Coin collecting

Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender.

Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a brief time, coins with mint errors and especially beautiful or historically significant pieces. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismatics, in that the latter is the systematic study of currency.

A coin's grade is a main determinant of its value. For a tiered fee, a third party certification service like PCGS or NGC will grade, authenticate, attribute, and encapsulate most U.S. and foreign coins. Over 80 million coins have been certified by the four largest services.


People have hoarded coins for their bullion value for as long as coins have been minted.[1] However, the collection of coins for their artistic value was a later development. Evidence from the archaeological and historical record of Ancient Rome and medieval Mesopotamia[2] indicates that coins were collected and catalogued by scholars and state treasuries. It also seems probable that individual citizens collected old, exotic or commemorative coins as an affordable, portable form of art.[3] According to Suetonius in his De vita Caesarum (The Lives of the Twelve Caesars), written in the first century CE, the emperor Augustus sometimes presented old and exotic coins to friends and courtiers during festivals and other special occasions.[4]

Contemporary coin collecting and appreciation began around the fourteenth century. During the Renaissance, it became a fad among some members of the privileged classes, especially kings and queens. The Italian scholar and poet Petrarch is credited with being the pursuit's first and most famous aficionado. Following his lead, many European kings, princes, and other nobility kept collections of ancient coins. Some notable collectors were Pope Boniface VIII, Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire, Louis XIV of France, Ferdinand I, Henry IV of France and Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg, who started the Berlin Coin Cabinet (German: Münzkabinett Berlin). Perhaps because only the very wealthy could afford the pursuit, in Renaissance times coin collecting became known as the "Hobby of Kings."[5][6][7]

During the 17th and 18th centuries coin collecting remained a pursuit of the well-to-do. But rational, Enlightenment thinking led to a more systematic approach to accumulation and study. Numismatics as an academic discipline emerged in these centuries at the same time as coin collecting became a leisure pursuit of a growing middle class, eager to prove their wealth and sophistication. During the 19th and 20th centuries, coin collecting increased further in popularity. The market for coins expanded to include not only antique coins, but foreign or otherwise exotic currency. Coin shows, trade associations, and regulatory bodies emerged during these decades.[3] The first international convention for coin collectors was held 15–18 August 1962, in Detroit, Michigan, and was sponsored by the American Numismatic Association and the Royal Canadian Numismatic Association. Attendance was estimated at 40,000.[5] As one of the oldest and most popular world pastimes, coin collecting is now often referred to as the "King of Hobbies".[8][9]


Two 20kr gold coins
Two 20 kr gold coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union.

The motivations for collecting vary from one person to another. Possibly the most common type of collectors are the hobbyists, who amass a collection purely for the pleasure of it with no real expectation of profit.

Another frequent reason for purchasing coins is as an investment. As with stamps, precious metals or other commodities, coin prices are periodical based on supply and demand. Prices drop for coins that are not in long-term demand, and increase along with a coin's perceived or intrinsic value. Investors buy with the expectation that the value of their purchase will increase over the long term. As with all types of investment, the principle of caveat emptor applies and study is recommended before buying. Likewise, as with most collectibles, a coin collection does not produce income until it is sold, and may even incur costs (for example, the cost of safe deposit box storage) in the interim.[10]

Coin hoarders may be similar to investors in the sense that they accumulate coins for potential long-term profit. However, unlike investors, they typically do not take into account aesthetic considerations; rather they gather whatever quantity of coins they can and hold them. This is most common with coins whose metal value exceeds their spending value.[11]

Speculators, be they amateurs or commercial buyers, generally purchase coins in bulk and often act with the expectation of short-term profit. They may wish to take advantage of a spike in demand for a particular coin (for example, during the annual release of Canadian numismatic collectibles from the Royal Canadian Mint). The speculator might hope to buy the coin in large lots and sell at profit within weeks or months.[10] Speculators may also buy common circulation coins for their intrinsic metal value. Coins without collectible value may be melted down or distributed as bullion for commercial purposes. Typically they purchase coins that are composed of rare or precious metals, or coins that have a high purity of a specific metal.[12]

A final type of collector is the inheritor, an accidental collector who acquires coins from another person as part of an inheritance. The inheritor type may not necessarily have an interest in or know anything about numismatics at the time of the acquisition.[12]

Collector types

Casual coin collectors often begin the hobby by saving notable coins found by chance. These coins may be pocket change left from an international trip or an old coin found in circulation.

