Cohabitation (government)

Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier (prime minister) that will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament. Thus, cohabitation occurs because of the duality of the executive: an independently elected President and a prime minister who must be acceptable both to this president and to the legislature.

France

Origins

Cohabitation was a product of the French Fifth Republic, albeit an unintended one. This constitution brought together a president with considerable executive powers and a prime minister, responsible before Parliament. The president's task was primarily to end deadlock and act decisively to avoid the stagnation prevalent under the French Fourth Republic; the prime minister, similarly, was to "direct the work of government", providing a strong leadership to the legislative branch and to help overcome partisan squabbles.

Since 1962, French presidents have been elected by popular vote, replacing the electoral college, which was only used once. This change was intended to give Fifth Republic presidents more power than they might have had under the original constitution. While still seen as the symbol and embodiment of the nation, the president also was given a popular mandate. Of course, the majority party of the National Assembly retained power as well, but since the popularly elected president appointed the prime minister, the former was seen as having the upper hand in any conflict between executive and legislature. Furthermore, the imbalance is further illustrated by the fact that the president can dissolve the Assembly at any time (but not more than once in a year), whereas the legislature has no powers of removal against the president.

The sole caveat to this position of presidential pre-eminence was the fact that the president's selection to the premiership required approval by the National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament: because the Assembly can dismiss the government by a vote of no confidence, it follows that the prime minister must command a majority in the Assembly. This was not a problem whilst the legislative majority was aligned with the president, and indeed, de Gaulle, who was responsible for inspiring much of the Constitution, envisioned that the president will resign if the people disavow him in an Assembly election, and will then elect a new president (there is no vice-president in France) and a new election takes places less than two months after a resignation, a new president being elected for a new, full term; that happened in 1969, when de Gaulle resigned because the people voted against a referendum proposed by him.

The first "near miss" with cohabitation occurred with the election of Socialist President François Mitterrand in 1981. A right-wing coalition headed by the Gaullist Rally for the Republic controlled the Assembly at the time. Almost immediately, Mitterrand exercised his authority to call Assembly elections, and the electorate returned an Assembly with an absolute majority of Socialists, ending the presumed crisis.

However, when Assembly elections were held as required in 1986, five years later, the Socialists lost their majority to the right. Mitterrand decided to remain president, beginning the first cohabitation.

Cohabitation in practice

There have been only three periods of cohabitation, but each is notable for illustrating the oscillation of powers between the President and Prime Minister.

Mitterrand-Chirac Period (1986–1988)

After the 1986 Assembly elections, Mitterrand was forced to nominate as a Prime Minister Jacques Chirac, the leader of the RPR, the largest party in the majority coalition. Throughout the cohabitation between Mitterrand and Chirac, the President focused on his foreign duties and allowed Chirac to control internal affairs. Since Mitterrand was distanced from these policies, Chirac began to reverse many of Mitterrand's reforms by lowering taxes and privatising many national enterprises. There were however tense moments, such as when Mitterrand refused to sign ordonnances, slowing down reforms by requiring Chirac to pass his bills through Parliament.[1] This lasted for two years until 1988 when the newly reelected Mitterrand called for new legislative elections that were won by a leftist majority, which lasted five years.

Mitterrand-Balladur Period (1993–1995)

In 1993 President Mitterrand found himself in a similar position when the Right won an 80% majority in the National Assembly elections. Once again he was forced to appoint an opposition member (RPR and UDF parties), this time Édouard Balladur, to the post of Prime Minister, because Chirac focused rather on running for President instead of being Prime Minister for the third time. Balladur maintained this post through the cohabitation until May 18, 1995 when Jacques Chirac took office as president.

Chirac–Jospin Period (1997–2002)

In 1995, rightist leader Jacques Chirac succeeded Mitterrand as president, and, since the right had a majority in the Assembly, he was able to appoint his fellow RPR member Alain Juppé as his prime minister, ending cohabitation by a change in the presidency. This alignment of president and Assembly should have lasted until at least the normally scheduled 1998 Assembly elections.

However, in 1997, President Chirac made the ill-fated strategic decision to dissolve parliament and call for early legislative elections. This plan backfired when the French electorate turned back to the leftists and removed the right-wing Assembly majority. Chirac was forced to appoint Socialist Lionel Jospin to the premiership. Jospin remained Prime Minister until the elections of 2002, making this third term of cohabitation the longest ever—five years. Chirac called this a state of 'Paralysis', and found it particularly difficult to arrange campaign activities for the National Assembly.

With Jospin holding the premiership, Chirac's political influence was constrained and he had no say over certain major reforms being instituted by the left-wing majority. This included the 1998 legislation to shorten the working week from 39 to 35 hours, which came into effect in 2000.

Observations

  • Some scholars {Lijphart, 1999: 110} contend that French Fifth Republic usually operates under a presidential system, but when in cohabitation, this effectively changes, at least in terms of domestic policy, to a parliamentary system, in which the prime minister controls the legislative agenda and the president's powers are limited to foreign policy and defence.
  • A common problem during cohabitation is that each leader wants his or her own policies to be carried out so that the public is positive toward their strategies and will be elected when the time comes. Because each party is in competition, there is little room for progression since the friction between both sides holds each other back. Whilst leaders of the same political spectrum help each other in decision-making when in power simultaneously, cohabitation can lead to a decline in national authority and make the country appear outwardly insecure.
  • Although originally believed to be improbable, France was governed under a cohabitation of leaders for almost half the period from 1986 to 2006, suggesting that French people no longer fear the prospect of having two parties share power.

Future prospects

In 2000, with the support of President Chirac, the term of the President of the Fifth Republic was shortened from seven years to five years, a change accepted by a referendum. Furthermore, legislative elections are now held one month after presidential ones, thus creating a "winner dynamic" that encourages those who won the presidential election to confirm their vote one month later during legislative elections.

