Colloquialism

In linguistics, colloquialism is vernacular language including everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, and common expressions. It is the most used linguistic variety of a language, the language normally used in conversation and other informal communication.

A specific instance of such language is called a colloquialism. The most common term used in dictionaries to label such an expression is colloquial.

Explanation

General parlance is distinct from formal speech or formal writing.[1] It is the variety of language that speakers typically use when they are relaxed and not especially self-conscious.[2] An expression is labeled colloq. for "colloquial" in dictionaries when a different expression is more common in formal speech, but this does not mean that the colloquial expression is inappropriate in formal speech or writing or that it is necessarily slang. Many people misunderstand this very common dictionary label due to the widespread misconception that colloquial means "location" or a word being "regional". This is not the case; the word root for colloquial is related to locution, not location.

Some colloquial speech contains a great deal of slang, but some contains no slang at all. Slang is permitted in colloquial language, but it is not a necessary element.[2] Other examples of colloquial usage in English include contractions or profanity.[2]

In the philosophy of language, "colloquial language" is ordinary natural language, as distinct from specialized forms used in logic or other areas of philosophy.[3] In the field of logical atomism, meaning is evaluated in a different way than with more formal propositions.

A colloquial name or familiar name is a name or term commonly used to identify a person or thing in informal language, in place of another usually more formal or technical name.[4]

Distinction from other styles

Colloquialisms are distinct from slang or jargon. Slang refers to words used only by specific social groups, such as teenagers or soldiers.[5] Colloquial language may include slang, but consists mostly of contractions or other informal words and phrases known to most native speakers of the language.[5]

Jargon is terminology that is especially defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession, or group. The term refers to the language used by people who work in a particular area or who have a common interest. Much like slang, it is a kind of shorthand used to express ideas that are frequently discussed between members of a group, though it can also be developed deliberately using chosen terms.[6] While a standard term may be given a more precise or unique usage amongst practitioners of relevant disciplines, it is often reported that jargon is a barrier to communication for those people unfamiliar with the respective field.

See also

References

  1. ^ colloquial. (n.d.) Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved September 10, 2008, from Dictionary.com
  2. ^ a b c Trask, Robert (1999). Key Concepts in Language and Linguistics. Psychology Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-0-415-15742-1.
  3. ^ Davidson, Donald (1997). "Truth and meaning". In Peter Ludlow. Readings in the Philosophy of Language. MIT Press. pp. 89–107. ISBN 978-0-262-62114-4.
  4. ^ "familiar, n., adj., and adv.". OED Online. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-01. (Subscription required (help)).
  5. ^ a b Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003). Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1403917232.
  6. ^ Lundin, Leigh (2009-12-31). "Buzzwords– bang * splat !". Don Martin School of Software. Criminal Brief.

External links

Brass monkey (colloquialism)

The phrase "cold enough to freeze the balls off (or on) a brass monkey" is a colloquial expression used by some English speakers. The reference to the testes (as the term balls is commonly understood to mean) of the brass monkey appears to be a 20th-century variant on the expression, prefigured by a range of references to other body parts, especially the nose and tail.

Caput

Caput, a Latin word meaning literally "head" and by metonymy "top", has been borrowed in a variety of English words, including capital, captain, and decapitate. The surname Caputo, common in the Campania region of Italy, comes from the appellation used by some Roman military generals. A variant form has surfaced more recently in the title Capo (or Caporegime), the head of La Cosa Nostra. The French language converted 'caput' into chief, chef, and chapitre, later borrowed in English as chapter.

The central settlement in an Anglo-Saxon multiple estate was called a caput, (short for caput baroniae, see below). The word is also used for the centre of administration of a hundred. It may also refer to a family seat.

Caput baroniae is the seat of an English feudal barony. Caput baronium is the seat of a barony in Scotland.Caput was also the name of the council or ruling body of the University of Cambridge prior to the constitution of 1856 and remains the presiding body of the Senate of the University of Dublin.

Caput is also used in medicine to describe any head like protuberance on an organ or structure, such as the caput humeri.

In music, caput may refer to the Missa Caput or the plainsong melisma on which it is based.

In arachnology, the caput or "head" is the cephalic part of a cephalothorax.

The German word kaputt ("destroyed"), from which derives the English colloquialism 'kaput' or 'caput' (meaning done, or finished) is not related to this word. The origin of the German word, and consequently the English words is borrowing from the French: être capot, lit. 'to be bonnet' or fig. 'to be defeated'.

Chupryna

Chupryna (Ukrainian: чуприна), chub (Ukrainian: чуб, "crest"), khokhol (Russian: хохол, "forelock"), or oseledets (Ukrainian: оселедець, "herring") is an element of traditional Ukrainian Cossack haircut. It describes a style of man's haircut that features a lock of hair sprouting from the top or the front of an otherwise closely shaven head. There are several Ukrainian surnames deriving from words chub and oseledets

Collar counties

The expression the collar counties is a colloquialism for the five counties of Illinois that border Chicago's Cook County. After Cook County, they are also the next five most populous counties in the state. According to the Encyclopedia of Chicago, there is no specifically known origin of the phrase, but it has been commonly used among policy makers, urban planners, and in the media. However, it also notes that as growth has spread beyond these counties, it may have lost some of its usefulness.The collar counties (DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will) are tied to Chicago economically. However, like many other suburban areas in the United States, the collar counties have very different political leanings from the core city. Chicago has long been a Democratic stronghold, but the collar counties are known for being historically Republican strongholds, although they have recently become more politically diverse.