Usually, if the enthusiasm of the novice increases over time, random coins found in circulation are not enough to satisfy their interest. The hobbyist may then trade coins in a coin club or buy coins from dealers or mints. Their collection then takes on a more specific focus.

Some enthusiasts become generalists and accumulate a few examples from a broad variety of historical or geographically significant coins. Given enough resources, this can result in a vast collection. King Farouk of Egypt was a generalist with a collection famous for its scope and variety.[13]

Most collectors decide to focus their financial resources on a narrower, specialist interest. Some collectors focus on coins of a certain nation or historic period. Some collect coins by themes (or 'subjects') that are featured on the artwork displayed on the coin.[14] Others will seek error coins. Still others might focus on exonumia such as medals, tokens or challenge coins. Some collectors are completists and seek an example of every type of coin within a certain category. Perhaps the most famous of these is Louis Eliasberg, the only collector thus far to assemble a complete set of known coins of the United States.

Coin collecting can become a competitive activity, as prompted by the recent emergence of PCGS (Professional Coin Grading Service) and NGC (Numismatic Guarantee Corporation) Registry Sets. Registry Sets are private collections of coins verified for ownership and quality by numismatic grading services. The grading services assess collections, seal the coins in clear plastic holders, then register and publish the results. This can lead to very high prices as dedicated collectors compete for the very best specimens of, for example, each date and mint mark combination.[15][16]

Common themes

Some coins of Ceylon
Eagle coins
Coins featuring eagles

A few common themes are often combined into a collection goal:

  • Country collections: Many enthusiasts focus their collection on only a single country—often their own. In contrast, some collectors attempt to obtain a sample from every country that has issued a coin.[17]
  • Year collections: Rather than being satisfied with a single specimen of a type, a great many collectors collect type by year; for example, one Memorial Lincoln Cent for every year from 1959 (the year it was first minted) to 2008 (the last year it was minted). This is perhaps one of the most practical ways to collect a national currency since probably the majority of coin reference books and coin albums catalogue in the same manner.[18]
  • Mint mark collections: Many collectors consider different mint marks significant enough to justify representation in their collection. When collecting coins by year, this multiplies the number of specimens needed to complete a collection. Some mint marks are more common than others.[19]
  • Variety collections: Because mints generally issue thousands or millions of any given coin, they use multiple sets of coin dies to produce the same coin. Occasionally these dies have slight differences. This was more common on older coins because the coin dies were hand carved. But differences—intentional or accidental—still exist on coins today. Generally this is in a very small detail, such as the number of leaves on the ear of corn on the recent US Wisconsin state quarter File:2004 WI Proof.png.
  • Type collections: Often a collection consists of an examples of major design variants for a period of time in one country or region. For example, United States coinage type set, Euro coins carry a "common side" that shows the denomination and a "national side" that varies in design from state to state within the Eurozone. Likewise, a type collection might focus on an unusual design feature such as coins with a hole in the middle, coins that are not circular in shape or coins with brockage.[20]
  • Composition collections: For some, the metallurgical composition of the coin itself is of interest. For example, a collector might collect only bimetallic coins. Precious metals like gold, silver, copper and platinum are of frequent interest to collectors, but enthusiasts also pursue historically significant pieces like the 1943 steel cent or the 1974 aluminum cent.[21] (Note that because the latter example was a pattern coin (a proposed design that was never produced for circulation) the U.S. Government considers private ownership of the 1974 aluminum cent illegal.)
  • Subject collections: Collectors with an interest in a certain theme or subject (such as, ships or eagles) may collect only coins depicting that interest.[19][22]
  • Period collections: Collectors may restrict themselves to coins of the 18th or 19th century, while others collect ancient and medieval coins. Coins of Roman, Byzantine, Greek origin are amongst the more popular ancient coins collected.[23] Some collect coins minted during a particular ruler's reign or a representative coin from each ruler. Collectors may also take interest in money issued during the administration of a historically significant bureaucrat such as a central bank governor, treasurer or finance secretary. For example, Reserve Bank of India governor James Braid Taylor presided over the country's move from silver currency to fiat money.[24] Coins reflect the events of the time in which they are produced, so coins issued during historically important periods are especially interesting to collectors.[21]
  • Printed value collections: A currency collection might be modeled around the theme of a specific printed value, for example, the number 1. This collection might include specimens of the US 1 dollar coin, the Canadian Loonie, the Euro, 1 Indian rupee and 1 Singapore dollar.
  • Volume collections (Hoards): Collectors may have an interest in acquiring large volumes of a particular coins (e.g., as many pennies as they can store). These usually are not high-value coins, but the interest is in collecting a large volume of them either for the sake of the challenge, as a store of value, or in the hope that the intrinsic metal value will increase.[11]
Italia 20 lire argento Mussolini
A false 20 Lira coin, 1927. With the head of Benito Mussolini on the obverse, this is an obvious copy. Italian coins during the fascist period bore the portrait of King Victor Emmanuel III.[25][26]
  • Copy collections: Some collectors enjoy acquiring copies of coins, sometimes to complement the authentic coins in their collections. Copies might be:[27][28][29][30]
    • contemporaneous ancient copies minted as official coins by other cities or rulers
    • contemporaneous ancient copies minted as counterfeits (often gold- or silver-plated) to fool merchants and consumers
    • contemporaneous modern copies minted as counterfeits to fool merchants and consumers
    • modern copies of older coins minted as forgeries to fool collectors
    • modern copies sold as replicas (often, but not always, marked as such)
    • modern copies minted for museums to be displayed instead of the originals
    • modern copies made to be used in jewelry
    • modern copies as official circulating coins that pay tribute to the original coin
    • modern copies as bullion collectable coins that pay tribute to the original coin
    • modern copies as medals or tokens that pay tribute to the original coin