The near-simultaneity of presidential and legislative elections makes cohabitation less likely by reducing the prospect of major changes in public opinion between the two elections, but cohabitation remains a possibility even if public opinion remains stable. For example, a group of voters (e.g. voters on the left) may be split between two or more presidential candidates, thus making it unlikely that any of this group's candidates wins the presidential election, but these coordination problems may be resolved in the legislative election, leading to a different outcome in the two elections. Alternatively, a party that wins a majority of support in both the presidential and legislative elections may nonetheless fail to control the National Assembly because that support is distributed unequally across legislative districts. Or a presidential candidate from a new personalistic party may win the presidency despite his party not having the candidates or the party apparatus to win legislative elections.

Cohabitation can also occur if the presidential and legislative elections occur at different times due to extraordinary circumstances. For example, the president can dissolve the Assembly and call for new elections mid-term, which could theoretically lead to a different party winning (though the president would of course seek to avoid calling elections if this result were likely). The president could also die, be incapacitated, resign, or be impeached during his term, leading to a new presidential election. Cohabitation could result, although the new president is then likely to call new Assembly elections.

Asia

Georgia

Georgia underwent a period of cohabitation from 2012 to 2013, occasioned by the defeat of the ruling United National Movement party by the opposition Georgian Dream coalition in the 2012 parliamentary election. At the same time, a new constitutional system came into effect and the leader of the defeated party, the incumbent President Mikheil Saakashvili, had to appoint the Georgian Dream leader, Bidzina Ivanishvili, as Prime Minister. According to the European Commission report, with the expiration of Saakashvili's two terms as President and the victory of the Georgian Dream candidate, Giorgi Margvelashvili, in the 2013 presidential election, Georgia completed a complex and peaceful transition from a presidential to a parliamentary system. The period of cohabitation was assessed in the same report as "uneasy but functioning."[2]

Palestinian National Authority

The Palestinian National Authority, a quasi-governmental organization responsible for administering the Palestinian territories, has operated within the framework of a semi-presidential republic since the creation of the office of Prime Minister in the spring of 2003. While the President has the power to appoint anyone Prime Minister, there was an unspoken agreement upon the establishment of the office that the Prime Minister would be appointed from the majority party in the Legislative Council. This arrangement led to a period of cohabitation after the 2006 legislative election, in which Fatah President Mahmoud Abbas appointed Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh Prime Minister after Hamas' victory in the elections. The cohabitation did not last long, however, as funds were withheld from the Palestinian Authority and hostilities between Fatah and Hamas broke out in December 2006, leading to the appointment of a caretaker government led by Salam Fayyad on June 14, 2007.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan politics for several years witnessed a bitter struggle between the president and the prime minister, belonging to different parties and elected separately, over the negotiations with the Tamil Tigers to resolve the longstanding civil war. Since 2004, the president has more political power.

Europe minus France

Finland

The Constitution of Finland, as written in 1918, was originally similar to the French system of 40 years later. It included explicit provisions that the president focuses on national security and international relations. The arrangement was a compromise between monarchists and parliamentarists. In essence, a strong presidency was adopted instead of a constitutional monarchy. The new constitution of 2000 reduced the power of the president by transferring the power to choose a prime minister to the parliament. Cohabitation has occurred frequently, as Finland has multiple powerful parties which are not highly polarized between left and right, and also since the terms of a parliament are shorter (four years) than the presidential terms (six years). Theoretically, the President should remain strictly non-partisan, and Presidents have usually formally renounced party membership while in office.

Poland

The President of Poland is required to be non-partisan while in office, but so far all Presidents were elected as partisan candidates. A cohabition occurred in 2007, when President Lech Kaczyński was forced to appoint Donald Tusk as prime minister, his main rival in 2005 presidential election.

Romania

The 2012 Romanian political crisis was a major political conflict between prime minister Victor Ponta of the Social Democratic Party and the centre-right president Traian Băsescu, after the former was asked to form a government in May 2012. The dispute degenerated in civil disobedience and alleged democratic backsliding,[3] lasting until the two sides signed an agreement on institutional cohabitation in December.

There have been six periods of cohabitation in Romania, involving two presidents and five prime ministers.

  • Băsescu-Tăriceanu cohabitation (2007–2008)

This cohabitation occurred owing to the dismissal of the ministers belonging to the Democratic Party (PD), which had supported President Băsescu's candidacy, and which had counted Băsescu among its members before his election in 2004, in April 2007. This dismissal led to the formation of the second Tăriceanu government, comprising the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR). The coalition government, while commanding a minority of MPs, was externally supported by the Social Democratic Party (PSD). Tăriceanu's term as Prime Minister ended in December 2008, following the legislative election the previous month, thus ending the cohabitation.

  • Băsescu-Ponta cohabitation (2012–2014)

The cohabitation between President Băsescu and Prime Minister Ponta began after the successful vote of no confidence against the government led by Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu, which was supported by the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL), the National Union for the Progress of Romania (UNPR) and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR). A new government took office, which included the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Liberal Party (PNL) in May 2012, under the leadership of Victor Ponta. Ponta's first term in office was marked by a major political crisis between him and President Băsescu, leading up to the suspension of the latter and an impeachment referendum in July 2012. The new parliamentary majority was reinforced after the legislative election in December 2012, as the Social Liberal Union (USL) obtained a supermajority of seats. The alliance would eventually dissolve in February 2014. This period of cohabitation ended in December 2014, when President Băsescu left office, being replaced by Klaus Iohannis.

  • Iohannis-Ponta cohabitation (2014–2015)

President Klaus Iohannis began his term as President in December 2014, having won the presidential election a month before in front of the incumbent prime minister, Victor Ponta. Since a legislative election was not held, the parliamentary majority was unchanged, and Ponta was able to remain as Prime Minister, despite his loss. Victor Ponta resigned in November 2015, being replaced by Dacian Cioloș.

  • Iohannis-Grindeanu cohabitation (2017)

A legislative election was held in December 2016, which led to the formation of a coalition government, including the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats (ALDE). The leader of the Social Democratic Party, Liviu Dragnea, took the office of President of the Chamber of Deputies, while Sorin Grindeanu assumed the position of Prime Minister. Grindeanu was eventually dismissed by a vote of no confidence due to tensions within the governing coalition in June 2017, and he was replaced by Mihai Tudose, of the same party.

