Coke (fuel)

Coke is a grey, hard, and porous fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, made by heating coal or oil in the absence of air — a destructive distillation process. It is an important industrial product, used mainly in iron ore smelting, but also as a fuel in stoves and forges when air pollution is a concern.

The unqualified term "coke" usually refers to the product derived from low-ash and low-sulfur bituminous coal by a process called coking. A similar product called petroleum coke, or pet coke, is obtained from crude oil in oil refineries. Coke may also be formed naturally by geologic processes.[1]

Koks Brennstoff
Raw coke



Historical sources dating to the 4th century describe the production of coke in ancient China.[2] The Chinese first used coke for heating and cooking no later than the ninth century. By the first decades of the eleventh century, Chinese ironworkers in the Yellow River valley began to fuel their furnaces with coke, solving their fuel problem in that tree-sparse region.[3]


In 1589, a patent was granted to Thomas Proctor and William Peterson for making iron and steel and melting lead with "earth-coal, sea-coal, turf, and peat". The patent contains a distinct allusion to the preparation of coal by "cooking". In 1590, a patent was granted to the Dean of York to "purify pit-coal and free it from its offensive smell".[4] In 1620, a patent was granted to a company composed of William St. John and other knights, mentioning the use of coke in smelting ores and manufacturing metals. In 1627, a patent was granted to Sir John Hacket and Octavius de Strada for a method of rendering sea-coal and pit-coal as useful as charcoal for burning in houses, without offense by smell or smoke.[5]

In 1603, Hugh Plat suggested that coal might be charred in a manner analogous to the way charcoal is produced from wood. This process was not employed until 1642, when coke was used for roasting malt in Derbyshire; previously, brewers had used wood, as uncoked coal cannot be used in brewing because its sulfurous fumes would impart a foul taste to the beer.[6] It was considered an improvement in quality, and brought about an "alteration which all England admired"—the coke process allowed for a lighter roast of the malt, leading to the creation of what by the end of the 17th century was called pale ale.[5]

In 1709, Abraham Darby I established a coke-fired blast furnace to produce cast iron. Coke's superior crushing strength allowed blast furnaces to become taller and larger. The ensuing availability of inexpensive iron was one of the factors leading to the Industrial Revolution. Before this time, iron-making used large quantities of charcoal, produced by burning wood. As the coppicing of forests became unable to meet the demand, the substitution of coke for charcoal became common in Great Britain, and coke was manufactured by burning coal in heaps on the ground so that only the outer layer burned, leaving the interior of the pile in a carbonized state. In the late 18th century, brick beehive ovens were developed, which allowed more control over the burning process.[7]

In 1768, John Wilkinson built a more practical oven for converting coal into coke.[8] Wilkinson improved the process by building the coal heaps around a low central chimney built of loose bricks and with openings for the combustion gases to enter, resulting in a higher yield of better coke. With greater skill in the firing, covering and quenching of the heaps, yields were increased from about 33% to 65% by the middle of the 19th century. The Scottish iron industry expanded rapidly in the second quarter of the 19th century, through the adoption of the hot-blast process in its coalfields.[9]

In 1802, a battery of beehives was set up near Sheffield, to coke the Silkstone seam for use in crucible steel melting. By 1870, there were 14,000 beehive ovens in operation on the West Durham coalfields, capable of producing 4,000,000 long tons (4,480,000 short tons; 4,060,000 t) of coke. As a measure of the extent of the expansion of coke making, it has been estimated that the requirements of the iron industry were about 1,000,000 long tons (1,120,000 short tons; 1,020,000 t) a year in the early 1850s, whereas by 1880 the figure had risen to 7,000,000 long tons (7,800,000 short tons; 7,100,000 t), of which about 5,000,000 long tons (5,600,000 short tons; 5,100,000 t) were produced in Durham county, 1,000,000 long tons (1,120,000 short tons; 1,020,000 t) in the South Wales coalfield, and 1,000,000 long tons (1,120,000 short tons; 1,020,000 t) in Yorkshire and Derbyshire.[9]

In the first years of steam railway locomotives, coke was the normal fuel. This resulted from an early piece of environmental legislation; any proposed locomotive had to "consume its own smoke".[10] This was not technically possible to achieve until the firebox arch came into use, but burning coke, with its low smoke emissions, was considered to meet the requirement. This rule was quietly dropped, and cheaper coal became the normal fuel, as railways gained acceptance among the public.

