Collaborative writing

Collaborative writing a writing process that is shared among various authors. The dynamics of the collaborative writing may vary widely.

What is collaborative writing

To understand what collaborative writing is, one must first understand the word collaboration. Collaboration is known as the sharing of labor[1], whether this be as a pair or in groups. Therefore collaborative writing refers to the co-authorship of a writing piece.

Collaborative writing includes three necessary components to make the writing process work, which include:

  • Interaction between participants throughout the entire writing process. Whether it be brainstorming, writing a draft of the project, or reviewing.[1]
  • Shared power among participants. Everyone included in the project has the power to make decisions and no group member is in charge of all the text produced.[1]
  • The collaborative production of one single and specific text.[1]

During the collaborative writing process all participants are to have equal responsibilities. All sections of the text should be split up to ensure the workload is evenly displaced, all participants work together and interact throughout the writing process, everyone contributes to planning, making of ideas, making structure of text, editing, and the revision process[2]. Often times, collaborative writing is used in instances where a workload would be overwhelming for one person to produce. Therefore ownership of the text is from the group that produced it and not just one person.

Benefits of collaborative writing

Collaborative writing allows authors to combine their literacy tools and knowledge on a single project.[3] Group writing is a social activity, and students who participated in group writing experiments felt it was a good learning exercise. The two parts of collaborative writing that researchers indicated were most influential were peer reviewing and brainstorming.[3]  Students that chose to do group and independent writing gave feedback that group writers came away feeling like they had thought of something with their partners that they wouldn’t have on their own.[3]

Peer reviewing made readers feel more connected to the writing, and authors were able to get specific feedback from their audience.[3] Teachers who observed collaborative groups said that members were more receptive and willing to change for constructive criticism.[3] Peer reviewing and brainstorming requires all parties to use critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills in collaborative writing could be used in deciding on ideas, assigning what each person’s job is, and catering your writing to your audience.

Researchers who did grammatical tests on group writing versus independent writing in students found that even though the amount group authors wrote was less, they used more grammatically complex sentences and answered the prompt accurately.[3] Independent writers tended to use extra information and repeat words.[3] Although collaborative writing can take more time to write the same amount as an independent writer, group plans and simple task work can help time strains.

Attitudes in the academic world value co-authorship, and will often publish more collaboratively written articles more often than single-author articles. [4] Respondents in the professional world surveyed that they felt collaborative writing improved their writing because of their collaborator's knowledge, and they were able to spend more time on article quality together. [4]

Types of collaborative writing

Collaborative writing has been the subject of academic research and business for over two decades.[5]

  • Single Author writing or Collegial: one person is leading, they compile the group ideas and do the writing.[5][4]
  • Sequential writing: each person adds their task work then passes it on for the next person to edit freely.[5]
  • Horizontal Division writing: each person does one part of the whole project and then one member compiles it.[5]
  • Stratified Division writing: each person plays a role in the composition process of a project due to talents.[5]
  • Reactive writing: group all works on and writes the project at the same time, adjusting and commenting on everyone’s work. [5]

As an educational tool

Collaborative writing is used by educators to teach novice authors, of all ages and educational levels, to write. Collaborative writing can be used by professors to teach writers of all ages and teach different educational levels. With collaborative writing, it helps provide participants to explore, discuss and help with learning capabilities. Collaborative writing corporate by contributing ideas with others.[6] The quantity of learning and growth. In the past ten years most studies says that most students are motivated in collaborative writing because of their improvement in writing competencies. When students work in groups, it generally produces shorter but better text such as grammatical accuracy and fulfillment. It gave students ideas and giving information.