  • Iohannis-Tudose cohabitation (2017–2018)

The Tudose cabinet took office amid the dismissal of the previous cabinet, led by Sorin Grindeanu, in June 2017. The Prime Minister was Mihai Tudose, who had been the Minister of Economy in the previous government. It comprised the same parties which had participated in the Grindeanu government. Tudose chose to resign in January 2018, due to tensions within the governing coalition. He was replaced by Viorica Dăncilă.

  • Iohannis-Dăncilă cohabitation (2018–present)

Viorica Dăncilă, an MEP representing the Social Democratic Party of Romania, assumed the office of Prime Minister after the resignation of her predecessor, Mihai Tudose. She is the first female head of government of Romania.

Russia

In the Russian Federation, the State Duma has to approve a Prime Minister chosen by the President. However, if the State Duma rejects the President's candidate(s) three times in a row the President has the right to dissolve the State Duma and call new legislative elections, but he will not be able to do so within a year after the last parliamentary elections, which in this period may be cohabitation.

Though the rest of the time cohabitation is unlikely, it can occur when in the State Duma there is no stable majority loyal to the President. So cohabitation evolved between 1998 and 1999, when the State Duma twice refused to appoint Viktor Chernomyrdin as Prime Minister, but it was felt that to have held early elections was dangerous because of the risk that the opposition would strengthen its numbers and perhaps and gain the majority which would have led to even more complex relations between the Parliament and the President. In this regard, Boris Yeltsin had to appoint a Prime Minister (Yevgeny Primakov), who had broad support among the left opposition.

Ukraine

A cohabitation in a semi-presidential system also existed in Ukraine between 2006 and 2010. Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko had to appoint Viktor Yanukovych, his rival from the 2004 presidential election, as prime minister in August 2006.

Other countries

Cohabitation does not occur within standard presidential systems. While a number of presidential democracies, such as the United States, have seen power shared between a president and legislature of different political parties, this is another form of divided government. In this situation, the executive is directed by a president of one party who serves for a fixed term of years, even if and while the legislature is controlled by another party; in cohabitation, by contrast, executive power is divided between a president of one party and a cabinet of government ministers of another party. Cohabitation thus only occurs in systems that have both parliamentary government (i.e. ministers accountable to parliament) and a directly elected executive president, i.e., a semi-presidential systems. In a true parliamentary system, the head of state, whether president or constitutional monarch, has an obligation to choose as prime minister a person who commands the "confidence" of parliament, that is, the support of the majority of its members as head of government, or at least not their open opposition, which would lead to a motion of no confidence, which if successful generally requires the dissolution of parliament and new elections.

As seen above, the theory of cohabitation is no longer limited to France. There are not many countries where the constitutional structure exists in which it could occur. However, since some of the new democracies of eastern Europe have adopted institutions quite similar to France, cohabitation may become more common. Still, if those countries elect their executives and legislature at or near the same time, as France is now doing, then cohabitation will be less likely.

See U.S. presidents and control of Congress.

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ Jean V. Poulard, The French Double Executive and the Experience of Cohabitation, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 105, No. 2 (Summer, 1990), pp. 243-267
  2. ^ "Joint Staff Working Document: Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in Georgia Progress in 2013 and recommendations for action" (PDF). European Commission. 27 March 2014. p. 2. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  3. ^ "Germany, U.S: Romania power struggle hurts democracy", Reuters
16 May 1877 crisis

The 16 May 1877 crisis (French: Crise du seize mai) was a constitutional crisis in the French Third Republic concerning the distribution of power between the President and the legislature. When the royalist President Patrice MacMahon dismissed the Opportunist Republican Prime Minister Jules Simon, the parliament on 16 May 1877 refused to support the new government and was dissolved by the President. New elections resulted in the royalists increasing their seat totals, but nonetheless resulted in a majority for the Republicans. Thus, the interpretation of the 1875 Constitution as a parliamentary system prevailed over a presidential system. The crisis ultimately sealed the defeat of the royalist movement, and was instrumental in creating the conditions of the longevity of the Third Republic.

1993 French legislative election

French legislative elections took place on 21 and 28 March 1993 to elect the tenth National Assembly of the Fifth Republic.

Since 1988, President François Mitterrand and his Socialist cabinets had relied on a relative parliamentary majority. In an attempt to avoid having to work with the Communists, Prime Minister Michel Rocard tried to gain support from the UDF by appointing four UDF ministers. After the UDF withdrew its support for the government in 1991, Rocard and the UDF ministers resigned. The UDF then became allied with the Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR).

The Socialist Party (PS) was further weakened by scandals (involving illicit financing, contaminated blood and other affairs) and an intense rivalry between François Mitterrand's potential successors (Lionel Jospin and Laurent Fabius). In March 1992, the Socialists were punished at the local elections. Prime Minister Édith Cresson was replaced by Pierre Bérégovoy. The latter promised to fight against economic recession and corruption, but he was himself suspected to have received a loan from a controversial businessman, Roger-Patrice Pelat.

The election was a landslide victory for the RPR-UDF alliance, while the PS and their left-wing allies received their worst result since the 1960s. The PS lost nearly 80% of the seats they had held at the time of the chamber's dissolution. This caused a crisis within the PS; Fabius lost his position as First Secretary in favour of Rocard, who claimed that a political "big bang" was needed. Jospin announced his political retirement after he was defeated in his Haute-Garonne constituency. Depressed by the defeat and the accusations about the loan from Pelat, Pierre Bérégovoy committed suicide on 1 May.

Some traditional PS voters had voted for the Greens in the first round. These ecologists obtained a total of 10.84%, making this the best total score for French Green parties in legislative elections. However, only two ecologists qualified for the runoff, including Dominique Voynet in her constituency in the Doubs département. Both of these candidates were eventually defeated. Lack of major political allies for these ecologists explained this failure to take any seats.

