Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde

Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, GCB, KCSI (20 October 1792 – 14 August 1863), was a British Army officer. After serving in the Peninsular War and the War of 1812, he commanded the 98th Regiment of Foot during the First Opium War and then commanded a brigade during the Second Anglo-Sikh War. He went on to command the Highland Brigade at the Battle of Alma and with his "thin red line of Highlanders" he repulsed the Russian attack on Balaclava during the Crimean War. At an early stage of the Indian Mutiny, he became Commander-in-Chief, India and, in that role, he relieved and then evacuated Lucknow and, after attacking and decisively defeating Tatya Tope at the Second Battle of Cawnpore, captured Lucknow again. Whilst still commander-in-chief he dealt with the 'White Mutiny' among East India Company troops, and organised the army sent east in the Second Opium War.

Historian Adrian Greenwood argued in a 2015 biography of Campbell that he was a much more effective and significant commander than previously thought.

The Lord Clyde
Lord Clyde in 1855
Born20 October 1792
Glasgow, Scotland
Died14 August 1863 (aged 70)
Chatham, Kent
Allegiance United Kingdom / British Empire
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1808–1860
RankField Marshal
Commands heldHighland Brigade
Commander-in-Chief of India
Battles/warsPeninsular War
War of 1812
First Opium War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Crimean War
Indian Mutiny
AwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India

Early life

Campbell was born Colin Macliver, the eldest of the four children of John Macliver, a cabinetmaker in Glasgow, and Agnes Macliver (née Campbell).[1] His mother and one of his twin sisters died while he was still a boy. His only brother was killed fighting in the Peninsular War.[2] Having been educated at the High School of Glasgow his uncle, Major John Campbell, took over his care and sent him to the Royal Military and Naval Academy at Gosport.[3] The most oft-quoted story explaining Campbell's name change is that upon Colin's entry into the 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot as an ensign in 1808, his uncle presented him to the Duke of York, who assumed the boy's surname was Campbell and had him enlisted in the Army under that name. This story was first promulgated during the Crimean War. The press were fascinated to find why he had changed his name, and rumours abounded that he was in fact the illegitimate son of Major Campbell, so Peter Macliver, a journalist and Colin's cousin, invented the story about the Duke of York. Not only was it highly unusual for an ensign to meet the commander-in-chief, the Duke of York, but Campbell was on the Isle of Wight, not in London when commissioned. Furthermore, General Robert Brownrigg, colonel of the regiment of the 9th Foot, wrote to the Duke of York prior to Campbell's commission, referring to the fifteen-year-old boy as 'Mr Colin Campbell'. Evidently, Campbell changed his name before being gazetted.[4]

Military career

Junior officer

Colin Campbell by Thomas Jones Barker 1860, SNPG
Colin Campbell by Thomas Jones Barker 1860
Forlorn hope
Campbell leading the 'forlorn hope' at the Siege of San Sebastián, 1813.

Campbell was commissioned as an ensign in the 9th Regiment of Foot on 26 May 1808.[5] His first experience of war was under Sir Arthur Wellesley at the Battle of Vimeiro on 21 August 1808 during the Peninsular War.[1] His battalion remained in Portugal and served under Sir John Moore during his foray into Spain, and subsequent retreat to Corunna. His battalion was not engaged at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809, but remained in reserve.[1] Promoted to lieutenant on 15 July 1809,[6] he took part in the disastrous Walcheren Campaign in Autumn 1809 and contracted malaria there.[1]