An author acquires a copyright if their work meets certain criteria. In the case of works created by one person, typically, the first owner of a copyright in that work is the person who created the work, i.e. the author. But, when more than one person creates the work in collaboration with one another, then a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Storch, Neomy (2013). Collaborative Writing in L2 Classrooms. Multilingual Matters.
  2. ^ Lundsford, Andrea (1991). "Collaboration, Control, and the Idea of a Writing Center" (PDF). The Writing Center Journal. 12.1: 3–10.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Storch, Neomy (September 2005). "Collaborative writing: Product, process, and students' reflections". Journal of Second Language Writing. 14 (3): 153–173. doi:10.1016/j.jslw.2005.05.002. ISSN 1060-3743.
  4. ^ a b c Hart, Richard L (September 2000). "Co-authorship in the academic library literature: A survey of attitudes and behaviors". The Journal of Academic Librarianship. 26 (5): 339–345. doi:10.1016/s0099-1333(00)00140-3. ISSN 0099-1333.
  5. ^ a b c d e Lowry, Paul Benjamin; Curtis, Aaron; Lowry, Michelle René (2004-01-01). "Building a Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Collaborative Writing to Improve Interdisciplinary Research and Practice". The Journal of Business Communication (1973). 41 (1): 66–99. doi:10.1177/0021943603259363. ISSN 0021-9436.
  6. ^ a b King, Carla (1 April 2014). "6 Great Self-Publishing Tools for Small Press and Author Co-Ops". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  7. ^ "Getting Started with Atlas". Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  8. ^ "GitLab About - Built with GitLab". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  9. ^ Lomas, Natasha (2014-09-22). "Authorea Nabs $610k For Its Bid To Become A 'Google Docs For Scientists'". TechCrunch.

Further reading

1632 (novel)

1632 is the initial novel in the best-selling alternate history 1632 book series written by American historian, writer and editor Eric Flint published in 2000. The flagship novel kicked off a collaborative writing effort that has involved hundreds of contributors and dozens of authors. The premise involves a small American town of three thousand, sent back to May 1631, in an alternate Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.

American Garage

American Garage is the second album by the Pat Metheny Group, released in 1979 on ECM Records.

The album represented the most collaborative writing session between Pat Metheny and Lyle Mays up to that point in the band's history. According to Metheny, this yielded mixed results. He has said that the album's second track, "Airstream," is a favorite from this period. But both he and Mays have expressed less praise for the fifth and final track, "The Epic", which Metheny has claimed, "is all over the map."

American Garage marked Mays' first use of the Oberheim synthesizer, which became an integral part of the Group's sound.

Anti-copyright notice

An anti-copyright notice is a specific statement that is added to a work in order to encourage wide distribution. Such notices are legally required to host such specific media; under the Berne Convention in international copyright law, works are protected even if no copyright statement is attached to them. However, "anti-copyright" statements typically do not take the form of either sophisticated public copyright licenses or a simple dedication to the public domain; instead, they usually just encourage wide distribution. Depending on jurisdiction, it is possible to denounce all claims to copyright in a work including moral rights in a written disclaimer.An example of an anti-copyright notice is the following: "Anti-Copyright! Reprint freely, in any manner desired, even without naming the source." Where such notices are attached depends highly on the type of work. They are often found in socialist anarchist magazines and books.A copyright waiver might state the following:

The author of this work hereby waives all claim of copyright (economic and moral) in this work and immediately places it in the public domain; it may be used, distorted or destroyed in any manner whatsoever without further attribution or notice to the creator.

The Creative Commons CC0 was created for compatibility with also law domains (e.g. civil law of continental Europe) which have problems with the concept of dedicating into public domain, as waiver statement with a fallback all-permissive license. The WTFPL, first published in 2000, differs from licenses with public domain decications in that an author can use it even if they do not necessarily have the ability to place their work in the public domain according to their local laws. The Unlicense, published around 2010, has a focus on an anti-copyright message.Woody Guthrie used an anti-copyright notice on his songs:

This song is Copyrighted in U.S., under Seal of Copyright # 154085, for a period of 28 years, and anybody caught singin it without our permission, will be mighty good friends of ourn, cause we don’t give a dern. Publish it. Write it. Sing it. Swing to it. Yodel it. We wrote it, that’s all we wanted to do.

Despite this, a number of organisations claim copyright of Guthrie's songs.Most people would regard "anti-copyright" notices as being equivalent to a dedication of material into the public domain (as in the second example above). Some of these disclaimers, however, are less accurate and need to be interpreted individually as the term anti-copyright has no accepted legal meaning. For example, if just free distribution is encouraged, modification or lack of attribution is still illegal, making the material ineligible for collaborative writing projects like English Wikipedia. In such a case anti-copyright is not a true denial of copyright, but just a modification of the protection it affords copyright holders.


Authorea is an online collaborative writing tool that allows researchers to write, cite, collaborate, host data and publish. It has been described as "Google Docs for Scientists".


co-ment is an online word processor allowing collaborative writing and commenting. It was inspired by the software package stet, which was created to handle the GNU GPL version 3 online revision. It is free software, available under Affero GPL.

Collaboration (disambiguation)

Collaboration is a process where two or more people or organizations work together to realise shared goals.