Collecting counterfeits and forgeries is a controversial area because of the possibility that counterfeits might someday reenter the coin market as authentic coins, but US statutory and case law do not explicitly prohibit possession of counterfeit coins.[23]

  • Geo-Political collections : Some individuals enjoy collecting coins from various nations which were once united by one dominant Geo-political force or movement. Examples include communist states such as the (PRC China) and the Soviet Union and satellite or constituent nations which shared similar iconography. Another common Geo-political coin collection may include coins from nations within the former and current British Empire, such as Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Samoa, Canada, nations of the Caribbean, South Africa, Rhodesia, and other nations from Africa and South America, as well as Asia, such as Hong Kong and Europe, for example Northern Ireland a.k.a. "the Provence". Such collections can be broken down into geographical regions, such as British territories in Europe, from Africa, from Asia, the Americas, or from the Pacific, and even the smaller region of Oceania. Such coin collections can include a wide variety of coin shape and constituent materials, on the other hand they can also include periods where coins were very similar either in/or both composition and dimensions, with one face of the coin depicting local variance. There are many different Geo-political movements/ forces to choose from, including political movements such as Communism Fascism and Nationalism, and Empires such as those of the great European expansionists including England, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal. Collectors of coins from empires have a wide time-span to choose from as there have been various forms of empire for thousands of years, with different regions changing hands between them.
  • Aesthetic collections : Some collections consist of coins which could fit into the other categories, and on coin grading may be graded poorly due to not conforming to their systems. These collections are made up of coins which are pleasing to the owner and to others not due to perfect condition, but rather due to the uniqueness of the coin based on several factors. These can include patinas which form from being exposed to acidic or basic environments (such as soil, when coins are excavated), and warping or wearing which come from use in circulation. Very interesting patinas and patterns can form on coins which have been naturally expose to environments which can affect the contents of the coin. Examples include naturally blackened Victorian pennies, which have only the most raised surface showing the underlying copper, meaning that the head is clearly presented.[31] Many collectors often find discolored coins from the same year which are remarkably different, which makes for added categorization and enjoyment.
These sorts of collections are not enjoyed by mainstream collectors and traditional collectors, even though they themselves may have in the past or continue to have pieces which could be considered part of an aesthetic collection. One of the issues with this category is that the coins can be seen to have less perceived value to speculators and appraisers. Secondly the coins may be produced artificially, that is coins can be exposed to substances which can create effects similar to those sought for aesthetic collections. This means that coins which may be worth more to historians, numismatists and collectors for their purposes will be destroyed by the process.

Grade and value

In coin collecting, the condition of a coin (its grade) is paramount to its value; a high-quality example is often worth many times more than a poor example. Collectors have created systems to describe the overall condition of coins.