Campbell was posted to Gibraltar in 1810 and fought at the Battle of Barrosa in March 1811, taking command of the 9th Foot's flank companies as the senior officer not hors de combat. His bravery was noted by General Sir Thomas Graham. Serving in his battalion's light company, he fought at the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 and at the Siege of San Sebastián. Here, in the first assault on 25 July 1813, he led the forlorn hope and was wounded twice while leading a storming party.[1] He led the 9th Foot's light company at the Battle of the Bidassoa in October 1813 where he was wounded for a third time.[1] He was promoted to captain in the 7th Battalion 60th (Royal American) Regiment on 3 November 1813. Sent to Halifax, Nova Scotia, he was too late to see action in the War of 1812 and soon returned to Europe suffering from his wounds.[7] Due to the contraction of the army after Waterloo the number of Royal American battalions was cut back drastically. To avoid being put on half-pay Campbell transferred to the 21st Royal North British Fusiliers on 26 November 1818.[8] The regiment was sent first to Barbados and then to Demerara, where Campbell became aide-de-camp to the governor. His part in quelling the slave rebellion in Demerara in August 1823 is hazy. He is not recorded as joining in the reprisals against slaves pursued by his commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Leahy, but he was on the court martial which sentenced Reverend John Smith, the suspected instigator of the revolt, to death. He purchased his majority on 26 November 1825.[9]

Colin Campbell and William Mansfield - Project Gutenberg eText 16528
Colin Campbell (right) with William Mansfield, 1st Baron Sandhurst


His regiment returned to England and in 1828 was posted to Ireland. From late 1830 they were called upon to police the Irish Tithe War. Campbell purchased an unattached lieutenant-colonelcy on 26 October 1832[10] Campbell became commanding officer of the 9th Regiment of Foot on 8 May 1835[11] but then exchanged to become commanding officer of the 98th Regiment of Foot on 19 June 1835[12] and commanded that regiment at the Battle of Chinkiang in July 1842 during the First Opium War.[1] Promoted to colonel on 23 December 1842, he became commandant of Hong Kong at the end of that year.[1] He was appointed an aide-de-camp to the Queen on 23 December 1842[13] and a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 24 December 1842.[14]

Campbell was given command of a brigade of British troops in Lahore in India in 1847.[15] He led his brigade at the Battle of Ramnagar in November 1848, and a division at the Battle of Chillianwala in January 1849 and at the decisive Battle of Gujrat in February 1849 during the Second Anglo-Sikh War.[15] He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 5 June 1849.[16] After defusing a local mutiny of native troops at Rawalpindi, he was then posted to Peshawar. Lord Dalhousie, Governor-General of India, requested Campbell lead increasing punitive expeditions against Pathan tribesmen. Finally, when Dalhousie asked Campbell to mount an invasion of the Swat Valley, Campbell resigned in disgust.[17]

Crimean War

In early 1854, shortly after the Crimean War broke out, Campbell accepted the command of the Highland Brigade.[15] He was promoted to brevet brigadier-general on 21 February 1854[18] and to major-general on 20 June 1854.[19] The Highland Brigade distinguished itself at the Battle of Alma in September 1854 and, with his "thin red line of Highlanders", Campbell repulsed the Russian attack on Balaclava in October 1854.[15] He was promoted to the local rank of lieutenant general on 23 January 1855[20] and advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 5 July 1855.[21] When the Duke of Cambridge returned to England, Campbell took command of the 1st Division (Guards and Highland brigades) and commanded the Division at the Battle of the Great Redan in September 1855.[15] Promoted to the local rank of full general on 28 December 1855[22] and the substantive rank of lieutenant general on 4 June 1856,[23] he remained in the Crimea hoping to take overall command, but when General Sir William Codrington was appointed instead, he returned home in a huff. Prince Albert suggested the army in the Crimea be split into two corps d'armee, and Campbell be given one. Lord Panmure requested Queen Victoria ask Campbell return to command one of these corps, and Campbell agreed. However, by the time he had returned, the war was virtually over.[24] He commanded South-Eastern District from July to September 1856.[25] For his services in the Crimean War, he was awarded the Grand Cross of the Sardinian Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus on 11 August 1856[26] and the Turkish Order of the Medjidie, 1st Class, on 2 March 1858.[27] The Board of Directors of the East India Company also granted Campbell an annuity of £2,000 per annum for life on 9 June 1858.[28]