United States

Coke burning
Illustration of coal mining and coke burning from 1879.
Coal coking ovens at Cokedale, west of Trinidad, Colorado, supplied steel mills in Pueblo, Colorado.

In the US, the first use of coke in an iron furnace occurred around 1817 at Isaac Meason's Plumsock puddling furnace and rolling mill in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.[11] In the late 19th century, the coalfields of western Pennsylvania provided a rich source of raw material for coking. In 1885, the Rochester and Pittsburgh Coal and Iron Company[12] constructed the world's longest string of coke ovens in Walston, Pennsylvania, with 475 ovens over a length of 2 km (1.25 miles). Their output reached 22,000 tons per month. The Minersville Coke Ovens in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991.[13]

Between 1870 and 1905, the number of beehive ovens in the US skyrocketed from about 200 to almost 31,000, which produced nearly 18,000,000 tons of coke in the Pittsburgh area alone.[14] One observer boasted that if loaded into a train, “the year's production would make up a train so long that the engine in front of it would go to San Francisco and come back to Connellsville before the caboose had gotten started out of the Connellsville yards!” The number of beehive ovens in Pittsburgh peaked in 1910 at almost 48,000.[15]

Although it made a top-quality fuel, coking poisoned the surrounding landscape. After 1900, the serious environmental damage of beehive coking attracted national notice, although the damage had plagued the district for decades. “The smoke and gas from some ovens destroy all vegetation around the small mining communities,” noted W. J. Lauck of the U.S. Immigration Commission in 1911.[16] Passing through the region on train, University of Wisconsin president Charles van Hise saw “long rows of beehive ovens from which flame is bursting and dense clouds of smoke issuing, making the sky dark. By night the scene is rendered indescribably vivid by these numerous burning pits. The beehive ovens make the entire region of coke manufacture one of dulled sky: cheerless and unhealthful." [16]


Industrial coke furnaces

Coke Ovens Abercwmboi
Coke oven at smokeless fuel plant, Abercwmboi, South Wales, 1976

The industrial production of coke from coal is called coking. The coal is baked in an airless kiln, a "coke furnace" or "coking oven", at temperatures as high as 2,000 °C (3,600 °F) but usually around 1,000–1,100 °C (1,800–2,000 °F).[17] This process vaporizes or decomposes organic substances in the coal, driving off volatile products, including water, in the form of coal-gas and coal-tar. The non-volatile residue of the decomposition is mostly carbon, in the form of a hard somewhat glassy solid that cements together the original coal particles and minerals.

Some facilities have "by-product" coking ovens in which the volatile decomposition products are collected, purified and separated for use in other industries, as fuel or chemical feedstocks. Otherwise the volatile byproducts are burned to heat the coking ovens. This is an older method, but is still being used for new construction.[18]

Bituminous coal must meet a set of criteria for use as coking coal, determined by particular coal assay techniques. These include moisture content, ash content, sulfur content, volatile content, tar, and plasticity. This blending is targeted at producing a coke of appropriate strength (generally measured by coke strength after reaction), while losing an appropriate amount of mass. Other blending considerations include ensuring the coke doesn't swell too much during production and destroy the coke oven through excessive wall pressures.

The greater the volatile matter in coal, the more by-product can be produced. It is generally considered that levels of 26–29% of volatile matter in the coal blend are good for coking purposes. Thus different types of coal are proportionally blended to reach acceptable levels of volatility before the coking process begins.

