A thesis as a collection of articles or series of papers, also known as thesis by published works, or article thesis, is a doctoral dissertation that, as opposed to a coherent monograph, is a collection of research papers with an introductory section consisting of summary chapters. Other less used terms are "sandwich thesis" and "stapler thesis". It is composed of already-published journal articles, conference papers and book chapters, and occasional not yet published manuscripts. A thesis by publication is a form of compilation thesis (a term used in Nordic countries). Another form of compilation thesis is an essay thesis, comprising previously unpublished independent essays.
Today, article theses are the standard format in natural, medical, and engineering sciences (for example in the Nordic countries), while in social and cultural sciences, there is a strong but decreasing tradition to produce coherent monographs i.e. thesis as a series of linked chapters. Other times, doctoral students may have a choice between writing a monograph or a compilation thesis.
The thesis by published works format is chosen in cases where the student intends to first publish the thesis in parts in international journals. It often results in a higher number of publications during the doctoral studies than a monograph and may render in higher number of citations in other research publications; something that may be advantageous from research funding point of view and may facilitate readership appointment after the dissertation. A further reason for writing a compilation thesis is that some of the articles can be written together with other authors, which may be helpful especially for new doctoral students. A majority of the articles should be reviewed by referees outside the student’s own department, supplementing the audit carried out by the supervisory staff and dissertation opponent, thus assuring international standards.
The introductory or summary chapters of a thesis by published works should be written independently by the student. They should include an extensive annotated bibliography or literature review, placing the scope and results of the articles in the wider context of current state of the international research. They constitute a comprehensive summary of the appended papers, and should clarify the contribution of the doctoral student if the papers are written by several authors. They should not provide new results, but may provide synthesis of new conclusions by combining results from several of the papers. They may supplement the articles with a motivation of the chosen scope, research problems, objectives and methods, and a strengthening of the theoretical framework, analysis and conclusions, since the extent of the articles normally does not allow this kind of longer discussions.
A blockchain, originally block chain, is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data (generally represented as a merkle tree root hash).
By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way". For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires consensus of the network majority. Although blockchain records are not unalterable, blockchains may be considered secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been claimed with a blockchain.Blockchain was invented by a person using the name Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin. The identity of Satoshi Nakamoto is unknown. The invention of the blockchain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double-spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server. The bitcoin design has inspired other applications, and blockchains which are readable by the public are widely used by cryptocurrencies. Blockchain is considered a type of payment rail. Private blockchains have been proposed for business use. Sources such as Computerworld called the marketing of such blockchains without a proper security model "snake oil".Carl Schalk
Dr. Carl Flentge Schalk (born 1929) is a noted Lutheran composer, author, and lecturer. Between 1965 and 2004 he taught church music at Concordia University Chicago. During this time he guided the development of the university's Master of Church Music degree, which has since graduated more than 140 students. Schalk was a member of the Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship, which produced Lutheran Book of Worship in 1978. He was also the editor of the journal Church Music from 1966 to 1980. Additionally, he is a member of the Music Advisory Committee of Concordia Publishing House and of the board of directors of Lutheran Music Program, the parent organization of the Lutheran Summer Music Academy and Festival.
Schalk graduated in 1952 from Concordia University Chicago (then known as Concordia Teachers College River Forest) with a B.S. in education and proceeded to earn a M.Mus from the Eastman School of Music and an M.A.R. from Concordia Seminary in Saint Louis.Schalk is well known for his numerous choral compositions as well as his hymn tunes and carols, which number over one hundred. He had ongoing collaborations with poets Jaroslav Vajda and Herbert Brokering, producing tunes for several of their hymn texts. Schalk's hymn tunes may be found in modern Christian hymnals of various denominations. He is also the author of several books on Lutheran music and hymnody. In 2013 a critical biography of Schalk was published, and in 2015 a collection of articles and essays about church music by Schalk was released.Federalist No. 73
Federalist No. 73 is an essay by the 18th-century American statesman Alexander Hamilton. It is the seventy-third of The Federalist Papers, a collection of articles written to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution. It was published on March 21, 1788 under the pseudonym Publius, the name under which all The Federalist papers were published. Its title is "The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power", and it is the seventh in a series of 11 essays discussing the powers and limitations of the Executive branch of the United States government.
This paper discusses and justifies the executive branch's powers over the Legislature, namely, the Legislature's lack of power to increase or decrease the salary of the President during his/her term, and the Executive Veto.