Commander-in-Chief of India

Image-Secundra Bagh after Indian Mutiny higher res
Interior of the Sikandar Bagh after the Slaughter of 2,000 Rebels by the 93rd Highlanders and 4th Punjab Regiment. First Attack of Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857, Lucknow. Albumen silver print, by Felice Beato, 1858.
Colin Campbell Memorial
Statue of Lord Clyde in Waterloo Place, London

On 11 July 1857, at an early stage in the Indian Mutiny, Lord Palmerston offered Campbell the command of all British forces in India.[25] Promoted to the local rank of full general in India the same day,[29] he left England the next day and reached Calcutta in August 1857.[3] He relieved and then evacuated Lucknow in November 1857 and, after attacking and decisively defeating Tantia Tope at the Second Battle of Cawnpore in December 1857, he captured Lucknow again in March 1858.[25] He was promoted to the substantive rank of full general on 14 May 1858[30] and raised to the peerage as Baron Clyde, of Clydesdale in Scotland on 3 August 1858.[31] In Autumn 1858, faced with a further mutiny by the East India Company's European troops, who had not received their enlistment bounties, he used British troops to enforce discipline until the British Cabinet agreed some concessions.[25] He continued in charge of the operations in India until all aspects of the revolt had died away and then returned to England in June 1860.[3]

In 1854 Campbell was appointed Colonel of the 67th Regiment of Foot[32] and subsequently of the 93rd Regiment of Foot.[33] In retirement he lived at 10 Berkeley Square in London.[34] Promoted to field marshal on 9 November 1862,[35] he died at Chatham on 14 August 1863, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.[25]

A statue of Campbell by Carlo Marochetti was erected in Waterloo Place in London in 1867[36] and a statue of Campbell by John Foley was erected in George Square in Glasgow in 1868.[37]


Campbell never married or fathered any children.[25]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Heathcote, p. 69
  2. ^ Greenwood p. 27
  3. ^ a b c "Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  4. ^ Greenwood p. 308
  5. ^ "No. 16149". The London Gazette. 28 May 1808. p. 754.
  6. ^ "No. 16275". The London Gazette. 11 July 1809. p. 1098.
  7. ^ Marjie Bloy, Ph.D. "The Victorian Web: Sir Colin Cambell, 1792–1863". Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  8. ^ "No. 17430". The London Gazette. 12 December 1818. p. 2226.
  9. ^ "No. 18197". The London Gazette. 26 November 1825. p. 2165., having borrowed heavily to do so
  10. ^ "No. 18988". The London Gazette. 26 October 1832. p. 2370.
  11. ^ "No. 19268". The London Gazette. 8 May 1835. p. 901.
  12. ^ "No. 19281". The London Gazette. 19 June 1835. p. 1171.
  13. ^ "No. 20180". The London Gazette. 23 December 1842. p. 3821.
  14. ^ "No. 20181". The London Gazette. 27 December 1842. p. 3863.
  15. ^ a b c d e Heathcote, p. 70
  16. ^ "No. 20985". The London Gazette. 7 June 1849. p. 1863.
  17. ^ Greenwood p. 232-3
  18. ^ "No. 21524". The London Gazette. 21 February 1854. p. 515.
  19. ^ "No. 21564". The London Gazette. 22 June 1854. p. 1933.
  20. ^ "No. 21653". The London Gazette. 23 January 1855. p. 251.
  21. ^ "No. 21743". The London Gazette. 10 July 1855. p. 2654.
  22. ^ "No. 21832". The London Gazette. 28 December 1855. p. 4867.
  23. ^ "No. 21899". The London Gazette. 8 July 1856. p. 2378.
  24. ^ Greenwood p. 310-13
  25. ^ a b c d e f Heathcote, p. 71
  26. ^ "No. 21912". The London Gazette. 12 August 1856. p. 2781.
  27. ^ "No. 22107". The London Gazette. 2 March 1858. p. 1251.
  28. ^ "No. 22152". The London Gazette. 11 June 1858. p. 2898.
  29. ^ "No. 22022". The London Gazette. 17 July 1857. p. 2479.
  30. ^ "No. 22139". The London Gazette. 14 May 1858. p. 2404.
  31. ^ "No. 22171". The London Gazette. 6 August 1858. p. 3667.
  32. ^ "No. 21640". The London Gazette. 12 December 1854. p. 4051.
  33. ^ "No. 22087". The London Gazette. 26 January 1858. p. 365.
  34. ^ Wheatley, p. 165
  35. ^ "No. 22679". The London Gazette. 10 November 1862. p. 5343.
  36. ^ "Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde". Flickr. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  37. ^ "Your guide to the statues of George Square". Herald Scotland. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2014.