The RPR-UDF coalition formed the largest parliamentary majority since 1958, taking a total of 485 seats or 84% of the 577 seats. The RPR leader Jacques Chirac demanded President Mitterrand's resignation and refused to be Prime Minister in a new "cohabitation" government. Finally, he suggested the nomination of his former RPR Finance Minister Edouard Balladur at the head of the government. Balladur promised publicly that he would not run against Chirac for the next presidential election. The second "cohabitation" finished with the 1995 presidential election.

2017 French legislative election

Legislative elections were held on 11 and 18 June 2017 (with different dates for voters overseas) to elect the 577 members of the 15th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic. They followed the two-round presidential election won by Emmanuel Macron. The centrist party he founded in 2016, La République En Marche! (REM), led an alliance with the centrist Democratic Movement (MoDem); together, the two parties won 350 of the 577 seats – a substantial majority – in the National Assembly, including an outright majority of 308 seats for REM. The Socialist Party (PS) was reduced to 30 seats and the Republicans (LR) reduced to 112 seats, and both parties' allies also suffered from a marked drop in support; these were the lowest-ever scores for the centre-left and centre-right in the legislative elections. The movement founded by Jean-Luc Mélenchon, la France Insoumise (FI), secured 17 seats, enough for a group in the National Assembly. Among other major parties, the French Communist Party (PCF) secured ten and the National Front (FN) obtained eight seats. Both rounds of the legislative election were marked by record low turnout.Édouard Philippe, appointed as Prime Minister by Macron following his victory in the presidential election, was reappointed following the second round of the legislative elections and presented his second government by 21 June. The 15th legislature of the French Fifth Republic commenced on 27 June.

Charles Pasqua

Charles Pasqua (18 April 1927 – 29 June 2015) was a French businessman and Gaullist politician. He was Interior Minister from 1986 to 1988, under Jacques Chirac's cohabitation government, and also from 1993 to 1995, under the government of Edouard Balladur.

Index of Sri Lanka-related articles (C)

This page lists Sri Lanka-related articles with titles beginning with an alphabet letter C.

C. A. D. Barclay

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Celluloid (film)

Celtis philippensis

Cenotaph War Memorial, Colombo

Central Bank of Sri Lanka

Central College Kuliyapitiya

Central Highlands of Sri Lanka

Central Institute of Classical Tamil

Central Province (Sri Lanka) bus routes

Central Province Rugby Football Union

Central Province, Sri Lanka

Central Railway Building

Central Reserve Police Force

Central Tamil dialect

Central Telegraph Office, Colombo

Central Theater (film)

Central Tiffin Room Bangalore

Central University of South Bihar

Cephalobares globiceps

Cephalochetus elegans

Ceratinopsis monticola

Ceratopemphigus zehntneri

Ceratophora erdeleni

Ceratophora karu

Ceropegia candelabrum

Ceylalictus appendiculata

Ceylalictus cereus

Ceylalictus horni

Ceylalictus taprobanae

Ceylinco Consolidated

Ceylon (film)

Ceylon Armed Services Inauguration Medal

Ceylon Armed Services Long Service Medal

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Ceylon Biscuits Limited

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Ceylon Today

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Ceylon at the 1948 Summer Olympics

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Ceylon at the 1960 Summer Olympics

Ceylon at the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games

Ceylon at the 1964 Summer Olympics

Ceylon at the 1968 Summer Olympics

Ceylon at the 1972 Summer Olympics

Ceylon in World War II

Ceylon logsucker

Ceylon paradise flycatcher

Ceylon spiny mouse

Ceylon tiger

Ceylon tree nymph

Ceylon, Physical, Historical and Topographical

Ceylon-German Technical Training Institute

Ceylonese Legislative Council election, 1911

Ceylonese Legislative Council election, 1921

Ceylonese Legislative Council election, 1924

Ceylonese Mudaliyars

Ceylonese Rugby & Football Club

Ceylonese State Council election, 1931

Ceylonese State Council election, 1936

Ceylonese cricket team in India in 1932–33

Ceylonese cricket team in India in 1940–41

Ceylonese cricket team in India in 1964–65

Ceylonese cricket team in Pakistan in 1949–50

Ceylonese cricket team in Pakistan in 1966–67

Ceylonese cylinder snake

Ceylonese parliamentary election, 1947

Ceylonese parliamentary election, 1952

Ceylonese parliamentary election, 1956

Ceylonese parliamentary election, 1965

Ceylonese parliamentary election, 1970

Ceylonese parliamentary election, July 1960

Ceylonese parliamentary election, March 1960

Ceylonese recipients of British titles

Ceylonese rixdollar

Ceylonosticta alwisi

Ceylonosticta anamia

Ceylonosticta bine

Ceylonosticta inferioreducta

Ceylonosticta mirifica

Ceylonosticta mojca

Ceylonosticta nancyae

Ceylonosticta rupasinghe

Ceylonosticta venusta

Ch. Victor Moses

Chaalampaik Kulam

Chaalampan

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Chaappa Kurishu

Chaarulatha

Chaas

Chaat

Chaat masala

Chaavatkaddu

Chacko Randaaman

Chadachadi

Chadalavada Sundararamasastri

Chadalawada Krishnamurthy

Chaduranga

Chaerilus ceylonensis

Chaetocarpus castanocarpus

Chaetocarpus coriaceus

Chaetocarpus ferrugineus

Chaganti Somayajulu

Chai Point

Chaitra H. G.

