The Collegium Hosianum was the Jesuit collegium in Royal Prussia, (after 1945 Poland), founded in 1565, 1566 by Cardinal Stanislaus Hosius in Braunsberg (now Braniewo). The city of Braunsberg was then part of the Diocese of Warmia (Ermland), a prince-bishopric under rule of Cardinal Hosius. The Collegium Hosianum was one of the biggest Jesuit schools and one of the most important centres of Counter-Reformation in Europe and was particularly established to educate Catholic clergy of different countries.
The first Jesuits were called to Warmia by its cardinal Hosius, in order to counter the widespread Protestant movement in Prussia and elsewhere in Central and eastern Europe. The Jesuits arrived 2 November 1564. They were strongly opposed by the largely Protestant Prussian burghers and caused a religious split in the country. Despite difficult material conditions throughout the 16th century, they quickly founded many educational establishments: gymnasium (1565), convictus nobilium - school for Polish szlachta (1565), Diocesan Seminary (1567), Papal Seminary (1578) and dormitory for poor students (1582). The 16th century foundation was designed for 20 Jesuits, but the number soon approached 80, which resulted in problems with the finances of the schools and suitable number of school-rooms.
The Collegium was opened in a former Fransciscan friary. Renovation of the buildings was possible by funds given by Bishopric of Warmia. The Collegium was located in the western part of the building, convictus in the northern, and in the eastern part was located a school. In the first years the gymnasium was not very big due to lack of classrooms. There were five standard "classes" (courses) in it, of which the lowest was "infirma", and the highest was "rhetoric". To the initial problems of the schools were added boycotting by the Protestants and some fights between German and Polish students.
The Collegium in Braniewo distinguished itself from the other Jesuit schools in Poland and all of Europe with a specific curriculum: from 1566 there were taught German language, mathematics, singing and dialectic apart from standard subjects. After opening of the Diocesan and Papal Seminary some theological courses were introduced, and in 1592 also philosophical courses, which was a sign of the high reputation of the school. The school was elite and the number of students was not high, fluctuating from 130 to 300. The Collegium had an international character; besides local Germans, students came from all over Europe, with the majority of Poles, since the 1580s Swedes and Ruthenians added by Antonius Possevinus.
The Collegium was temporally closed in 1626 due to war of Poland with Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus (Polish-Swedish War (1625–1629)), and reopened in 1637. In 1646 Matthaeus Montanus (Matthias Bergh), a canon of Warmia, funded a new, large schoolhouse. In the years 1665-1668 the school was closed again due to destructive Swedish invasion in Prussia and Poland, Swedish Deluge.
In the 18th century in the Collegium humanities, theology, mathematics and Greek and Hebrew languages were taught. In 1701 and later Polish Jesuits applied to Rome for changing the Collegium into full university, but without success. In 1743 they bought from the city of Braunsberg a location for a new schoolhouse, which was built in the next years.
At the time of the Partitions of Poland the prince-bishopric of Warmia with Braunsberg became a part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772, and in 1773 the Society of Jesus was suppressed. The Prussian government turned the closed Collegium in 1780 into Gymnasium Academicum, from 1818 called Lyceum Hosianum, which in 1912 became a State Academy.
In 1945 Braunsberg returned to Poland and to its Polish name Braniewo. Of the Collegium, only the ground floor walls and one of the baroque portals were still standing. The rest of the complex was reconstructed between 1960 and 1973, however. A secondary school was reinstated. The right-side corner tower, left over from before the wartime destruction is known as the "Pfaffenturm" (loosely, "priest tower") and recalls the position of the former Franciscan monastery. Today it also comprises the assembly hall of the secondary school. The moat section to the south was known as the "Pflaumengrund" (loosely, "plumb orchard"). A small open-air arena has been installed, surrounded by the moat's remaining water.
Fixed incomes of the Ermland Jesuits came from their real estates, which aggregated in 1603 700 Polish złotys, in 1622 2540 złotys, in 1651 3530 złotys, in 1681 2263 złotys, in 1730 3102 złotys, in 1764 5680 złotys. To the Jesuits belonged (in different periods) villages: Stary Dwór (Althof), Bleishöfen, Kiszpork (Christburg), Daszkowo, Dębiniec, Ławice (Hansdorf), Hiplau, Hirsfelde, Julianowo (Julienshöhe), Klajzak, Krosno (Krossen), Łabuchy (Labuch), Nowa Cerkiew (Neukirchen), Petlików, Rothflies, Ruciana Góra, Sanków, Turznice, Wangory i Wronie.
Papal Seminary (Papal Alumnate) was established officially on 15 March 1581. Its founder was Antonius Possevinus. The Papal seminary served as school for the youths from Protestant countries, who after graduating went back to their countries and encouraged their recatholization. Many alumni after graduating came first to Wilno to study philosophy and theology in Jesuit University of Wilno. In the 16th century the number of alumni fluctuated from 23 to 40. In 1586 the Swedish College was established as an autonomous part of the Papal Seminary.
John Drews, rector of the Papal seminary at the end of the 17th century, built a new building with fancy garden and fountains.