Hamilton discusses the benefits of the executive veto. He argues that it "shields" the executive from legislative control and it acts as a "check upon the legislative body" which prevents Congress from enacting laws subject to special interests and factional impulses.Harry Houdini
Harry Houdini (; born Erik Weisz, later Ehrich Weiss or Harry Weiss; March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926) was a Hungarian-born American illusionist and stunt performer, noted for his sensational escape acts. He first attracted notice in vaudeville in the US and then as "Harry Handcuff Houdini" on a tour of Europe, where he challenged police forces to keep him locked up. Soon he extended his repertoire to include chains, ropes slung from skyscrapers, straitjackets under water, and having to escape from and hold his breath inside a sealed milk can with water in it.
In 1904, thousands watched as he tried to escape from special handcuffs commissioned by London's Daily Mirror, keeping them in suspense for an hour. Another stunt saw him buried alive and only just able to claw himself to the surface, emerging in a state of near-breakdown. While many suspected that these escapes were faked, Houdini presented himself as the scourge of fake spiritualists. As President of the Society of American Magicians, he was keen to uphold professional standards and expose fraudulent artists. He was also quick to sue anyone who imitated his escape stunts.
Houdini made several movies, but quit acting when it failed to bring in money. He was also a keen aviator, and aimed to become the first man to fly a plane in Australia.Heliaia
Heliaia or Heliaea (Ancient Greek: Ἡλιαία; Doric: Ἁλία Halia) was the supreme court of ancient Athens. Τhe view generally held among scholars is that the court drew its name from the ancient Greek verb ἡλιάζεσθαι, which means συναθροίζεσθαι, namely congregate. Another version is that the court took its name from the fact that the hearings were taking place outdoors, under the sun. Initially, this was the name of the place where the hearings were convoked, but later this appellation included the court as well.
The judges were called heliasts (ἡλιασταί) or dikasts (δικασταί, ὀμωμοκότες = those who have sworn, namely the jurors). The operation of judging was called ἡλιάζεσθαι (δικάζειν).Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar (pronunciation ) (born 28 September 1929) is an Indian playback singer and music director. She is one of the best-known and most respected playback singers in South Asia, especially India. She has recorded songs in over a thousand Hindi films and has sung songs in over thirty-six regional Indian languages and foreign languages, though primarily in Marathi, Hindi, and Bengali.
The Dadasaheb Phalke Award was bestowed on her in 1989 by the Government of India. In 2001, in recognition of her contributions to the nation, she was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour and is only the second vocalist, after M. S. Subbulakshmi, to receive this honour. France conferred on her its highest civilian award (Officer of the Legion of Honour) in 2007.
She is the recipient of three National Film Awards, 15 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards, four Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards, two Filmfare Special Awards, Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award and many more. In 1974, she became the first Indian to perform in the Royal Albert Hall.
She has four siblings—Meena Khadikar, Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar, and Hridaynath Mangeshkar—of whom she is the eldest.List of Finland-related topics
This is a collection of articles relating to Finland, a country in Northern Europe.Maglizh
Maglizh (Bulgarian: Мъглиж) is a town in Stara Zagora Province, South-central Bulgaria. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Maglizh Municipality. As of December 2009, the town has a population of 3,426 inhabitants.Opera (magazine)
Opera is a monthly British magazine devoted to covering all things related to opera. It contains reviews and articles about current opera productions internationally, as well as articles on opera recordings, opera singers, opera companies, opera directors, and opera books. The magazine also contains major features and analysis on individual operas and people associated with opera.
The magazine employs a network of international correspondents around the world who write for the magazine. Contributors to the magazine, past and present, include William Ashbrook, Martin Bernheimer, Julian Budden, Rodolfo Celletti, Alan Blyth, Elizabeth Forbes, and J.B. Steane among many others.
Opera is printed in A5 size, with colour photos, and consists of around 130 pages. Page numbering is consecutive for a complete year (e.g. September 2009 goes from p1033-1168). All issues since February 1950 are available online to current subscribers (through Exact Editions).
Based in London, the magazine was founded in 1950 by George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood. It was launched at the house of Richard Buckle, under the imprint 'Ballet Publications Ltd'. It seems the previous Ballet and Opera magazine, edited by Richard Buckle, split into two separate magazines - one Opera and the other Ballet.