  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals, 1736–1997: A Biographical Dictionary. Barnsley: Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
  • Wheatley, Henry (2011). London Past and Present: Its History, Associations, and Traditions. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1108028080.
  • Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Victoria's Scottish Lion: The Life of Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde. History Press. ISBN 978-0750956857.

Further reading

  • Anon (1858). Narrative of the Indian Revolt from Its Outbreak to the Capture of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell. George Vickers.
  • Campbell, Colin (1851). Memorandum of the Part Taken by the Third Division of the Army of the Punjaub at the Battle of Chillianwala. Ridgway.
  • Shadwell, Lawrence (1881). The Life of Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde. Blackwood.
  • Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Victoria's Scottish Lion: The Life of Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde. UK: History Press. p. 496. ISBN 0-75095-685-2.


  • Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Sir Colin Campbell: Victoria’s Scottish Lion. Durbar (journal of the Indian Military Historical Society).
  • Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Sir Colin Campbell: The general who hated the Victoria Cross. Soldiers of the Queen (journal of the Victorian Military Society).
  • Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Scotland’s Forgotten Field Marshal. Celebrate Scotland.
  • Greenwood, Adrian (2015). Sir Colin Campbell: Command Denied. The War Correspondent (journal of the Crimean War Research Society).

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
John Frederick Ewart
Colonel of the 67th (the South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot
Succeeded by
Francis John Davies
Preceded by
Edward Parkinson
Colonel of the 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot
Succeeded by
William Sutherland
Preceded by
The Earl of Strafford
Colonel of the Coldstream Guards
Succeeded by
Sir William Gomm
Preceded by
New Post
GOC South-Eastern District
July 1856–September 1856
Succeeded by
Sir Frederick Love
Preceded by
Sir Patrick Grant
Commander-in-Chief, India
Succeeded by
The Lord Strathnairn
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Clyde

Copy with Malcolm Books of Thetford on ABEbooks website, & also in the British Library.

1863 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1863 in the United Kingdom.

67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot

The 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1756. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot to form the Hampshire Regiment (later the Royal Hampshire Regiment) in 1881.

Anthony Coningham Sterling

Colonel Sir Anthony Coningham Sterling KCB (1805–1871) was a British Army officer and historian, author of The Highland Brigade in the Crimea.

Arthur William Garnett

Arthur William Garnett (1829–1861) was an English military and civil engineer in India from the time of the Second Anglo-Sikh War until just after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

Baron Sandhurst

Baron Sandhurst, of Sandhurst in the County of Berkshire, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1870 for the soldier Sir William Mansfield, Commander-in-Chief of India between 1865 and 1870 and Commander-in-Chief of Ireland between 1870 and 1875. He was the grandson of Sir James Mansfield, Solicitor-General and Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. Lord Sandhurst's eldest son, the second Baron, was a Liberal politician and also served as Governor of Bombay. In 1917 he was created Viscount Sandhurst, of Sandhurst in the County of Berkshire, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. However, he had no surviving male issue and on his death in 1921 the viscountcy became extinct. He was succeeded in the barony by his younger brother, the third Baron. As of 2010 the title is held by the latter's great-grandson, the sixth Baron, who succeeded his father in 2002. He is a barrister and judge.

Carlo Marochetti

Baron Carlo (Charles) Marochetti (4 January 1805 – 29 December 1867) was an Italian-born French sculptor.