Chaitrada Chandrama

Chaitrada Premanjali

Chaiwala

Chak De! India

Chakan River

Chakara

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Chakkani Rajamargamu

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Chalavadi

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Chalisuva Modagalu

Chalith Deshappriya

Challenge Gopalakrishna

Challenges (film)

Chalmers executive council of Ceylon

Chalong, Mueang Phuket

Chamak (film)

Chamal Rajapaksa

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Chamara Dunusinghe

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Chambal River

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Champakulam Thachan

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Champu

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Chan Htoon

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Chanakya (1984 film)

Chanakya National Law University

Chancey Illa

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Chandamama

Chandamukha of Anuradhapura

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Chandavalliya Thota

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Chandgaon Mosque

Chandgaon Thana

Chandgoan residential area

Chandi Kori

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Chandi, Brahmanbaria

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Chandimanthu Rodrigo

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Chandoo Mondeti

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Chandra Chakori

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Chandra Gunasekera

Chandra Imam Ali High School and College

Chandra Kalindi Roy Henriksen

Chandra Kaluarachchi

Chandra Kumara

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Chandra Lakshman

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Chandrasiri

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Chandrawati

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Charles Clover-Brown

Charles Coventry (Zimbabwean cricketer)

Charles Dahanayake

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Charlie (2015 Kannada film)

Charlie (2015 Malayalam film)

Charmaine Solomon

Charmus laneaus

Charpai

Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation

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Charu Bikash Chakma

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Charuka Kahagalla

Chashni

Chateau Indage

Chatham Island (Andaman and Nicobar Islands)

Chathikkatha Chanthu

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Chathuranga Sanjeewa

Chathurangam (1959 film)

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Chauncey W. West

Chaungwa, Dawei

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Chaungzon Township

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Chavakachcheri Divisional Council

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Chavakachcheri Hindu College

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Chavva

Chawkbazar Thana

Chay Wai Chuen

Chaya Singh

Chayam (2004 film)

Chayilyam

Chechi (film)

Checkered keelback

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Cheddikulam Hospital

Cheddikulam massacre

Cheddikulam railway station

Cheena di

Chef Anil

Chef Jolly

Chegondi Venkata Harirama Jogaiah

Cheiracanthium incertum

Cheiracanthium indicum

Cheiracanthium taprobanense

Chekavar (film)

Chelikani Venkata Rama Rao

Chellamalla Suguna Kumari

Chellapilla Sitarama Murthy

Chellata (film)

Chelliah Thurairaja

Cheluva

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Chembai: My discovery of a legend

Chembarathi

Chemical Weapons Convention

Chemistry (2009 film)

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Chemmani mass graves investigation

Chemmeen

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Chendupatla Janga Reddy

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Chengam (state assembly constituency)

Chenkalady

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Chenkol

Chennai Port

Chennaikku Oru Isai Vanakkam

Chennaveera Kanavi

Chennupati Vidya

Chepauk (state assembly constituency)

Chepauk-Thiruvallikeni

Cheppu

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Cheranmadevi (state assembly constituency)

Cherantha de Silva

Cherar Kottai

Cherian K. Cherian

Cheriya Kallanum Valiya Policum

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Cheriyo Captain

Cheriyo Holman

Cherry barb

Cherukad

Cheryl Perera

Chess (2006 film)

Chestnut-backed owlet

Chestnut-headed bee-eater

Chetan Sosca

Chethiya Wadugodapitiya

Chettathi

Chettayees

Chettiar

Chettikulangara Kumbha Bharani

Chettinad cuisine

Chetty Bhanumurthy

Chevaan Daniel

Chevella Ravi

Chevireddy Bhaskar Reddy

Cheviyorkkuka! Anthimakahalam

Chevrotain

Cheyyar (state assembly constituency)

Cheyyur (state assembly constituency)

Chhagalnaiya Upazila

Chhanabora

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Chhena

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Chhena kheeri

Chhena poda

Chhencheda

Chhera Island

Chhota haazri

Chhundo

Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation

Chicken Chettinad

Chicken Cottage

Chicken Ghee Roast

Chicken Lahori

Chicken curry

Chicken karahi

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Chicken patty

Chicken tikka

Chicken tikka masala

Chidambara Rahasya

Chidambaram (film)

Chidambaram (state assembly constituency)

Chidambaram Subramaniam

Chief Government Whip (Sri Lanka)

Chief Justice of Sri Lanka

Chief Justice's House, Colombo

Chief Minister (Sri Lanka)

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Chief inspector

Chief of the Defence Staff (Sri Lanka)

Chigali

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Chikka Virarajendra

Chikkamma

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Chikki

Chikkolee

Chikku Bukku Rayile

Chikunia nigra

Chilakalapudi Seeta Rama Anjaneyulu

Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham

Chilambu

Chilaw

Chilaw Divisional Secretariat

Chilaw Electoral District

Chilaw Marians Cricket Club

Childbirth in Sri Lanka

Children's Academy International Pre School

Chili parotha

Chili pepper

Chilli chicken

Chillum (pipe)

Chilobrachys nitelinus

Chilukuri Narayana Rao

China Bay Airport

China Bay railway station

China Garden

China Town (2011 film)

Chinaman: The Legend of Pradeep Mathew

China–Sri Lanka relations

Chindu Bhagavatham

Chinese Ambassador to Sri Lanka

Chinese bhel

Chinese expeditions to the Sinhala Kingdom

Chinese people in Sri Lanka

Chingari (2012 film)

Chingri malai curry

Chingudi Jhola

Chinmayi

Chinmoy Roy

Chinna Babu Arigela

Chinna Ninna Muddaduve

Chinnach Chaalampan

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Chinnari Mutha

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Chinnasalem (state assembly constituency)

Chinnathambi

Chinnathirai

Chinniah

Chintaka de Zoysa

Chintakayala Ayyanna Patrudu

Chintha Lakshmi Sinhaarachchi

Chintha Ravi

Chinthaka Edirimanne

Chinthaka Jayasinghe

Chinthaka Jayawickrama

Chinthaka Perera

Chinthamani (newspaper)

Chinthamani Kolacase

Chinthana Dharmadasa

Chinthana Vidanage

Chinthavishtayaya Shyamala

Chinthe

Chionanthus albidiflorus

Chionanthus zeylanicus

Chippi appam

Chippy (actress)

Chippy Gunasekara

Chiraampiyadi

Chirabandhavya

Chirakodinja Kinavukal

Chiranjeevi

Chiranjeevi (1936 film)

Chirantha de Silva

Chirikkudukka (2002 film)

Chiroti

Chirru

Chirumarthi Lingaiah

Chirutha

Chithadantha

Chithariyavar

Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma

Chithra (film)