After Lascelles, Harold Rosenthal served as editor from 1953–1986, Rodney Milnes from 1986 and John Allison has held that position since 2000, with Milnes as chair of the Editorial Board.
In 1965 Victor Gollancz Limited published a wide-ranging collection of articles which had appeared in the magazine during the first 15 years, with alongside those by regular Opera contributors, articles by Benjamin Britten, Sylvia Fisher, Magda Olivero, Helga Pilarczyk, Dennis Arundell, Osbert Lancaster, Joan Cross, Gottfried Schmiedel and Erwin Stein.An occasional series of supplements have been published: Thirty all-time great recordings (August 2002), Great Opera Houses of the World (July 2003), In character: Great singers in great roles 1 (August 2004) and 2 (September 2006), Great First Nights (September 2005), Opera stage on screen (September 2007); along with four volumes of reprints of profiles of singers (grouped by voice type, 2002–2004) and directors (January 2006 and January 2007).A separate annual 'Festivals' issue was published until 2012, with listings of opera or operetta festivals (or music festivals including operas) in the UK and all around the world for the coming season, preceded by longer articles on particular festival projects or personalities. From 2013, the separate issue was dropped in favour of a festivals focus in the April edition, due to the ready availability of listings on-line.In recent years, the last page has been a lighter feature, such as 'I can't live without... golf' by Barbara Bonney (August 1999), ‘My First Opera – Don Giovanni’ by Osmo Vänskä (February 2004), and Roger Parker on why he would like to come back as Pasha Selim (December 2007).Over Seventy
Over Seventy is an autobiographical work by P.G. Wodehouse, including a collection of articles originally from Punch magazine. It was first published in the United States on 3 May 1956 by Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York under the title America, I Like You, and in the United Kingdom, in a considerably expanded form, on October 11, 1957 by Herbert Jenkins, London, with the Over Seventy title and the subtitle An Autobiography with Digressions.
Much of the writing describes Wodehouse's feelings concerning the United States, his adopted homeland, with the journalism and stories inserted in context.Ravi Belagere
Ravi Belagere is a writer and journalist based in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. He is the editor of Kannada language tabloid Hi Bangalore and fortnightly magazine O Manase.Seymur Baycan
Seymur Baycan (Azerbaijani: Seymur Baycan, Seymur XXX) – an Azerbaijani writer, publicist, columnist.Swastika
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon in the cultures of Eurasia, used as a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions.The name swastika comes from Sanskrit (Devanagari: स्वस्तिक) meaning 'conducive to well being' or 'auspicious'. In Hinduism, the symbol with arms pointing clockwise is called swastika, symbolizing surya (sun), prosperity and good luck, while the counterclockwise symbol is called sauvastika, symbolizing night or tantric aspects of Kali. In Jainism, a swastika is the symbol for Suparshvanatha—the seventh of 24 Tirthankaras (spiritual teachers and saviours), while in Buddhism it symbolizes the auspicious footprints of the Buddha. In several major Indo-European religions the swastika symbolizes lightning bolts representing the thunder god and king of the gods such as Indra in the Indus Valley religion, Zeus in ancient Greek religion, Jupiter in Roman religion, and Thor in ancient Germanic religion.The swastika is an icon widely found in human history and the modern world. In various forms it is alternatively known in various European languages as the fylfot, gammadion, tetraskelion, or cross cramponnée (a term in Anglo-Norman heraldry); French: croix gammée. In China it is named wàn 卐 / 卍 / 萬, meaning 'all things', pronounced manji in Japanese. A swastika generally takes the form of a cross the arms of which are of equal length and perpendicular to the adjacent arms, each bent midway at a right angle. It is found in the archeological remains of the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia as well as in early Byzantine and Christian artwork.The Civil War in the United States
The Civil War in the United States is a collection of articles on the American Civil War by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels for the New-York Tribune and Die Presse of Vienna between 1861 and 1862, and correspondence between Marx and Engels between 1860 and 1866. It was published as a book in 1937, edited and with an introduction by Richard Enmale.
In 2016 International Publishers produced a completely revised second edition of The Civil War in the United States, edited and with an introduction by Andrew Zimmerman.
The articles promote the Union side of the war, arguing that the conflict was fundamentally about slavery.The International Jew
The International Jew is a four-volume set of antisemitic booklets or pamphlets published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, an American industrialist and automobile manufacturer.