Clan MacIver

Clan MacIver or Clan MacIvor, also known as Clan Iver, is Scottish clan recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The clan, however, does not have a chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Because of this the clan can be considered an armigerous clan. The clan name of MacIver is of Gaelic origin, derived from an Old Norse personal name. Various forms of the surname MacIver, like MacGiver, are considered sept names (followers or members) of several historically large Scottish clans, such as clans Campbell and Mackenzie. There exists a Clan Iver society in Fife, Scotland.

Clyde, Georgia

Clyde is an extinct town in Bryan County, in the U.S. state of Georgia.

Clyde Road

Clyde Road (Irish: Bóthar Chluaidh) runs from Wellington Place to a junction with Elgin Road in Ballsbridge. It meets Raglan Road and Wellington Road.

The road is named after Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde (1792–1863), a Scottish soldier who fought in India during the Indian mutiny in 1857.

The embassy of the United States is at the crossroads with Pembroke Road in Ballsbridge, while the National Headquarters and training centre of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps are located at 32 Clyde Road, Ballsbridge, and the headquarters of The Institution of Engineers of Ireland is at 22 Clyde Road.

Colin (given name)

Colin is an English-language masculine given name. It has two distinct origins:

A diminutive form of "Colle", itself an Old French short form of the name Nicolas (Nicholas). This name, but not the anglicized Gaelic name, is also found in the spelling Collin. This name is formed by the Old French diminutive -in also found in Robin.

An anglicized form of the Gaelic name Cuilen, Cailean, modern Irish spelling Coileáin, meaning "whelp, cub". The Old Irish word for "whelp," is cuilén. The Scottish Gaelic name is recorded in the spelling Colin from as early as the 14th century. MacCailean was a patronymic used by Clan Campbell, after Cailean Mór (d. 1296).As a surname, Colin can be derived from the given name, but can also be of unrelated (French) origin.

The Irish patronymic Ó Coileáin gave rise to the surname Cullen (which is also the anglicization of the unrelated patronymic Ó Cuilinn).

Colin ranked 319th most popular name England and Wales in 1996 and 684th most popular in 2014. It has been moderately popular in the United States and was listed in the top 100 boys names in the U.S. in 2005. In Scotland it ranked 302 in 2014, but in Ireland it is more popular, ranking 88th in 2006.In the US, Colin has peaked in 2004 at rank 84, and has substantially declined since (rank 196 as of 2016).

The form Collin reached the peak of its popularity somewhat earlier, at rank 115 in 1996, and has declined to rank 298 as of 2016.

Taken together, the names Colin and Collin accounted for 0.16% (about 1 in 620) of boys named in the US in 2016, down from 0.4% (one in 250) in 2004.

HMS Lord Clyde (1864)

HMS Lord Clyde was the name ship of the wooden-hulled Lord Clyde class of armoured frigates built for the Royal Navy during the 1860s. She and her sister ship, Lord Warden, were the heaviest wooden ships ever built and were also the fastest steaming wooden ships. Lord Clyde was initially assigned to the Channel Fleet in 1866, but was transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1868. The ship suffered engine problems throughout her career and it needed to be replaced after only two years of service. She rejoined the Mediterranean Fleet in 1871, but was badly damaged when she ran aground the next year. When Lord Clyde was under repair, her hull was found to be rotten and she was sold for scrap in 1875

High School of Glasgow

The High School of Glasgow is an independent, co-educational day school in Glasgow, Scotland. The original High School of Glasgow was founded as the Choir School of Glasgow Cathedral in around 1124, and was the oldest school in Scotland, and the twelfth oldest in the United Kingdom until its closure in 1977. It remained part of the Church as the city's grammar school until coming under local authority control in 1872, and closed in 1977, when the private Drewsteighnton School adopted the name. The School maintains a relationship with the Cathedral, where it holds an annual Service of Commemoration and Thanksgiving in September. It counts two British Prime Ministers, two Lords President and the founder of the University of Aberdeen among its alumni.