Chithrabhumi

Chithrakuzhal

Chithram

Chithramela

Chithrasalabhangalude Veedu

Chiththira Meazhi

Chitra Fernando

Chitra Iyer

Chitra Mudgal

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Chitral Somapala

Chitrali cuisine

Chitrananda Abeysekera

Chitranna

Chitrapu Narayana Rao

Chitrasena

Chitrasutram

Chittagong

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Chittagong Cantonment Public College

Chittagong Chamber of Commerce & Industry

Chittagong Circular Railway

Chittagong City Center

Chittagong City Corporation

Chittagong Club

Chittagong College

Chittagong Collegiate School and College

Chittagong Court Building

Chittagong Development Authority

Chittagong District

Chittagong Division

Chittagong Division cricket team

Chittagong Dry Dock Limited

Chittagong Engineering University School and College

Chittagong Export Processing Zone

Chittagong Government High School

Chittagong Grammar School

Chittagong Hill Tracts

Chittagong Hill Tracts Development Board

Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord

Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict

Chittagong Hill Tracts manual

Chittagong Medical College

Chittagong Metropolitan Police

Chittagong Model School and College

Chittagong Municipal Model High School

Chittagong Pali College

Chittagong Port Authority

Chittagong Ship Breaking Yard

Chittagong Steel Mills High School

Chittagong Stock Exchange

Chittagong Tea Auction

Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology

Chittagong Urea Fertilizer School and College

Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Chittagong Vikings

Chittagong War Cemetery

Chittagong Zoo

Chittagong armoury raid

Chittagonian language

Chittampalam Abraham Gardiner

Chittor V. Nagaiah

Chitty

Chlormint

Chloroclystis polygraphata

Chloroclystis rectaria

Chloroxylon swietenia

Cho Ramaswamy

Chocolate (2007 film)

Chocolate biscuit pudding

Chocolate pipistrelle

Chodagam Ammanna Raja

Chodaganga of Polonnaruwa

Chodhyam

Chola literature

Chola rule in Sri Lanka

Cholai

Cholanaikkan

Chole bhature

Choleeswaram temple

Cholomondeley Goonewardene

Chomana Dudi

Chomchom

Choonda

Choori Chikkanna

Chora Chittha Chora

Chora Naga of Anuradhapura

Chorba

Chorizopes mucronatus

Chotpoti

Chotta Mumbai

Chowara

Chowdary (Telugu honorific)

Chowka

Chowmuhani

Chowra Island

Chris Brown (cricketer, born 1974)

Chris Gayle

Chris Lynn

Chris Tremlett

Chris Wright (cricketer)

Chrishen Aponsu

Christ Church College, Matale

Christ Church, Galkissa

Christian Reformed Church in Sri Lanka

Christianity in Sri Lanka

Christie Island

Christine Sonali Merrill

Christmas Rathri

Christopher Greet

Christopher Hamilton

Christopher Mpofu

Christopher Ondaatje

Christopher Van Hollen (diplomat)

Christopher Weeramantry

Chromolaena odorata

Chronic Bachelor

Chronology of Karnataka literature

Chrysopelea ornata

Chrysopelea taprobanica

Chuak

Chukka Ramaiah

Chula De Silva

Chulabhaya of Anuradhapura

Chulipuram

Chulpadmendra Kumarapathirana

Chumphon Province

Chunati

Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary

Chundikkulam Lagoon

Chundikkulam National Park

Chundikuli

Chundikuli Girls' College

Chunkath Joseph Varkey

Chunkzz

Chunnakam

Chunnakam Police station massacre

Chunnakam Power Station

Chunnakam market massacre

Chunnakam railway station

Churam

Church of Ceylon

Church of Our Lady of Presentation, Batticaloa

Churchill Gunasekara

Churma

Churmuri

Churri

Churumuri (food)

Chutney

Chutney Mary

Chutney Popcorn

Chuzhi

Cindrella (film)

Cinema Company

Cinema Mangalam

Cinema of Sri Lanka

Cingalobolus bugnioni

Cingalosoma anderssoni

Cinnamomum citriodorum

Cinnamomum dubium

Cinnamomum ovalifolium

Cinnamomum tamala

Cinnamomum verum

Cinnamon

Cinnamon Air

Cinnamon Gardens

Cinque Islands

Cipadessa

Circle contact lens

Circus (2009 film)

Cirrhochrista pulchellalis

Cissy Cooray

Citra (drink)

Citrus crenatifolia

Citrus macroptera

City Centre Patna

City of God (2011 film)

Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka

Ciṟupañcamūlam

Ciṟupāṇāṟṟuppaṭai

Clan House, Galle

Clancy Fernando

Clarence Jey

Clarence Wijewardena

Clarkeinda trachodes

Classmates (2006 film)

Clathrina ceylonensis

Claude Corea

Claude Selveratnam

Clean Out

Clement Sethupathy

Clemente Peani

Cleopatra (2013 film)

Clerodendrum paniculatum

Cletus Mendis

Cleugh Passage Group

Clidemia hirta

Cliff Foenander

Clifford Cup

Clifford Dodd

Clifford Ratwatte

Clifford executive council of Ceylon

Climax (2013 film)

Clinothelphusa

Clitaetra thisbe

Clive Inman

Clodagh Eastern Colony

Clodagh Jayasuriya

Closenberg Hotel

Clove

Clubnose guitarfish

Clusia rosea

Cnemaspis alwisi

Cnemaspis amith

Cnemaspis clivicola

Cnemaspis gemunu

Cnemaspis kallima

Cnemaspis kandambyi

Cnemaspis kumarasinghei

Cnemaspis latha

Cnemaspis menikay

Cnemaspis molligodai

Cnemaspis pava

Cnemaspis phillipsi

Cnemaspis podihuna

Cnemaspis pulchra

Cnemaspis punctata

Cnemaspis rajakarunai

Cnemaspis retigalensis

Cnemaspis samanalensis

Cnemaspis scalpensis

Cnemaspis silvula

Cnemaspis upendrai

Cnesteboda haruspex

Coast Veddas

Coastal line (Sri Lanka)