Collaboration(s) may also refer to:

Collaborative editing

Collaborative writing

Collaboration (magazine), a magazine dedicated to the spiritual and evolutionary vision of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother

Collaborative software, applications or services that facilitate collaboration between users, mostly on the internet

The Collaboration (TV series), a 2016 Chinese and South Korean collaboration television program

Collaborative editing

Collaborative editing is the editing of groups producing works together through individual contributions. Effective choices in group awareness, participation, and coordination are critical to successful collaborative writing outcomes.

Collaborative fiction

Collaborative fiction is a form of writing by a group of three or more authors who share creative control of a story.Collaborative fiction can occur for commercial gain, as part of education, or recreationally – many collaboratively written works have been the subject of a large degree of academic research.

Digital poetry

Digital poetry is a form of electronic literature, displaying a wide range of approaches to poetry, with a prominent and crucial use of computers. Digital poetry can be available in form of CD-ROM, DVD, as installations in art galleries, in certain cases also recorded as digital video or films, as digital holograms, on the World Wide Web or Internet, and as mobile phone apps.

A significant portion of current publications of poetry are available either only online or via some combination of online and offline publication. There are many types of 'digital poetry' such as hypertext, kinetic poetry, computer generated animation, digital visual poetry, interactive poetry, code poetry, holographic poetry (holopoetry), experimental video poetry, and poetries that take advantage of the programmable nature of the computer to create works that are interactive, or use generative or combinatorial approach to create text (or one of its states), or involve sound poetry, or take advantage of things like listservs, blogs, and other forms of network communication to create communities of collaborative writing and publication (as in poetical wikis).

Digital computers allow the creation of art that spans different media: text, images, sounds, and interactivity via programming. Contemporary poetries have, therefore, taken advantage of this toward the creation of works that synthesize both arts and media. Whether a work is poetry or visual art or music or programming is sometimes not clear, but we expect an intense engagement with language in poetical works.

Exquisite corpse

Exquisite corpse, also known as exquisite cadaver (from the original French term cadavre exquis), is a method by which a collection of words or images is collectively assembled. Each collaborator adds to a composition in sequence, either by following a rule (e.g. "The adjective noun adverb verb the adjective noun." as in "The green duck sweetly sang the dreadful dirge.") or by being allowed to see only the end of what the previous person contributed.

Interactive fiction

Interactive fiction, often abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment. Works in this form can be understood as literary narratives, either in the form of Interactive narratives or Interactive narrations. These works can also be understood as a form of video game, either in the form of an adventure game or role-playing game. In common usage, the term refers to text adventures, a type of adventure game where the entire interface can be "text-only", however, graphical text adventure games, where the text is accompanied by graphics (still images, animations or video) still fall under the text adventure category if the main way to interact with the game is by typing text. Some users of the term distinguish between interactive fiction, known as "Puzzle-free", that focuses on narrative, and "text adventures" that focus on puzzles.

Due to their text-only nature, they sidestepped the problem of writing for widely divergent graphics architectures. This feature meant that interactive fiction games were easily ported across all the popular platforms at the time, including CP/M (not known for gaming or strong graphics capabilities). The number of interactive fiction works is increasing steadily as new ones are produced by an online community, using freely available development systems.

The term can also be used to refer to digital versions of literary works that are not read in a linear fashion, known as gamebooks, where the reader is instead given choices at different points in the text; these decisions determine the flow and outcome of the story. The most famous example of this form of printed fiction is the Choose Your Own Adventure book series, and the collaborative "addventure" format has also been described as a form of interactive fiction. The term “interactive fiction” is sometimes used also to refer to visual novels, a type of interactive narrative software popular in Japan.

M. Barnard Eldershaw

M. Barnard Eldershaw was the pseudonym used by the twentieth-century Australian literary collaborators Marjorie Barnard (1897–1987) and Flora Eldershaw (1897–1956). In a collaboration that lasted two decades from the late 1920s to the late 1940s, they published 5 novels, 3 histories, a radio drama, a collection of short stories, and several collections of critical essays and lectures.

Flora Eldershaw and Marjorie Barnard were active in the Australian literary scene of the 1930s and 1940s. Through their lectures and reviews and their active participation in the Fellowship of Australian Writers, they played an important role in the development of Australia's "literary infrastructure".

Neomy Storch

Neomy Storch (born 1954) is a professor of applied linguistics at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Her research focuses on second language acquisition with a special focus on second language writing. She is noted for her work on second language acquisition, collaborative writing, and academic writing.