While the demographics of these suburban Chicago counties are fairly typical for American metropolitan areas, the term is apparently unique to this area. Also, because Cook County is so firmly entrenched in the Democratic column, and rural Downstate is overwhelmingly Republican, the collar counties are routinely cited as being the key to any statewide election. However, that conventional wisdom was challenged in 2010 as Democrat Pat Quinn won election as governor while only winning Cook, St. Clair, Jackson and Alexander counties. All five collar counties went Republican, so the key to winning that gubernatorial election was simply winning Cook County, but by a wide enough margin to overwhelm the rest of the state.While the term is often employed in political discussions, that is not its exclusive use. Barack Obama used the term in his speech before the Democratic National Convention in 2004.As of 2010 there are 3,143,257 people residing in the collar counties, nearly 25% of the population of Illinois.

Dyslexia

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, "sounding out" words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have a normal desire to learn.Dyslexia is believed to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Some cases run in families. It often occurs in people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with similar difficulties with numbers. It may begin in adulthood as the result of a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or dementia. The underlying mechanisms of dyslexia are problems within the brain's language processing. Dyslexia is diagnosed through a series of tests of memory, spelling, vision, and reading skills. Dyslexia is separate from reading difficulties caused by hearing or vision problems or by insufficient teaching.Treatment involves adjusting teaching methods to meet the person's needs. While not curing the underlying problem, it may decrease the degree of symptoms. Treatments targeting vision are not effective. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability and occurs in all areas of the world. It affects 3–7% of the population, however, up to 20% may have some degree of symptoms. While dyslexia is more often diagnosed in men, it has been suggested that it affects men and women equally. Some believe that dyslexia should be best considered as a different way of learning, with both benefits and downsides.

Exotic derivative

An exotic derivative, in finance, is a derivative which is more complex than commonly traded "vanilla" products. This complexity usually relates to determination of payoff; see option style.

The category may also include derivatives with a non-standard subject matter (i.e., underlying), developed for a particular client or a particular market.The term "exotic derivative" has no precisely defined meaning, being a colloquialism that reflects how common a particular derivative is in the marketplace. As such, certain derivative instruments have been considered exotic when first conceived of and sold, but lost this status when they were traded with significant enough volume. Examples of this phenomenon include Interest rate- and currency-swaps.

As regards valuation, given their complexity, exotic derivatives are usually modelled using specialized simulation- or lattice-based techniques. Often, it is possible, to "manufacture" the exotic derivative out of standard derivatives. For example, a knockout call can be "manufactured" out of standard options; see Barrier option#Valuation. This latter approach may then be preferred, and also allows for a benchmark against which the more specialized models may be verified.

Exotica

Exotica is a musical genre, named after the 1957 Martin Denny album of the same title that was popular during the 1950s to mid-1960s with Americans who came of age during World War II. The musical colloquialism exotica means tropical ersatz good, the non-native, pseudo experience of insular Oceania, Southeast Asia, Hawaii, the Amazon basin, the Andes and tribal Africa. Denny described the musical style as "a combination of the South Pacific and the Orient...what a lot of people imagined the islands to be like...it's pure fantasy though." While the South Seas forms the core region, exotica reflects the "musical impressions" of every place from standard travel destinations to the mythical "shangri-las" dreamt of by armchair safari-ers.

Face time

Face time is an English idiom for direct personal interaction or contact between two or more people at the same time and physical location. Face time therefore occurs in "real life" and contrasts primarily with interaction or contact which occurs over distance (e.g., via telephone) and/or electronically (e.g., via email, instant messaging, e-commerce, social media, or computer simulations).

The term was originally a colloquialism but has entered the vernacular with the increasing number of people throughout the world who commonly and extensively rely on telecommunications and the Internet for personal and business communication.

Friendship

Friendship is a relationship of mutual affection between people. Friendship is a stronger form of interpersonal bond than an association. Friendship has been studied in academic fields such as communication, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and philosophy. Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, including social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles.

Although there are many forms of friendship, some of which may vary from place to place, certain characteristics are present in many types of such bonds. Such characteristics include affection; kindness, love, virtue, sympathy, empathy, honesty, altruism, loyalty, generosity, forgiveness, mutual understanding and compassion, enjoyment of each other's company, trust, and the ability to be oneself, express one's feelings to others, and make mistakes without fear of judgment from the friend. Friendship is an essential aspect of relationship building skills.