Cobra (2012 film)

Cobra Beer

Coccinella transversalis

Coccinella transversoguttata

Coccinia grandis

Cochin Express

Cocktail (2010 film)

Coconut chutney

Coconut production in Sri Lanka

Coconut rice

Cocos Islands mutiny

Codrington Edmund Carrington

Coelioxys angulata

Coelioxys apicata

Coelioxys capitata

Coelioxys formosicola

Coelioxys fuscipennis

Coelioxys nitidoscutellaris

Coelomomyces elegans

Coffea arabica

Coffee Board of India

Coffee production in India

Coffee production in Sri Lanka

Coffee with Lahiru and Muditha

Cohabitation (government)

Coimbatore North (state assembly constituency)

Coimbatore South (state assembly constituency)

Coir

Colachel (state assembly constituency)

Colaxes horton

Colaxes wanlessi

Colebrooke Island

Colebrooke–Cameron Commission

Coleophora crypsiphanes

Coleophora statherota

Colin Campbell (British Army officer, born 1776)

Colin Ingram

Colin de Grandhomme

Collector (2011 film)

College Days

College House, Colombo

College Kumar

College Kumaran

College Ranga

College Street Coffee House

College of Arts and Crafts, Patna

College of Chemical Sciences

College of Community Physicians of Sri Lanka

College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka

Collins Obuya

Collix ghosha

Collix hypospilata

Collix rufipalpis

Colombo

Colombo '43 Group

Colombo Central Bank bombing

Colombo Central Bus Station bombing

Colombo Central Electoral District

Colombo City Centre

Colombo Club

Colombo Club building

Colombo Commandos

Colombo Cricket Club

Colombo Cricket Club Ground

Colombo District

Colombo Divisional Secretariat

Colombo Dockyard

Colombo Dutch Museum

Colombo East Electoral District

Colombo Electoral District

Colombo FC

Colombo Fashion Week

Colombo Gymkhana Club

Colombo Harbour

Colombo Hindu College

Colombo Hockey and Football Club

Colombo Institute of Research & Psychology

Colombo International Book Fair

Colombo International Financial City

Colombo International School

Colombo Lighthouse

Colombo Lions

Colombo Marathon

Colombo Monorail

Colombo Municipal Council

Colombo North Electoral District

Colombo Port Maritime Museum

Colombo Port Power Station

Colombo Post

Colombo Public Library

Colombo Racecourse

Colombo Rowing Club

Colombo South Electoral District

Colombo South International College

Colombo Stock Exchange

Colombo Swimming Club

Colombo Terminus railway station

Colombo Town Guard

Colombo University Observatory

Colombo West Electoral District

Colombuthurai

Colonial Secretary of Ceylon

Colonial era mansions of Sri Lanka

Colour (film)

Colour TV case

Colourful (film)

Colours (film)

Colts Cricket Club

Colts Cricket Club Ground

Colvin R. de Silva

Comilla

Comilla Adarsha Sadar Upazila

Comilla Cadet College

Comilla Cantonment

Comilla Cantonment High School

Comilla City Corporation

Comilla District

Comilla Division

Comilla Government College

Comilla Jagannath Temple

Comilla Model

Comilla Modern High School

Comilla Sadar Dakshin Upazila

Comilla Stadium

Comilla Victoria Government College

Comilla Victorians

Comilla Zilla School

Comillar Kagoj

Commander of the Air Force (Sri Lanka)

Commander of the Army (Sri Lanka)

Commander of the Ceylon Defence Force

Commander of the Navy (Sri Lanka)

Commander-in-Chief, Ceylon

Commando A Baskaran

Commelina ensifolia

Commercial Bank of Ceylon

Commissioner (film)

Committee On Public Enterprises (Sri Lanka)

Common bent-wing bat

Common krait

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2013

Commonwealth XI cricket team in India and Ceylon in 1950–51

Commonwealth XI cricket team in India, Pakistan and Ceylon in 1949–50

Communist Party of Sri Lanka

Companiganj Upazila, Noakhali

Companiwatta

Companywatta

Compsoctena taprobana

Compsoctena thwaitesii

Compsomantis ceylonica

Compulsory leadership training for undergraduates

Computer Society of Sri Lanka

Computer University, Mawlamyine

Computer University, Thaton

Comrade in America

Congee

Congressional Caucus on Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan Americans

Conical Hill, Sri Lanka

Conrad Francis

Constable

Constantino de Sá de Noronha

Constanzo Beschi

Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union

Constitution of Sri Lanka

Constitution of the Asia-Pacific Telecommunity

Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization

Constitution of the International Labour Organization

Constitution of the International Organization for Migration

Constitution of the International Rice Commission

Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

Constitution of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization

Constitution of the World Health Organization

Constitutional Council (Sri Lanka)

Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak (Sri Lanka)

Controversy of arrests in Tamil Nadu about construction of flyovers

Convention against Discrimination in Education

Convention and Statute on the International Régime of Maritime Ports

Convention concerning Customs Facilities for Touring

Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

Convention establishing a Customs Co-operation Council

Convention establishing the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs

Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation

Convention for the Suppression of the Circulation of and Traffic in Obscene Publications

Convention for the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs

Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization

Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

Convention on Biological Diversity

Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons

Convention on Cybercrime

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident

Convention on Nuclear Safety

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

Convention on the International Hydrographic Organization

Convention on the International Maritime Organization

Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization

Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives

Convention on the Nationality of Married Women

Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations

Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards

Convention on the Recovery Abroad of Maintenance

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Convention on the Rights of the Child

Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel

Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States

Convention relating to International Exhibitions

Coolie (1983 Malayalam film)

Coonoor (state assembly constituency)

Cooray

Coordinating secretary

Coorg Green Cardamom

Copa annulata

Copa spinosa

Cophotis ceylanica

Cophotis dumbara

Coptotermes gaurii

Copyright law of Sri Lanka

Coriander

Cornelis Joan Simons

Coromandel Coast

Coronation chicken

Corruption in Sri Lanka

Corypha umbraculifera

Coscinida gentilis

Coscinida novemnotata

Coscinida triangulifera

Coscinium fenestratum

Cosmoclostis pesseuta

Cosmophasis olorina

Cosmopolitan (film)