In the early days of coin collecting—before the development of a large international coin market—extremely precise grades were not needed. Coins were described using only three adjectives: "good," "fine" or "uncirculated". By the mid 20th century, with the growing market for rare coins, the American Numismatic Association helps identify most coins in North America. It uses a 1–70 numbering scale, where 70 represents a perfect specimen and 1 represents a barely identifiable coin. Descriptions and numeric grades for coins (from highest to lowest) is as follows:[32][33][34]

Deutsche Mark Anaglyph 1
This Deutsche Mark coin shows blemishes and rim dents that would detract from its grade in appraisal. 3d glasses red cyan.svg 3D red cyan glasses are recommended to view this image correctly.
  • Mint State (MS) 60–70: Uncirculated (UNC)
  • About/Almost Uncirculated (AU) 50, 53, 55, 58
  • Extremely Fine (XF or EF) 40, 45
  • Very Fine (VF) 20, 25, 30, 35
  • Fine (F) 12, 15
  • Very Good (VG) 8, 10
  • Good (G) 4, 6
  • About Good (AG) 3
  • Fair (F) 2
  • Poor (P) 1

In addition to the rating of coins by their wear, Proof coinage occurs as a separate category. These are specimens struck from polished dies and are often packaged and sold by mints. This is frequently done for Commemorative coins, though annual proof sets of circulating coinage may be issued as well. Unless mishandled, they will stay in Mint State. Collectors often desire both the proof and regular ("business strike") issues of a coin, though the difference in price between the two may be significant. Additionally, proof coins follow the same 1-70 grading scale as business strike coins, though they use the PR or PF prefix.

Coin experts in Europe and elsewhere often shun the numerical system, preferring to rate specimens on a purely descriptive, or adjectival, scale. Nevertheless, most grading systems use similar terminology and values and remain mutually intelligible.[35][36][37]

When evaluating a coin, the following—often subjective—factors may be considered:

  1. "eye appeal" or the aesthetic interest of the coin;
  2. dents on the rim;
  3. unsightly scratches or other blemishes on the surface of the coin;
  4. luster;
  5. toning;
  6. level of detail retained, where a coin with full details obviously is valued higher than one with worn details. If the coin is judged favorably in all of these criteria, it will generally be awarded a higher grade.[32]

Damage of any sort (e.g., holes, edge dents, repairs, cleaning, re-engraving or gouges) can substantially reduce the value of a coin. Specimens are occasionally cleaned or polished in an attempt to pass them off as higher grades or as uncirculated strikes. Because of the substantially lower prices for cleaned or damaged coins, some enthusiasts specialize in their collection.[38]

Certification services

Third-party grading (TPG), aka coin certification services, emerged in the 1980s with the goals of standardizing grading, exposing alterations, and eliminating counterfeits. For tiered fees, certification services grade, authenticate, attribute, and encapsulate coins in clear, plastic holders.[39][40][41] There are four coin certification services which eBay, the largest coin marketplace, deems acceptable to include in its listings: Professional Coin Grading Service (PCGS), Numismatic Guaranty Corporation (NGC), Independent Coin Graders (ICG), and ANACS. Experts consider these to be the most credible and popular services. Together they have certified over 80 million coins.[42][43][44][45][46][47]

In 2007, the rare coin industry's leading dealer association, the Professional Numismatists Guild (PNG), released the results of a survey of major coin dealers who gave their professional opinions about 11 certification services. PCGS and NGC were rated "Superior" overall, with ANACS and ICG deemed "Good". PCI and SEGS were listed as "Poor", while called "Unacceptable" were Accugrade (ACG), Numistrust Corporation (NTC), Hallmark Coin Grading Service (HCGS), American Coin Club Grading Service (ACCGS), and Star Grading Services (SGS).[44][45][48]

Certified Acceptance Corporation (CAC) is a Far Hills, New Jersey coin certification company started in 2007 by coin dealer John Albanese. The firm evaluates most numismatically valuable U.S. coins already certified by NGC or PCGS. Coins which CAC deems high-end for their grades receive green stickers. Coins which are at least high end for the next grade up are bestowed gold stickers. CAC-certified coins usually trade for a premium. CAC buys and sells CAC-certified coins via their affiliated trading network, Coinplex.[49][50][51][52]