Diocesan Seminary served as a seminary for the Bishopric of Warmia. It was funded by Stanislaus Hosius in 1567 and opened on 25 November 1567. In the 16th century it had from 17 to 24 alumni. Diocesan seminary was directed by a rector of the collegium and by a prefect (lat. praefectus), called later a regens, who was responsible for its students. The Seminary was located in the building of the Priestly Fraternity.
The novitiate of the Polish Province of Society of Jesus was opened in Braunsberg in 1568. The first person who entered the novitiate was Michał Chałkowski, whose examination took place in Braunsberg on 15 June 1569. In the years 1569-1575 126 people applied for admission to the Polish Province of Jesuits, mainly Polish nobles. The first master of novices was Robert Abercromby. The novitiate was located at first in the building of the collegium, then in the old building of the convictus. In 1586 the novitate was moved from Braniewo to Kraków.
Andreas Thiel (28 September 1826 – 17 July 1908) was a Bishop of Ermland (Polish: Warmia) in East Prussia from 1885–1908.
Thiel was born in Lokau (Tłokowo, Gmina Jeziorany, Olsztyn County) in the district of Rößel (Reszel). After attending the local school of Lokau, Thiel visited the gymnasium in Rößel and Braunsberg (Braniewo), where he started to study Catholic divinity at the Collegium Hosianum. Thiel was ordained in 1849 and gained his doctorate in 1853. In 1855 he habilitated as a Professor of canon law and ecclesiastical history. Thiel was one of the founders of the Historischer Verein für Ermland (historical association for Ermland) and published several treatises about the regional history.
In 1870 he became capitular of the Frauenburg (Frombork) Cathedral and in 1871 vicar general of the Ermland. In 1885 Thiel received the episcopal consecration. He died in Frauenburg.Andrew Báthory
Andrew Báthory (Hungarian: Báthory András; Polish: Andrzej Batory; 1562 or 1563 – 3 November 1599) was the Cardinal-deacon of Sant'Adriano al Foro from 1584 to 1599, Prince-Bishop of Warmia from 1589 to 1599, and Prince of Transylvania in 1599. His father was a brother of Stephen Báthory, who ruled the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1575. He was the childless Stephen Báthory's favorite nephew. He went to Poland at his uncle's invitation in 1578 and studied at the Jesuit college in Pułtusk. He became canon in the Chapter of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Warmia in 1581, and provost of the Monastery of Miechów in 1583.
Pope Gregory XIII appointed Báthory cardinal during his visit to Rome in 1584. A year later, he was installed as coadjutor bishop of Warmia. He was in Rome again when Stephen Báthory died in 1586. Andrew was one of the candidates to succeed him in Poland and Lithuania, but Jan Zamoyski, the Chancellor of Poland, convinced him to support another candidate, Sigismund Vasa, and to demonstrate the Báthorys' claim to the crown only through nominating his minor cousin, Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania. After Sigismund Vasa was elected king in 1587, Báthory convinced his cousin's advisors to send reinforcements to Poland to fight against Maximilian of Habsburg, who also claimed the throne. Báthory became Prince-Bishop of Warmia after the death of Bishop Marcin Kromer in 1589.
In the early 1590s, Andrew and his brother, Balthasar Báthory, came into conflict with Sigismund Báthory over the presence of Jesuits in the predominantly Protestant Transylvania. Before long, Sigismund's plan to join the Holy League of Pope Clement VIII against the Ottoman Empire gave rise to new tensions, because the brothers sharply opposed the plan. Sigismund executed Balthasar and confiscated Andrew's estates in 1594. After the Ottomans defeated the army of the Holy League in a series of battles, Sigismund decided to abdicate. He transferred Transylvania to the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, in 1598, but he returned a few months later.
Sigismund and Andrew were reconciled, and Sigismund renounced Transylvania in favor of Andrew in March 1599. Andrew was supported by Poland and the Ottoman Empire. Rudolph II persuaded Michael the Brave, Voivode of Wallachia, to invade Transylvania. Michael defeated Andrew's troops at the Battle of Sellenberk with the assistance of Székely commoners, to whom he had promised to restore their freedom. Andrew wanted to flee to Poland, but Székely serfs captured and killed him.Arnold Johan Messenius
Arnold Johan Messenius (Gdańsk, 1607 – Stockholm, 1651) was a Swedish enfant terrible and rikshistoriograf (historiographer of the realm, or royal historiographer) who was condemned to death and executed under the reign of Christina, Queen of Sweden.Augustinus Bludau
Augustinus Bludau (6 March 1862 – 9 February 1930) was a Bishop of Ermland (Polish: Warmia) in East Prussia from 1909–1930.
Bludau was born in Guttstadt (Dobre Miasto) as a son of a tailor. After attending the Gymnasium (school) in Elbing, he started to study Catholic divinity at the Collegium Hosianum in Braunsberg (Braniewo). Bludau was ordained in 1887 and worked as a vicar in Marienwerder. He perpetuated his studies in Münster and gained his doctorate in 1891. Afterwards he returned to Braunsberg as a vicar. In 1894, Bludau became apostolic prefect at the bishops seminary and after the death of Andreas Thiel bishop of Ermland.