Coking coal is different from thermal coal, but it differs not by the coal forming process. Coking coal has different macerals from thermal coal. Based on the ash percentage coking coal can be divided into various grades. These grades are:

  • Steel Grade I (Ash content not exceeding 15%)
  • Steel Grade II (Exceeding 15% but not exceeding 18%)
  • Washery Grade I (Exceeding 18% but not exceeding 21%)
  • Washery Grade II (Exceeding 21% but not exceeding 24%)
  • Washery Grade III (Exceeding 24% but not exceeding 28%)
  • Washery Grade IV (Exceeding 28% but not exceeding 35%)[19]

The different macerals are related to source of material that compose the coal. However, the coke is of wildly varying strength and ash content and is generally considered unsellable except in some cases as a thermal product. As it has lost its volatile matter, it has lost the ability to be coked again.

The "hearth" process

The "hearth" process of coke-making, using lump coal, was akin to that of charcoal-burning; instead of a heap of prepared wood, covered with twigs, leaves and earth, there was a heap of coals, covered with coke dust. The hearth process continued to be used in many areas during the first half of the 19th century, but two events greatly lessened its importance. These were the invention of the hot blast in iron-smelting and the introduction of the beehive coke oven. The use of a blast of hot air, instead of cold air, in the smelting furnace was first introduced by Neilson in Scotland in 1828.[9] The hearth process of making coke from coal is a very lengthy process.

Beehive coke oven

Coke ovens and coal tipple, Fayette County, Penn (68762)
Coke ovens and coal tipple in Pennsylvania

A fire brick chamber shaped like a dome is used, commonly known as a beehive oven. It is typically 4 meters (13.1 ft) wide and 2.5 meters (8.2 ft) high. The roof has a hole for charging the coal or other kindling from the top. The discharging hole is provided in the circumference of the lower part of the wall. In a coke oven battery, a number of ovens are built in a row with common walls between neighboring ovens. A battery consisted of a great many ovens, sometimes hundreds, in a row.[20]

Coal is introduced from the top to produce an even layer of about 60 to 90 centimeters (24 to 35 in) deep. Air is supplied initially to ignite the coal. Carbonization starts and produces volatile matter, which burns inside the partially closed side door. Carbonization proceeds from top to bottom and is completed in two to three days. Heat is supplied by the burning volatile matter so no by-products are recovered. The exhaust gases are allowed to escape to the atmosphere. The hot coke is quenched with water and discharged, manually through the side door. The walls and roof retain enough heat to initiate carbonization of the next charge.

When coal was burned in a coke oven, the impurities of the coal not already driven off as gases accumulated to form slag, which was effectively a conglomeration of the removed impurities. Since it was not the desired coke product, slag was initially nothing more than an unwanted by-product and was discarded. Later, however, it was found to have many beneficial uses and has since been used as an ingredient in brick-making, mixed cement, granule-covered shingles, and even as a fertilizer.[21]

Occupational safety

People can be exposed to coke oven emissions in the workplace by inhalation, skin contact, or eye contact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit for coke oven emissions exposure in the workplace as 0.150 mg/m3 benzene-soluble fraction over an eight-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a Recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.2 mg/m3 benzene-soluble fraction over an eight-hour workday.[22]


Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.[23] The carbon monoxide produced by its combustion reduces iron oxide (hematite) in the production of the iron product. ( )

Coke is commonly used as fuel for blacksmithing.

Coke was used in Australia in the 1960s and early 1970s for house heating.

Since smoke-producing constituents are driven off during the coking of coal, coke forms a desirable fuel for stoves and furnaces in which conditions are not suitable for the complete burning of bituminous coal itself. Coke may be combusted producing little or no smoke, while bituminous coal would produce much smoke. Coke was widely used as a substitute for coal in domestic heating following the creation of smokeless zones in the United Kingdom.