Coin certification has greatly reduced the number of counterfeits and grossly overgraded coins, and improved buyer confidence. Certification services can sometimes be controversial because grading is subjective; coins may be graded differently by different services or even upon resubmission to the same service. The numeric grade alone does not represent all of a coin's characteristics, such as toning, strike, brightness, color, luster, and attractiveness. Due to potentially large differences in value over slight differences in a coin's condition, some submitters will repeatedly resubmit a coin to a grading service in the hope of receiving a higher grade. Because fees are charged for certification, submitters must funnel money away from purchasing additional coins.[44][45][53][54][55]


Coin collector clubs offer variety of benefits to members. They usually serve as a source of information and unification of people interested in coins. Collector clubs are popular both offline and online. Online clubs usually include catalogs for providing information together with the illustration of a coin. They also include forums that help collectors engage in discussions and arranging trades between each other.

See also



  1. ^ "The Origins of Coinage:The earliest coin hoard". The British Museum:Explore/Money. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  2. ^ "Coin Collecting".]. Retrieved 14 December 2010. Quote: "The Nestorian scholars and artisans who served the princes of the Jazira (Mesopotamia, now Iraq, Syria, and Turkey) in the 12th and 13th centuries designed a magnificent series of coins with motifs based on ancient Greek and Roman issues. Some of these so accurately render the details of the originals that even the inscriptions are faithfully repeated. Others were modified in intriguing ways. [...] The great variety and the sophisticated use of these images reveal the existence of well-studied collections."
  3. ^ a b "Coin Collecting". Britannica Online. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  4. ^ "Tranquillus, C. Suetonius The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, (1 CE) Section LXXV". Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  5. ^ a b "The Coin Collection History". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  6. ^ "Brief History of Coin Collecting". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  7. ^ "Coin Collectors: Emperor Maximilian". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  8. ^ "Coin Collecting". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  9. ^ "Brief History of Coin Collecting". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  10. ^ a b "Collecting And Investing In Coins". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  11. ^ a b "Coin Hoards". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  12. ^ a b "What is a Coin Collector?". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  13. ^ Lester, Carl N. "Numismatic "Gumshoe:" On the Trail of King Farouk". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  14. ^ Coins arranged by list of Themes on coin collector catalog, 18 September 2014, retrieved 18 September 2014
  15. ^ "PCGS Set Registry". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  16. ^ "NGC Collectors Society". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  17. ^ "Coin Collecting Themes-One From Every Country". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  18. ^ Eggleston, Gary. "7 Popular Coin Collecting Themes". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  19. ^ a b "Coin Collecting Themes". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  20. ^ Eggleston, Gary. "7 Popular Coin Collecting Themes". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  21. ^ a b "Coin Collecting: Common Coin Collecting Themes". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  22. ^ "Coins by Themes, on Coin Collectors Catalog". Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  23. ^ a b Goldsborough, Reid (2008). "Counterfeit Coin Detection". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  24. ^ "Governors". Reserve Bank of India: India's Central Bank. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  25. ^ Hardelt, Claus; Barbara Hardelt. "Fälschungen / Pseudomünzen" [Falsifications/Pseudo-coins]. (in German). Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  26. ^ "20 Lire dorato del Duce Benito Mussolini" [Gold 20 Lira Coin of Duce Benito Mussolini]. (in Italian). 22 July 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  27. ^ "Fakes and forgeries". The British Museum:Explore/Money. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  28. ^ Marotta, Michael. "Genuine Counterfeit Ancients: Plated Coins in Greek and Roman Times" (PDF). Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  29. ^ "Counterfeits & Forgeries". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  30. ^ "Welcome to the Great American Coin Company". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  31. ^ Eggleston, Gary. "7 Popular Coin Collecting Themes". Retrieved 26 June 2014.
  32. ^ a b "History of Grading". Slater Numismatics, LLC. 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  33. ^ Hight, Mitch. "Grading U.S. Coins". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  34. ^ "Grading". NGC Grading. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  35. ^ Herbert, Alan (20 September 1999). "European Collectors Stick With Verbal Grading System". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  36. ^ Guth, Ron (2009). "German Coin Grading". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  37. ^ "Grading Standards". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  38. ^ Eggleston, Gary. "Can Damaged Coins Find A Home?". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  39. ^ "The History of Rare Coin Grading". Austin Gold Information Network. Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  40. ^ "Coin Grading Services: Who They Are and What They Do". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  41. ^ "Coin Grading Systems - The History of Coin Grading Scales". Retrieved 13 December 2009.
  42. ^ "PNG, ICTA Announce Results of 2006 Grading Services Survey". Professional Numismatists Guild. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  43. ^ "Coins Buying Guide". eBay. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  44. ^ a b c "NGC". NGC. Retrieved 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  45. ^ a b c "PCGS Coin Facts". Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  46. ^ "ANACS". ANACS. Archived from the original on 31 March 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  47. ^ "ICG". ICG. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  48. ^ "PNG, ICTA Announce Results of 2006 Grading Services Survey". Professional Numismatists Guild. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  49. ^ Ferguson, Mark. "Comprehensive Market Study". Coin Week. Retrieved 2015-09-12.
  50. ^ "Certified Acceptance Corp. plans fee increase". Coin World. Retrieved 2015-09-12.
  51. ^ Roach, Steve. "The value of a CAC sticker". Coin World. Retrieved 2015-09-12.
  52. ^ "CAC". CAC. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
  53. ^ Travers, Scott. "THE 10 GREATEST MYTHS OF 'SLABBED' COINS". Retrieved 2015-09-07.
  54. ^ "A Companion to Rare Coin Collecting - Grading Services". Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  55. ^ "PNG, ICTA Announce Results of 2006 Grading Services Survey". Professional Numismatists Guild. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
All About Lisa