Internets

"Internets", also known as "The Internets", is a Bushism-turned-catchphrase used humorously to portray the speaker as ignorant about the Internet or about technology in general, or as having a provincial or folksy attitude toward technology. Former United States President George W. Bush first used the word publicly during the 2000 election campaign. The term gained cachet as an Internet humor meme following Bush's use of the term in the second 2004 presidential election debate on October 8, 2004.

Khokhol

Khokhol (Ukrainian: хохол; Polish: chachoł; Russian: хохо́л, IPA: [xɐˈxol]) or oseledets (Ukrainian: оселедець; Polish: osełedec) is the stereotypical Ukrainian cossack style of haircut that features a long lock of hair left on the otherwise completely shaved head, commonly sprouting from the top or the front of an otherwise closely shaven head. It is commonly used as an ethnic slur for Ukrainians.

Limbo

In Catholic theology, Limbo (Latin limbus, edge or boundary, referring to the "edge" of Hell) is a doctrine concerning the afterlife condition of those who die in original sin without being assigned to the Hell of the Damned. Medieval theologians of western Europe described the underworld ("hell", "hades", "infernum") as divided into four distinct parts: Hell of the Damned, Purgatory, Limbo of the Fathers or Patriarchs, and Limbo of the Infants. However, Limbo of the Infants is not an official doctrine of the Catholic Church.

Lockheed Martin Polecat

The Lockheed Martin Polecat (company designation P-175) was an unmanned aerial vehicle by Lockheed Martin. It was developed by the company's Advanced Development Programs division in Palmdale, California. "Polecat" is a colloquialism for a skunk, in an apparent reference to the popular "Skunk Works" nickname for the Lockheed Martin's Advanced Development Programs division.

Monterey Bay

Monterey Bay is a bay of the Pacific Ocean located on the coast of the U.S. state of California. The bay is south of the major cities of San Francisco and San Jose. The county-seat city of Santa Cruz is located at the north end of the bay. The city of Monterey is on the Monterey Peninsula at the south end. The Monterey Bay Area is a local colloquialism sometimes used to describe the whole of the Central Coast communities of Santa Cruz and Monterey counties.

Nub

Nub or NUB may refer to:

Nub, a variation of noob

Nub, a slider based analog controller on Pandora and PlayStation Portable

ISO 639-2 code for the Nobiin language of Nubia

Northern University, Bangladesh

NUb, a cigar brand manufactured by Oliva Cigar Co.

National Union of Blastfurnacemen, Ore Miners, Coke Workers and Kindred Trades, a defunct trade union in the United Kingdom

Sailors in the U.S. Navy use this term towards those who have not finished required qualifications (quals), such as watchstation, submarine, or surface warfare quals.

Nub, colloquialism for pointing stick on a laptop

Nahda University, Egypt

Old Man Winter

Old Man Winter is a personification of winter. The name is a colloquialism for the winter season derived from ancient Greek mythology and Old World pagan beliefs evolving into modern characters in both literature and popular culture.

The Letdown

The Letdown is an Australian television comedy series first screened on the ABC in 2016. It follows the adventures of Audrey, including her struggles as a new mum in an oddball mothers' group. She navigates the steep learning curve of motherhood, deals with sleeplessness, shifting relationship dynamics, her issues with her own mother, and her partner's career ambitions.The title is a play on the word letdown, which refers to the letdown reflex in breastfeeding, but is also a colloquialism for disappointment, both of which are key elements of Audrey's story.

Third Coast

Third Coast is an American colloquialism used to describe coastal regions distinct from the West Coast and the East Coast of the United States. Generally, the term "Third Coast" refers to either the Great Lakes region or the Gulf Coast of the United States.Considering its Great Lakes coasts, Michigan has the 8th most miles of shoreline of the lower 48 states and more fresh water shoreline than any other state. Many regional businesses incorporate the term "Third Coast" in their names and products, such as Michigan's Third Coast Kite and Hobby, which has an image of the coastal dunes in its logo, and Texas-based Third Coast Coffee.

Rap and hip-hop acts from Houston, and other Gulf Coast cities in Southern states, are often referred to as emerging from the Third Coast.

Trooper (rank)

Trooper (abbr. Tpr) from the French "troupier" is the equivalent rank to private in a regiment with a cavalry tradition in the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, including those of Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand; it is also used by the Irish Army.

In the British Army the Royal Tank Regiment, although not a former cavalry unit also uses the term Trooper as do the Special Air Service and Honourable Artillery Company. Airtrooper (Atpr) is used in the Army Air Corps.

Cavalry units are organized into squadrons, further divided into troops, hence a trooper is a member of a troop. "Trooper" can also be used colloquially to mean any cavalry soldier (although not usually an officer).

In the United States cavalry and airborne, "trooper" is a colloquialism that has traditionally been used not as a rank, but rather as a general term for any enlisted soldier.

Cavalry Troopers are generally considered to be socially a cut above other soldiers. This distinction stems from the days when cavalry needed to supply their own horses and equipment, and so would need to be reasonably wealthy and a gentleman of sorts. In addition cavalry regiments were seen to be relatively fashionable and dashing, often having colourful or even garish uniforms.

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