Highland Park distillery in Orkney roasts malted barley for use in their Scotch whisky in kilns burning a mixture of coke and peat.[24]

Coke may be used to make synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

Phenolic byproducts

Wastewater from coking is highly toxic and carcinogenic. It contains phenolic, aromatic, heterocyclic, and polycyclic organics, and inorganics including cyanides, sulfides, ammonium and ammonia.[25] Various methods for its treatment have been studied in recent years.[26][27][28] The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium can remove up to 80% of phenols from coking waste water.[29]


Hanna furnaces of the Great Lakes Steel Corporation, Detroit. Coal tower atop coke ovens. November 1942

The bulk specific gravity of coke is typically around 0.77. It is highly porous.

The most important properties of coke are ash and sulfur content, which are dependent on the coal used for production. Coke with less ash and sulfur content is highly priced on the market. Other important characteristics are the M10, M25, and M40 test crush indexes, which convey the strength of coke during transportation into the blast furnaces; depending on blast furnaces size, finely crushed coke pieces must not be allowed into the blast furnaces because they would impede the flow of gas through the charge of iron and coke. A related characteristic is the Coke Strength After Reaction (CSR) index; it represents coke's ability to withstand the violent conditions inside the blast furnace before turning into fine particles.

The water content in coke is practically zero at the end of the coking process, but it is often water quenched so that it can be transported to the blast furnaces. The porous structure of coke absorbs some water, usually 3–6% of its mass. In more modern coke plants an advanced method of coke cooling uses air quenching.

Bituminous coal must meet a set of criteria for use as coking coal, determined by particular coal assay techniques. See Section "Production".

Other processes

The solid residue remaining from refinement of petroleum by the "cracking" process is also a form of coke. Petroleum coke has many uses besides being a fuel, such as the manufacture of dry cells and of electrolytic and welding electrodes.

Gas works manufacturing syngas also produce coke as an end product, called gas house coke.

Fluid coking is a process which converts heavy residual crude into lighter products such as naphtha, kerosene, heating oil, and hydrocarbon gases. The "fluid" term refers to the fact that solid coke particles behave as a fluid solid in the continuous fluid coking process versus the older batch delayed-coking process where a solid mass of coke builds up in the coke drum over time.