"All About Lisa" is the twentieth episode and season finale of The Simpsons' nineteenth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 18, 2008. Lisa Simpson becomes Krusty the Clown's newest assistant and steals his spotlight. She wins Entertainer of the Year at the Springfield Media awards, but is warned that with her sudden fame comes a new attitude towards others and herself. Meanwhile, Homer and Bart bond over their newfound love of coin collecting. The episode features narration by Sideshow Mel. It was written by John Frink and directed by Steven Dean Moore. Drew Carey guest voices as himself, appearing as a guest on Krusty's show.


In coin collecting, brockage refers to a type of error coin in which one side of the coin has the normal design and the other side has a mirror image of the same design impressed upon it.

Burdette Johnson

Burdette Garner Johnson (January 2, 1885 – February 24, 1947) was an American numismatist. A long-time Missouri resident, Johnson was a coin dealer and numismatist based in St. Louis. Johnson was known best for his mentorship of future American numismatists and helped foster the coin collecting interests in the now-renowned numismatist Eric P. Newman.

Coin board

There are two kinds of coin boards.

Coin grading

Coin grading is the process of determining the grade or condition of a coin, one of the key factors in determining its value. A coin's grade is generally determined by five criteria: strike, preservation, luster, color, and attractiveness. Several grading systems have been developed. Certification services professionally grade coins for tiered fees.

Dear John (novel)

Dear John is a romance novel by American writer Nicholas Sparks released in 2006. Its plot is an adaptation to present day's American culture of three plays Marius, Fanny and César, called la Trilogie Marseillaise written by French author Marcel Pagnol c. 1930. Sparks took inspiration from the real-life story of his cousin Todd Vance who served in the U.S. Armed Forces. It was on The New York Times Best Seller list in 2007.The story is about a romantic couple who fall in love over one summer. They are separated during the man's military service. John Tyree, the main character, has a father with Asperger's syndrome. The story is partially set in Wilmington, North Carolina where John's father was a single parent who had difficulty having meaningful conversation with his son and has an obsession with coin collecting. John knows there is something wrong with him but he has never been to a doctor to find out what it is. Feeling a lack of direction and no good fatherly influence in his life, John enlisted in the U.S. Armed Forces.John returns home on leave from the army when he gets news of his father's death. After the return he seeks out Savannah, where he is surprised to learn of her life events following her marriage to another man. It was obvious to John, Savannah, and even her new husband, that Savannah still had love for John. But he decided to let Savannah go- because he cared about her more than himself.

Although drained by battle overseas and the loss of Savannah, he realizes that due to a legacy from his father, he's able to express his love in an unexpected way.

Die defect

A die defect is a unique and unintentional flaw in a coin die and is created through excessive use or polishing of the die. A die bearing such a defect is occasionally referred to as a defective die. Generally, and depending upon the magnitude of the defect, coins that are produced from these dies are considered error coins. Also, the term encompasses a wide variety of design errors that were engraved into the die originally and were slipped into circulation before the incorrect design was discovered.