It is a selective school, meaning prospective pupils must sit an entrance test to gain admission. In 2009, The Times placed it as the top independent school in Scotland for Higher and Standard Grade results, a rise from second place the year before, although it placed only sixth in Scotland when counted by Highers alone, a drop from fourth in the previous year.The Rector of the school is John O'Neill.

John Pennycuick (British Army infantry officer)

Brigadier John Pennycuick CB, KH (28 October 1789 – 13 January 1849) was an officer in the British Army who served in Java, Burma, Aden, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. He was born in Soilzarie in Perthshire and was killed at the Battle of Chillianwalla in the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

List of biographers

Biographers are authors who write an account of another person's life, while autobiographers are authors who write their own biography.

Lord Clyde

Lord Clyde may refer to

Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde (1792–1863), Scottish soldier

James Avon Clyde, Lord Clyde (1863–1944), Scottish Conservative politician and judge

James Latham Clyde, Lord Clyde (1898–1975), Scottish Unionist politician and judge

James John Clyde, Baron Clyde (1932–2009), Scottish judge in the House of Lords

SS Lord Clyde, a steamer built on the Clyde in 1862, sold as a blockade runner as Advance, and later in the US Navy

HMS Lord Clyde (1864), a class of steam ironclad warships of the Royal Navy

Lord Clyde-class ironclad, a class of steam ironclad warships of the Royal Navy named after HMS Lord Clyde

The Thin Red Line (Battle of Balaclava)

The Thin Red Line was a military action by the British Sutherland Highlanders 93rd (Highland) Regiment at the Battle of Balaklava on 25 October 1854, during the Crimean War. In this incident, around 200 men of the 93rd, aided by a small force of 100 walking wounded, 40 detached Guardsmen, and supported by a substantial force of Turkish infantrymen, led by Sir Colin Campbell, routed a Russian cavalry charge. Previously, Campbell's Highland Brigade had taken part in actions at the Battle of Alma and the Siege of Sevastopol. There were more Victoria Crosses presented to the Highland soldiers at that time than at any other. The event was lionized in the British press and became an icon of the qualities of the British soldier in a war that was arguably poorly managed and increasingly unpopular.

William Gleeson (priest)

Father William Gleeson was a Roman Catholic priest, missionary, linguist, and historian.

He was born 29 January 1827 in County Tipperary, Ireland, and was privately educated before entering All Hallows College at Drumcondra north of Dublin to prepare for missionary service. He was ordained in 1853.

Soon after his ordination, Father Gleeson volunteered for service in India and was sent to Agra under the supervision of Ignatius Persico. He was placed in charge of a nearby congregation at Saldana, where he learned Hindustani and the Persian language from his parishioners.

Father Gleeson was at Agra when it was taken by Tantya Tope during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and subsequently served as a chaplain to Catholic soldiers in the British Army. It was in this capacity that he became acquainted with Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde and Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet.

Unfortunately, a few years after peace was restored, a serious illness nearly deprived Father Gleeson of his voice and convinced him to leave India to accept a teaching position at Vincentians' College at Izmir in Turkey. There he learned Arabic.

Father Gleeson was eventually invited to spend a year doing missionary work in the Diocese of Salford in England, and three years in Glasgow, Scotland. But, the climate in those two places disagreed with him, and he accepted a calling to teach ancient languages at St. Mary's College of California by 1870.It was while teaching in San Francisco that Father Gleeson wrote his most famous work: History of the Catholic Church in California. It was published in 1872, a year after he had resumed parochial work in East Oakland, Fruitvale, and Alameda, California.

Father Gleeson continued to enjoy learning foreign languages as a pastor, including the Portuguese language of his parishioners and the Hebrew and Syro-Chaldaic writings he studied.

He died on his seventy-sixth birthday, 29 January 1903, having suffered a stroke four days earlier while preparing for late Sunday Mass at St. Anthony's Church. His funeral was held there on 31 January, with burial following at nearby St. Mary's Cemetery.

East India Company
British India

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