In 1895 Bludau was appointed a non tenured professor at the University of Münster and in 1899 a full professor of the New Testament.
Bludau died in Frauenburg.Braniewo
Braniewo ([braˈɲevɔ]), (German: Braunsberg in Ostpreußen, Latin: Brunsberga, Old Prussian: Brus, Lithuanian: Prūsa), is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004). It is the capital of Braniewo County.Carl Adolph Cornelius
Carl Adolf Cornelius (12 March 1819 - 10 February 1903) was a German historian. In the context of the 1848 revolutions he was elected to the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848/49, after which he switched from the schools sector to the universities sector and built a reputation as a church historian.Collegium Nobilium
Collegium Nobilium may refer to:
Collegium Nobilium (Olomouc), a college established in 1725 in Olomouc, Moravia.
Collegium Nobilium (Warsaw), an elite boarding secondary school for sons of magnates and wealthy gentry (szlachta), founded in 1740 in Warsaw by Stanisław Konarski.
Collegium Nobilium (Paris), School of Polish Language and Culture founded in February 2012. Is also the name of Polish Scouts group at the same school.Joseph Lortz
Joseph (Adam) Lortz (13 December 1887 in Grevenmacher, Luxembourg – 21 February 1975 in Luxembourg) was a Roman Catholic church historian. He was a highly regarded Reformation historian and ecumenist. Beginning in the 1940s, Lortz made his ecumenical views available to general readers as well as to scholars in order to promote reconciliation between Catholics and Protestants. His writings played a role in the thinking that manifested itself in the Second Vatican Council's Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis Redintegratio (21 November 1964). What was not widely known, however, was Lortz's involvement with Nazism from 1933 until 1937. His Geschichte der Kirche (1932) (History of the Church) portrayed the church of the 1800s and the 1900s as the bastion of divine truth and moral values amid the decay of Western society.Józef Kowalczyk
Józef Kowalczyk (Polish pronunciation: [ˈjuzɛf kɔˈvalt͡ʂɨk]; born 28 August 1938) is a Polish Roman Catholic clergyman, canon lawyer and diplomat who, from 1989 to 2010, served as the first apostolic nuncio to Poland since World War II. He later served as archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland until his retirement in 2014.Konrad Zuse
Konrad Zuse (German: [ˈkɔnʁat ˈtsuːzə]; 22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer. His greatest achievement was the world's first programmable computer; the functional program-controlled Turing-complete Z3 became operational in May 1941. Thanks to this machine and its predecessors, Zuse has often been regarded as the inventor of the modern computer.Zuse was also noted for the S2 computing machine, considered the first process control computer. He founded one of the earliest computer businesses in 1941, producing the Z4, which became the world's first commercial computer. From 1943 to 1945 he designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül. In 1969, Zuse suggested the concept of a computation-based universe in his book Rechnender Raum (Calculating Space).
Much of his early work was financed by his family and commerce, but after 1939 he was given resources by the Nazi German government. Due to World War II, Zuse's work went largely unnoticed in the United Kingdom and the United States. Possibly his first documented influence on a US company was IBM's option on his patents in 1946.
There is a replica of the Z3, as well as the original Z4, in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. The Deutsches Technikmuseum in Berlin has an exhibition devoted to Zuse, displaying twelve of his machines, including a replica of the Z1 and several of Zuse's paintings.Kražiai College
The Kražiai College (Latin: Collegium Crozensis) was a Jesuit college (equivalent to a modern secondary school) in Kražiai, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later Russian Empire. Established in 1616 in hopes to educate new generations of anti-Protestants, the college was one of the major cultural and educational centers in Samogitia. In 1620–1742, it shared premises with the Samogitian Priest Seminary. In 1844, the college was transferred to Kaunas.List of universities in Poland
This is a list of universities in Poland. In total, there are approximately 457 universities and collegiate-level institutions of higher education in Poland, including 131 government-funded and 326 privately owned universities, with almost 2 million enrolled students as of 2010. According to the March 18, 2011 Act of the Polish Parliament, the universities are divided into categories based on their legal status and level of authorization.There are forty publicly funded and two private universities considered classical, granting doctoral degrees on top of bachelor's and master's degrees in at least ten fields of knowledge. The remaining universities are divided according to their educational profile usually reflected in their differing names. Academy is used for institutions which focus on fine arts, music and drama. The technical universities specialize in engineering and the physical sciences. (The name refers to the subjects taught; they are not technical schools.)
In total, there are 24 cities in Poland, with between one and eight state-funded universities each. Among the top are Warsaw, Kraków, Poznań, and Wrocław. The Polish names of listed universities are given in brackets, followed by a standard abbreviation (if commonly used or if existent). Note that some of the institutions might choose to translate their own name as university in English, even if they do not officially have the Polish-language equivalent name of uniwersytet.Wilhelm Killing
Wilhelm Karl Joseph Killing (10 May 1847 – 11 February 1923) was a German mathematician who made important contributions to the theories of Lie algebras, Lie groups, and non-Euclidean geometry.