See also


  1. ^ B. Kwiecińska and H. I. Petersen (2004): "Graphite, semi-graphite, natural coke, and natural char classification — ICCP system". International Journal of Coal Geology, volume 57, issue 2, pages 99-116. doi:10.1016/j.coal.2003.09.003
  2. ^ The Coming of the Ages of Steel. Brill Archive. 1961. p. 55. GGKEY:DN6SZTCNQ3G. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013. Historic sources mention the use of coke in the fourth century AD
  3. ^ McNeil, William H. The Pursuit of Power. University of Chicago Press, 1982, pp. 26, 33, and 45.
  4. ^ "CCHC—Your Portal to the Past". Coal and Coke Heritage Center. Penn State Fayette, The Eberly Campus. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  5. ^ a b Peckham, Stephen (1880). Special Reports on Petroleum, Coke, and Building Stones. United States Census Office. 10th census. p. 53.
  6. ^ Nersesian, Roy L (2010). "Coal and the Industrial Revolution". Energy for the 21st century (2 ed.). Armonk, NY: Sharpe. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-7656-2413-0.
  7. ^ Cooper, Eileen Mountjoy. "History of Coke". Special Collections & Archives: Coal Dust, the Early Mining Industry of Indiana County. Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 2015-02-10.
  8. ^ Wittcoff, M.M. Green ; H.A. (2003). Organic chemistry principles and industrial practice (1. ed., 1. reprint. ed.). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-30289-5.
  9. ^ a b c Beaver, S. H. (1951). "Coke Manufacture in Great Britain: A Study in Industrial Geography". Transactions and Papers (Institute of British Geographers). The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers (17): 133–48. doi:10.2307/621295. JSTOR 621295.
  10. ^ 8 & 9 Vict. cap. 20 (Railway Clauses Consolidation Act, 1845) section 114
  11. ^ DiCiccio, Carmen. Coal and Coke in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission.
  12. ^ A subsidiary of the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway.
  13. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  14. ^ Eavenson, Howard N. (1942). The First Century and a Quarter of American Coal Industry. Pittsburgh, PA: Waverly Press.
  15. ^ Warren, Kenneth (2001). Wealth, Waste, and Alienation: Growth and Decline in the Connellsville Coke Industry. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.
  16. ^ a b Martin, Scott C. Killing Time: Leisure and Culture in Southwestern Pennsylvania, 1800–1850. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  17. ^ "Coal and Steel". World Coal Association. 2015-04-28. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.
  18. ^ "Cokemaking: The SunCoke Way". Archived from the original on 2016-06-03.
  19. ^ "Coal Grades" Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine,"Ministry of Coal"
  20. ^ "Manufacture of Coke at Salem No. 1 Mine Coke Works". Pathoftheoldminer. Archived from the original on 2013-07-03.
  21. ^ "Coke Ovens". The Friends of the Cumberland Trail. Archived from the original on 2012-06-25.
  22. ^ "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Coke oven emissions". Archived from the original on 2015-11-23. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  23. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Coke" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 657.
  24. ^ The Scotch Malt Whisky Society: Highland Park: Where the peat still reeks in the old way "The Scotch Malt Whisky Society - USA". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  25. ^ "Cutting-Edge Solutions For Coking Wastewater Reuse To Meet The Standard Of Circulation Cooling Systems". Archived from the original on 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2016-01-16.
  26. ^ Jin, Xuewen; Li, Enchao; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Sui, Qian (2013-08-01). "Coking wastewater treatment for industrial reuse purpose: Combining biological processes with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis". Journal of Environmental Sciences. 25 (8): 1565–74. doi:10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60212-5.
  27. ^ Güçlü, Dünyamin; Şirin, Nazan; Şahinkaya, Serkan; Sevimli, Mehmet Faik (2013-07-01). "Advanced treatment of coking wastewater by conventional and modified fenton processes". Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 32 (2): 176–80. doi:10.1002/ep.10626. ISSN 1944-7450.
  28. ^ Wei, Qing; Qiao, Shufeng; Sun, Baochang; Zou, Haikui; Chen, Jianfeng; Shao, Lei (2015-10-29). "Study on the treatment of simulated coking wastewater by O3 and O3/Fenton processes in a rotating packed bed". RSC Advances. 5 (113): 93386–93393. doi:10.1039/C5RA14198B.
  29. ^ Lu, Y; Yan, L; Wang, Y; Zhou, S; Fu, J; Zhang, J (2009). "Biodegradation of phenolic compounds from coking wastewater by immobilized white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 165 (1–3): 1091–97. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.10.091. PMID 19062164.

1709 (MDCCIX)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1709th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 709th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1709, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1709 in Great Britain

Events from the year 1709 in Great Britain.

1709 in science

The year 1709 in science and technology involved some significant events.

Calumet, Pennsylvania

Calumet is a census-designated place in Mount Pleasant Township, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States. Although the United States Census Bureau included it as a census-designated place with the nearby community of Norvelt for the 2000 census, they are in reality two very different communities, each reflecting a different chapter in how the Great Depression affected rural Pennsylvanians. As of the 2010 census, Calumet-Norvelt was divided into two separate CDPs officially. Calumet was a typical "patch town," another name for a coal town, built by a single company to house coal miners as cheaply as possible. The closing of the Calumet mine during the Great Depression caused enormous hardship in an era when unemployment compensation and welfare payments were nonexistent. On the other hand, Norvelt was created during the depression by the US federal government as a model community, intended to increase the standard of living of laid-off coal miners.


Carbonization is the conversion of organic matters like plants and dead animal remains into carbon through destructive distillation.


