however recent specimens have been collected in Ecuador that have since proven this thought wrong. Distribution and habitat modeling surveys have been able to predict that M. felipei is distributed between 20 protected areas in Colombia, and 14 in Ecuador along with three previously known locations in both countries, the majority of these locations lie in protected areas of the forest.

From geographic modeling, and collected specimens it has been concluded that Mustela felipei lives in largely riparian habitats, primarily staying close to rivers, streams, and along the shorelines of other natural water sources. Since this habitat lies in an elevation range of 1,100 to 2,700 m (3,600 to 8,900 ft) it is classified as being in a "cloud forest" consisting of 100% humidity adding to the riparian habitat.

Diet

M. felipei is a carnivorous mammal that preys primarily on fish, other small aquatic animals, and small terrestrial mammals. Hunting is aided by the use of webbed feet and camouflaged fur.

Conservation status

Mustela felipei has been recognized by the IUCN as being vulnerable and having a decreasing population. However, due to rarity of sighting, and deforestation of known habitat it remains unclear as to the true numbers of individuals that make up the population.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Emmons, L. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Mustela felipei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 21 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable
  2. ^ Eisenberg, John Frederick; Redford, Kent Hubbard (1999). Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 624. ISBN 978-0-226-19542-1.
  3. ^ Izor, R. J.; L. de la Torre (1978). "A New Species of Weasel (Mustela) from the Highlands of Colombia, with Comments on the Evolution and Distribution of South American Weasels". Journal of Mammalogy. 59 (1): 92–102. doi:10.2307/1379878. JSTOR 1379878.
  4. ^ a b Novak, R. M. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  5. ^ Carnivores of the World by Dr. Luke Hunter. Princeton University Press (2011), ISBN 9780691152288
  6. ^ Chaves, Héctor E. Ramírez; Bruce D. Patterson (2014). "Mustela felipei (Carnivora: Mustelidae)" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 46 (906): 11–15. doi:10.1644/906.

Bibliography

  • Izor, R. J. and N. E. Peterson. 1985. Notes on South American weasels. Journal of Mammalogy 66: 788–790.
  • Burneo, S., José F. González-Maya, and D. Tirira. "Distribution and habitat modelling for Colombian Weasel Mustela felipei in the Northern Andes." Small Carnivore Conservation 41 (2009): 41-45.
  • MARTÍNEZ-ARIAS, Víctor M. "Has Colombian Weasel Mustela felipei been overlooked in collections? Héctor E. RAMÍREZ-CHAVES1." Small Carnivore Conservation 47 (2012): 30-34.
  • Tirira, Diego G., and José F. González-Maya. "Current state of knowledge of the least-known carnivore in South America: Colombian Weasel Mustela felipei in Colombia and Ecuador." Small Carnivore Conservation 41 (2009): 46-50.
  • Loyola, R. D., De Oliveira, G., Diniz-Filho, J. A. F. and Lewinsohn, T. M. (2008), Conservation of Neotropical carnivores under different prioritization scenarios: mapping species traits to minimize conservation conflicts. Diversity and Distributions, 14: 949–960. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00508.x
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Catopuma

Catopuma is a genus containing two Asian small wild cat species, the bay cat (C. badia) and the Asian golden cat (C. temminckii).

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Mustelidae

The Mustelidae (; from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, ferrets, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others. Mustelids are diverse and the largest family in the order Carnivora, suborder Caniformia. Mustelidae comprises about 56-60 species across eight subfamilies.

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Paradoxurinae

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the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)

the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

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Zalophus

Zalophus is a genus of the family Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) of order Carnivora. It includes these species, of which one became recently extinct:

Z. californianus: California sea lion

Z. japonicus: Japanese sea lion †

Z. wollebaeki: Galápagos sea lion

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