Along with Cumming, Hyland, Kormos, Matsuda, Manchón, Ortega, Polio and Verspoor she is considered as one of the most prominent researchers on second language writing.

Networked book

A networked book is an open book designed to be written, edited, and read in a networked environment. It is also a platform for social exchange, and is potentially linked to other books and other discussions. Wikipedia can be considered a networked book.

Slam book

A slam book is a notebook (commonly the spiral-bound type) which is passed among children and teenagers. The keeper of the book starts by posing a question (which may be on any subject) and the book is then passed round for each contributor to fill in their own answer to the question.Slam books were also a source of bullying between students—where students "lived in fear" of the "biting comments" written anonymously under their names, "on the order of what today might be a Tweet or a Facebook comment". A slam book containing cruel comments was featured in episode 3.20 ("Kids Can Be Cruel") of the 1980s TV show Facts of Life.One early reference to slam books can be found in the November 18, 1928 issue of The Central New Jersey Home News where it was reported as a new fad among New Brunswick high school students. It was defined in The Vocabulary of Jazzdom in 1922 as "a diary in which you "knock" your friends".One newspaper article from 1930 argued that slam books could be a great thing for humanity. "Psychology, industry and the ghastly exposure to the late war have changed [the Victorian era's faux veneer of sentimentality and taboos]. We have learned the price of sentimentality. The youngsters of today are facing life and themselves as is."In general, however, slam books were seen in a negative light. A slam book was briefly the focus in the murder investigation of Carole Lee Kensinger in 1948.Slam books crossed racial barriers and were popular among African American high school communities in the 1950s. And the books were not limited to the US. In 2005, friends created a slam book as a going away present for 16-year-old Richa Thapa who emigrated from Nepal to the US. In 1999, Claire Morris-Dobbie launched SLAM: A New Way to Tell the Truth, a pre-made "slam book" with online tie-in features in an attempt to combine nostalgia with the growing World Wide Web. It was billed as a "kinder and gentler" slam book for teens and pre-teens with the goal of encouraging them to think and communicate, write and express themselves.Slam books can also exist in virtual formats. Web-based slam book sites have attracted controversy for hosting virtual slam books in which individuals or organizations are targeted for criticism that constitutes bullying or defamation.Some point to slam books as the analog precursor to anonymous trolling and negative social interactions on Twitter and Facebook. "Passing handwritten notes or 'slam books' has since been replaced with online tools such as IM, websites, blogs, cell phones etc."

Text annotation

Text Annotation is the practice and the result of adding a note or gloss to a text, which may include highlights or underlining, comments, footnotes, tags, and links. Text annotations can include notes written for a reader's private purposes, as well as shared annotations written for the purposes of collaborative writing and editing, commentary, or social reading and sharing. In some fields, text annotation is comparable to metadata insofar as it is added post hoc and provides information about a text without fundamentally altering that original text. Text annotations are sometimes referred to as marginalia, though some reserve this term specifically for hand-written notes made in the margins of books or manuscripts. Annotations are extremely useful and help to develop knowledge of English literature.

This article covers both private and socially shared text annotations, including hand-written and information technology-based annotation. For information on annotation of Web content, including images and other non-textual content, see also Web annotation.

The Revenge of the Shadow King

The Revenge of the Shadow King is the first volume of three books in the Grey Griffins series written in collaborative writing by American authors Derek Benz and J.S. Lewis, and published by Orchard Books, an imprint of Scholastic Inc. The book follows the story of four friends who form The Order of the Grey Griffin.

William Shakespeare's collaborations

Like most playwrights of his period, William Shakespeare did not always write alone. A number of his surviving plays are collaborative, or were revised by others after their original composition, although the exact number is open to debate. Some of the following attributions, such as The Two Noble Kinsmen, have well-attested contemporary documentation; others, such as Titus Andronicus, are dependent on linguistic analysis by modern scholars; recent work on computer analysis of textual style (word use, word and phrase patterns) has given reason to believe that parts of some of the plays ascribed to Shakespeare are actually by other writers.

In some cases the identity of the collaborator is known; in other cases there is a scholarly consensus; in others it is unknown or disputed. These debates are the province of Shakespeare attribution studies. Most collaborations occurred at the very beginning and the very end of Shakespeare's career.


WoWWiki is a wiki about the Warcraft fictional universe, and one of the largest wikis about a specific subject. It began as an independent project in 2004, and in 2007 joined Wikia. In late 2010, most of the administrators that were unhappy with Wikia-mandated changes started an independent fork known as Wowpedia.

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