Char is the solid material that remains after light gases (e.g. coal gas) and tar have been driven out or released from a carbonaceous material during the initial stage of combustion, which is known as carbonization, charring, devolatilization or pyrolysis.

Further stages of efficient combustion (with or without char deposits) are known as gasification reactions, ending quickly when the reversible gas phase of the water gas shift reaction is reached.

De Arend (locomotive)

De Arend (Dutch pronunciation: [də ˈʔaːrənt]; the eagle) was one of the two first steam locomotives in the Netherlands. It was a 2-2-2 Patentee type built in England by R. B. Longridge and Company of Bedlington, Northumberland to run on the then standard Dutch track gauge of 1,945 mm (6 ft 4 9⁄16 in). On 20 September 1839, together with the Snelheid (Dutch for speed), it hauled the first train of the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij between Amsterdam and Haarlem. It was withdrawn in 1857.

In 1939 a replica of the De Arend was constructed for the 100th anniversary of the Dutch railways. It is displayed at the Nederlands Spoorwegmuseum (Dutch Railway Museum) in Utrecht.

Green coke

Green coke (raw coke) is the primary solid carbonization product from high boiling hydrocarbon fractions obtained at temperatures below 900 K. It contains a fraction of matter that can be released as volatiles during subsequent heat treatment at temperatures up to approximately 1600 K. This mass fraction, called volatile matter, is in the case of green coke between 4 and 15 wt.%, but it depends also on the heating rate.

Raw coke is an equivalent term to green coke although it is now less frequently used. The proportion of volatile matter of green coke depends on temperature and time of cooking, but also on the method for its determination.

Haltwhistle Burn

The Haltwhistle Burn is a river which lies to the east of the Northumbrian town of Haltwhistle. Rising in the peaty uplands below the ridge of the Whin Sill, the burn passes through the Roman Military Zone south of Hadrian's Wall and through a dramatic sandstone gorge before descending between wooded banks to the South Tyne Valley. The Haltwhistle Burn drains an area of approximately 42 km2. Today the Burn is a haven for wildlife and a popular walk for residents and tourists but from Roman times until the 1930s the combination of valuable minerals and water power attracted a succession of industries which provided goods and employment to the town.

Heinz Strunk

Heinz Strunk, legal name Mathias Halfpape (born 17 May 1962 in Hamburg) is a German entertainer, author, actor, musician and member of comedy trio Studio Braun. Strunk’s comedy ranges from goofy prank calls to biting political and cultural satire, often involving music. Strunk plays the saxophone, flute, accordion and keyboards.

Strunk has released three audio albums with Studio Braun containing prank phone calls. An example of such calls include Strunk calling a coal merchant to order coke, where he means cocaine but the coal merchant understands coke fuel. In another call, Strunk phones a resident of rural Saxony, an area known for a strong regional accent, to offer him free elocution lessons to “correct” his Saxon accent. Strunk claims to represent a fictional charity for Hamburg residents to “help” Saxony.

In 2003 Studio Braun released the song Komputerfreak, which takes a serious look at the washed-up lives and addictive/compulsive personalities of those who spend large amounts of time using computers.

In 2004 Strunk’s comic novel Fleisch ist mein Gemüse (Meat is my vegetable) was published, based on his own youth as a musician in various small-time bands in the 1980s. The film of the book was released in 2008, directed by Christian Görlitz and filmed in and around Hamburg. In 2010 the novel was adapted into a stage play.

The writer and actor has an alter ego called Jürgen Dose. His works often deal with social outcasts and the bleakness of everyday life.

Strunk is a member of the German satirical political party Die PARTEI (“The PARTY”).

In 2016 Strunk’s highly praised novel Der goldene Handschuh (The Golden Glove) was published. The bestseller tells the story of the German serial killer Fritz Honka. Strunk won the Wilhelm Raabe Literature Prize and was nominated for the Leipzig Book Fair Prize. German director Fatih Akin acquired the film rights to make a movie based on Der goldene Handschuh. The eponymous film was released in 2019 and received mixed critical reviews.