George Robert Ainslie

George Robert Ainslie (1776–1839) was a Scottish general of the British Army, noted for his coin collecting pursuits.

Glossary of numismatics

This article is a collection of Numismatic and coin collecting terms with concise explanation for the beginner or professional.

Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. While numismatists are often characterized as studying coins, the discipline also includes the study of banknotes, stock certificates, medals, medallions, and tokens (also referred to as Exonumia).

Sub-fields or related fields of numismatics are:

Exonumia: is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.

Notaphily: is the study of paper money or banknotes.

Scripophily: is the study and collection of stocks and bonds.

History of coins

The history of coins extends from ancient times to the present, and is related to economic history, the history of minting technologies, the history shown by the images on coins, and the history of coin collecting. Coins are still widely used for monetary and other purposes.

Louis E. Eliasberg

Louis E. Eliasberg, Sr. (1896–1976) was an American financier and numismatist. A native of Baltimore, Maryland, he is best known in the numismatic community for putting together the only complete collection of United States coins ever assembled, with attention to coins in the best possible condition. Although the set was not truly "complete" by modern standards (for instance, it did not differentiate between proofs and circulation strikes, as most modern collectors and set registries do), it is still the most comprehensive U.S. numismatic collection to date.

The Eliasberg collection did not distinguish between proofs and circulating strikes and die variations were not emphasized. There were no exceptions unless one considers the 1849 Double Eagle a coin. This is generally categorized as a pattern coin and only two were made: one is on display at the Smithsonian Institution and the other was given to then Treasury Secretary William M. Meredith but its subsequent whereabouts are unknown. No one had ever accomplished this coin collecting feat before, and probably no one will ever accomplish it again. There were one or two coins unknown at the time of completion of his collection that were later discovered.

Some of the highlights of the Eliasberg collection include a 1913 Liberty Head nickel known as the "Eliasberg Specimen". The coin was later bought by an unnamed California collector for US$5 million on April 25, 2007. Another is the 1873-CC no-arrows Liberty Seated dime. This coin is also notable for being the last coin needed to complete the Eliasberg collection.He possessed at one time a 1933 $20 gold coin (one of three then known to be owned by private collectors, including King Farouk of Egypt). Upon learning that the government believed the coins had not been legally issued by the mint and was recalling them, Mr. Eliasberg voluntarily returned his coin to the government in 1952 without compensation. A trial jury in U.S. District Court determined in July 2011 that ten other 1933 double eagles claimed as property by Mrs. Joan Langbord had been obtained illegally by Israel Switt and were property of the United States government. This decision was subsequently upheld the following August but is being appealed.

A generous and knowledgeable correspondent with the coin-collecting public, which became aware of him after a LIFE magazine feature story, Eliasberg was presented with a special trophy by Numismatic Gallery Magazine in recognition of his unique achievement.He later divided his collection between his two children, who separately sold the collection in three landmark auctions.

New Super Mario Bros. 2

New Super Mario Bros. 2 is a 2D side-scrolling platform video game in the New Super Mario Bros. series developed by Nintendo for their Nintendo 3DS handheld video game console. While being the third game in the series, it is a direct sequel to the 2006 Nintendo DS game New Super Mario Bros. and is the first Nintendo-published game to be released simultaneously in both digital and physical forms.

The game's plot is similar to its predecessors, focusing on Mario and Luigi's efforts to rescue Princess Peach from Bowser and the Koopalings. New Super Mario Bros. 2 has a heavier emphasis on coin-collecting than other Super Mario games, with multiple unique items dedicated to producing large numbers of coins. The game features a specialized mode called "Coin Rush" that focuses exclusively on quickly completing a series of stages while collecting as many coins as possible. Additional Coin Rush stages were made available for purchase as downloadable content shortly after the game's release.

New Super Mario Bros. 2 spans 9 worlds consisting of 6 main worlds and 3 special worlds. Those worlds total 85 complete levels, many of which have multiple exits to unlock more areas of the game to play and explore.

New Super Mario Bros. 2 received generally positive reviews; critics generally praised the game's level design, but criticized the game for being too similar to earlier New Super Mario Bros. games. New Super Mario Bros. 2 is the fifth best-selling game for the Nintendo 3DS, selling 13.08 million copies worldwide as of December 31, 2018.