In spring 1920, Ford began using his personal newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, to chronicle what he considered the "Jewish menace". For 91 issues, the weekly paper announced a variety of Jewish-evil-influenced major stories in its headlines. The most popular and aggressive stories were then chosen to be reprinted into four volumes called The International Jew.The books are to be distinguished from The International Jew: The World's Problem which was a headline in The Dearborn Independent, and is also the name of a collection of articles serialized in The Dearborn Independent.The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience
The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience is a collection of articles that discuss the Skeptics Society's scientific findings of investigations into popular pseudoscientific and supernatural claims. It has been called "a 2-volume set with an attitude." The editor, Michael Shermer, director of the Skeptics Society, pulled together articles originally published in Skeptic magazine with some conceptual overviews and historical documents to create this two-volume encyclopedia. Pat Linse is listed as a contributing editor. It was published by ABC-CLIO in 2002.
The encyclopedia has five sections. The first volume is composed of alphabetical write-ups on the scientific view of pseudoscientific concepts such as the "Bermuda Triangle and dowsing, Shroud of Turin and Feng Shui, spiritualism and biorhythms, placebo effect and graphology, Alien abductions and UFOs, crop circles and astrology", followed by a section of investigations and discussions. The second volume explores such subjects in more depth with sections containing case studies, "for and against" essays, and historical documents. This final section has been criticized for containing only five documents.Thomas S. Noonan
Thomas Schaub Noonan (January 20, 1938 – June 15, 2001) was an American historian, Slavicist and anthropologist who specialized in early Russian history and Eurasian nomad cultures.
Educated at Indiana University, Noonan was, for many years, a Professor of History at the University of Minnesota. He was the author of dozens of books and articles and one of the leading authorities on the development of the Kievan Rus and the Khazar Khaganate. Noonan placed a great deal of importance on numismatics in understanding economic and social trends. He was the mentor of numerous scholars and leading historians. In 2001 many of his colleagues honored him by publishing the first of a multivolume collection of articles under the title "Festschrift in Honor of Thomas S. Noonan," which was edited by Roman K. Kovalev and Heidi M. Sherman. The second volume appeared in 2005.
Noonan died of cancer in 2001.Wiki
A wiki ( (listen) WIK-ee) is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor.A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are open source, whereas others are proprietary. Some permit control over different functions (levels of access); for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding, or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content.
The online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, and is one of the most widely viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007. Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, and intranets. The English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles; as of September 2016, it had over five million articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described wiki as "the simplest online database that could possibly work". "Wiki" (pronounced [ˈwiki]) is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick".World War II casualties
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history. An estimated total 70-85 million people perished, which was about 3% of the 1940 world population (est. 2.3 billion).The tables below give a detailed country-by-country count of human losses. World War II fatality statistics vary, with estimates of total deaths ranging from 70 million to 85 million. Deaths directly caused by the war military and civilians killed are estimated at 50-56 million people,There were an additional estimated 19 to 28 million deaths from war-related disease and famine.
Civilians deaths totaled 50 to 55 million. Military deaths from all causes totaled 21 to 25 million, including deaths in captivity of about 5 million prisoners of war. Statistics on the number of military wounded are included whenever available. More than half of the total number of casualties are accounted for by the dead of the Republic of China and of the Soviet Union. The government of the Russian Federation in the 1990s published an estimate of USSR losses at 26.6 million, including 8 to 9 million due to famine and disease. These losses are for the territory of the USSR in the borders of 1946–1991, including territories annexed in 1939–40.
The People's Republic of China as of 2005 estimated the number of Chinese casualties in the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945 are 20 million dead and 15 million wounded.In 2000, the total number of German military dead was estimated at 5.3 million by Rüdiger Overmans of the Military History Research Office (Germany); this number includes 900,000 men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders, in Austria, and in east-central Europe. Civilian deaths are not included. However, in 2005 the German government put the war dead at 7,395,000 persons (including 4,300,000 military dead and missing) from Germany, Austria, and men conscripted from outside of Germany's 1937 borders.The number of Polish dead are estimated to number between 5.6 and 5.8 million according to the Institute of National Remembrance (2009). Documentation remains fragmentary, but today scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) and 3 million Jews were victims of German Occupation policies and the war for a total of just under 5 million dead."The Japanese government as of 2005 put the number of Japanese deaths at 3.1 million.