List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans. This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity.

Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania

There are also five Mount Pleasant Townships in Pennsylvania.

For the Unincorporated Communtiy in Bucks County, see Mount Pleasant, Bucks County, PennsylvaniaMount Pleasant is a borough in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, United States. It stands 45 miles (72 km) southeast of Pittsburgh. As of the 2010 census, the borough's population was 4,454.

The Borough of Mount Pleasant, consisting of the town area, should not be confused with Mount Pleasant Township, which is an entirely separate municipality. Mount Pleasant Township is predominantly rural and adjoins the borough to the north.

In the past, Mount Pleasant was a center of an extensive coke-making industry. Other products included flour, lumber, iron, glass, foundry products, etc.

SER 235 class

The SER 235 class was a class of 0-4-4T steam locomotives on the South Eastern Railway. Introduced in 1866, they were the first locomotives of this wheel arrangement to be built for an English railway.

Scottdale, Pennsylvania

Scottdale is a borough in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, 49 miles (79 km) southeast of Pittsburgh.

Early in the 20th century, Scottdale was the center of the Frick coke interests. It had steel and iron pipe mills, brass and silver works, a casket factory, a large milk-pasteurizing plant, and machine shops; all of the aforementioned are presently defunct. Scottdale is notable for its economic decline from a formerly prosperous coke-town into an archetypal Rust Belt town. Duraloy Technologies, "a supplier of specialty high alloy, centrifugal and static cast components and assemblies" is the last remnant of Scottdale's steel related prosperity.

In 1900, 4,261 people lived in Scottdale; in 1910, the population increased to 5,456; and in 1940, 6,493 people lived in Scottdale. The population was 4,772 at the 2000 census. Scottdale is located in the Southmoreland School District.


Ternium S.A. is a manufacturer of flat and long steel products with production centers in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and the United States. It is the leading steel company in Latin America with highly integrated processes to manufacture steel and value-added products. Along with Nippon Steel and Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Ternium owns Usiminas of Brazil. The company has an annual production capacity of 12.4 million tons.The company takes its name from the Latin words Ter (three) and Eternium (eternal) in reference to the integration of the three steel mills.

Ural economic region

Ural Economic Region (Russian: Ура́льский экономи́ческий райо́н, romanized: Uralsky ekonomichesky rayon) is one of twelve economic regions of Russia. This prominent industrial region consists of the following subdivisions (with their administrative centers): Bashkortostan (Ufa), Chelyabinsk Oblast (Chelyabinsk), Kurgan Oblast (Kurgan), Orenburg Oblast (Orenburg), Perm Krai (Perm), Sverdlovsk Oblast (Yekaterinburg) and Udmurt Republic (Izhevsk). It is mostly located in the Central, and partly in the Southern and Northern parts of the Urals, but also includes parts of the East European and West Siberian Plains. Its extent is different from that of the Ural Federal District; Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast. Perm Krai and Udmurtia are in the Volga Federal District while the other three are in the Ural Federal District.

Walter Energy

Walter Energy, Inc. was a publicly traded "pure play" metallurgical coal producer for the global steel industry. The company also produced natural gas, steam coal and industrial coal, anthracite, metallurgical coke, and coal bed methane gas. Corporate and U.S. headquarters were located in Birmingham, Alabama, and its Canadian & UK headquarters in Vancouver, British Columbia. Walter Energy filed for bankruptcy in 2015 and its assets were purchased by Warrior Met Coal.


Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. With the formula (CH3)2C6H4, each of the three compounds has a central benzene ring with two methyl groups attached at substituents. They are all colorless, flammable liquids, some of which are of great industrial value. The mixture is referred to as both xylene and, more precisely, xylenes.

Coal types by grade
(lowest to highest)
Coal combustion
Coal mining

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