Peter Alan Rayner

Peter Alan Rayner (1924 – 29 July 2007) was a British author of numismatic (coin collecting) books. He was known by his second name Alan, rather than his first to avoid confusion with Peter Seaby, also a popular author, whose family firm Rayner joined at the age of 24.

Rayner lived in Harpenden, Hertfordshire where he attended St George's School, Harpenden as a day boarder. During World War II he was conscripted into the mines as a Bevin Boy, although he was eventually released owing to ill health and enlisted in the Intelligence Corps.

In 1948 he joined B.A. Seaby Limited as an assistant in the English Coin Department, and began to specialise in milled silver coins. In 1957 he helped prepare for print a second revised edition of the book called 'English Silver Coinage from 1649', written by Herbert Allen Seaby and first published in 1949. This proved to be one of the most popular books published by B.A. Seaby Limited and further updated editions were printed in 1967, 1974, 1992 and the most recent in 2015 (republished by author Maurice Bull and printed by Spink and son). The book is used by numismatists as a main reference for all English silver coinage from 1649 to the year 1992 with a three-lettered prefixed (ESC - referring to English Silver Coinage) numbering system attributable to each coin and any variant. In 1961 Rayner wrote Your Book of Coin Collecting (published by Faber & Faber London). This presented to the new collector of coins 'a complete guide to Coin Collecting'. In 1966 he also wrote the book Coin Collecting For Amateurs published by Frederick Muller Ltd of Fleet Street.

Rayner remained at Seaby's until 1974, when he left to join the English branch of the coin company Paramount. He immediately became a valued member of staff whose knowledge of silver coins was unrivalled. He also specialised in foreign coins, in particular German.

He is survived by his Swiss wife Madeleine from Schaffhausen, who caused Rayner to learn Schweizerdeutsch (Swiss German), four children and eight grandchildren.

Pitcairn Islands dollar

The Pitcairn Islands is a non-sovereign British overseas territory and the New Zealand dollar is used as exchange. Pitcairn Islands began issuing its first commemorative coins in 1988. Though the Pitcairn Islands dollar is not a true currency in the strict sense of the word, and is not used as a circulation coinage, it can be lawfully exchanged as tender. The Pitcairn Islands dollar exists only because of the coin collecting market, which provides a major staple for the island nation. Having a population of only 56 according to the 2013 census, and with only one island in the group of four being populated, there is no need for local coinage. Coins consist of an important part of the Pitcairn Islands' tiny economy and help raise funds for the government's largely fixed and subsidised income.

Russell Rulau

Russell Alphonse Rulau (September 21, 1926 – November 12, 2012) was an American numismatist. He was involved in coin collecting for over 60 years. From his earliest days as a casual collector, Rulau contributed to numismatics as a writer, editor and club organizer. His interest in world coins led him to create the "Coin of the Year" award. The award is presented annually by Krause Publications' World Coin News. Rulau coined the term "exonumia" in 1960.

Tigranes IV

Tigranes IV (30s BC–1) was a Prince of the Kingdom of Armenia and member of the Artaxiad Dynasty who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia from 8 BC until 5 BC and 2 BC until 1 AD.

Tripolis on the Meander

Tripolis on the Meander (Greek: Τρίπολις, Eth. Greek: Τριπολίτης, Latin: Tripolis ad Maeandrum) – also Neapolis (Greek: Νεάπολις), Apollonia (Greek: Απολλωνία), and Antoniopolis – was an ancient city on the borders of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia, on the northern bank of the upper course of the Maeander, and on the road leading from Sardes by Philadelphia to Laodicea ad Lycum. (It. Ant. p. 336; Tab. Peut.) It was situated 20 km to the northwest of Hierapolis.

Ruins of it still exist near Yenicekent (formerly Yeniji or Kash Yeniji), a township in the Buldan district of Denizli Province, Turkey. (Arundell, Seven Churches, p. 245; Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 525; Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 287.) The ruins mostly date from the Roman and Byzantine periods and include a theater, baths, city walls, and a necropolis. An ancient church, dating back 1,500 years, has been unearthed in 2013.

Wayne G. Sayles

Wayne G. Sayles (born March 8, 1943) is an American numismatist and author, who specializes in Ancient Numismatics, especially coins of Cilicia which is located in modern-day Turkey. He is an accomplished Numismatic and Military author having published or contributed to hundreds of books, articles and papers.

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