Cottonia

Cottonia peduncularis

Countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

Countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal

Country Captain

Court of Appeal of Sri Lanka

Cousins (2014 film)

Cowboy (2013 film)

Cox's Bazar

Cox's Bazar Beach

Cox's Bazar District

Cox's Bazar Sadar Upazila

Cox's Bazar–Tekhnaf Marine Drive

Crab Curry (Goan)

Craig Ervine

Craig Hatkoff

Craniella elegans

Crayon (film)

Crayons and Paper

Crazy Boy (film)

Crazy Colonel

Crazy Kutumba

Crazy Star (film)

Creambell

Creighton Carvello

Crescent Schools International

Crest of The Sri Lanka Army Command and Staff College

Cricket 07

Cricket in Sri Lanka

Crime File

Crime in Sri Lanka

Criminal Investigation Department (Sri Lanka)

Crimson-backed flameback

Crimson-fronted barbet

Crishantha de Silva

Cristeen Fernando

Cristian Barros

Crocidura hikmiya

Crocodile Love Story

Croquette

Cross Cafe

Crossandra infundibuliformis

Crossroad (2017 film)

Crown Sri Lanka

Crowpara

Crudia zeylanica

Crusaders for Democracy

Cruz Fernandez

Cryptocarya wightiana

Cryptocephalopus jonesii

Cryptotermes ceylonicus

Cryptotermes perforans

Ctenus ceylonensis

Ctenus kandyensis

Ctenus thorelli

Cuba–Sri Lanka relations

Cucullanus bulbosus

Cucumber cake

Cucumber raita

Cuda Ratwatte

Cuddalore (state assembly constituency)

Cuisine of Arunachal Pradesh

Cuisine of Chhattisgarh

Cuisine of Jharkhand

Cuisine of Karachi

Cuisine of Karnataka

Cuisine of Kerala

Cuisine of Manipur

Cuisine of Meghalaya

Cuisine of Odisha

Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh

Cula Naga of Anuradhapura

Culavamsa

Cultural triangle

Culture of Sri Lanka

Cumbum (state assembly constituency)

Cumin

Curd rice

Curien Kaniamparambil

Curlew Island (Andaman and Nicobar Islands)

Currency (film)

Currency museum, Colombo

Curry

Curry Club Magazine

Curry Life

Curry Mile

Curry goat

Curry house

Curry in the Crown: The Story of Britain's Favourite Dish

Curry leaves

Curry pie

Curry powder

Curry puff

Curry tree

Curubis annulata

Curubis erratica

Curubis tetrica

Curuppumullage Jinarajadasa

Curvinomia formosa

Curvinomia iridiscens

Customs Convention on the ATA Carnet for the Temporary Admission of Goods

Customs Convention on the Temporary Importation of Private Road Vehicles

Customs Diary

Customs officer

Cyanide (2006 film)

Cyaniris albidisca

Cyathea crinita

Cyathea hookeri

Cyathea latebrosa

Cyathea sinuata

Cyathea walkerae

Cybotech Campus

Cycas zeylanica

Cycle (2008 film)

Cyclogomphus gynostylus

Cyclone Aila

Cyclone Akash

Cyclone Bijli

Cyclone Forrest

Cyclone Jal

Cyclone Komen

Cyclone Mora

Cyclone Nilam

Cyclone Ockhi

Cyclone Phyan

Cyclone Rashmi

Cyclone Roanu

Cyclone Sidr

Cyclone Vardah

Cyclone Viyaru

Cyclosorus interruptus

Cymbacha simplex

Cymbidium bicolor

Cymbopogon citratus

Cymbopogon flexuosus

Cyphosticha acrolitha

Cyphostigma

Cyril Abeynaike

Cyril C. Perera

Cyril Dissanayake

Cyril E. S. Perera

Cyril Fernando

Cyril Herath

Cyril Longden

Cyril Mathew

Cyril Nicholas

Cyril Ponnamperuma

Cyril Ranatunga

Cyril Wickramage

Cyril de Zoysa

Cyrtodactylus cracens

Cyrtodactylus edwardtaylori

Cyrtodactylus fraenatus

Cyrtodactylus ramboda

Cyrtodactylus soba

Cyrtodactylus subsolanus

Cyrus Todiwala

Jean-Luc Mélenchon

Jean-Luc Antoine Pierre Mélenchon (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑ̃lyk melɑ̃ʃɔ̃]; born 19 August 1951), is a French politician that has served as a member of the National Assembly since 2017.

After joining the Socialist Party in 1976, he was successively elected municipal councillor of Massy (1983), general council or of the Essonne departement (1985) and Senator of the same department (1986, re-elected in 1995 and 2004). He also served as Minister for Vocational Education between 2000 and 2002, under Minister of National Education Jack Lang, in the cohabitation government of Lionel Jospin. He was part of the left-wing of the Socialist Party until the Reims Congress of 2008, at the outcome of which he left that party to found the Left Party with Marc Dolez, a member of the National Assembly. He served as the president of the party, and then as its co-president (along with Martine Billard) until August 2014.As leader of the Left Party, he joined the electoral coalition of the Left Front before the 2009 European elections, and was elected as a member of the European Parliament in the South-West constituency (reelected in 2014). He was the candidate of that coalition in the 2012 presidential election, in which he came in fourth, receiving 11.1% of the first-round votes. He founded the movement La France Insoumise (FI, "France Unbowed") in February 2016. He stood as a candidate in the 2017 presidential election "outside the frame of political parties", again coming in fourth, with 19.58% of the first-round votes. In June 2017 he became a member of the National Assembly for La France Insoumise after the following 2017 French legislative election, receiving 59.85% (in the second round) in the 4th constituency of the Bouches-du-Rhône department, entirely located in the city of Marseille.

Jean-Marie Le Pen

Jean-Marie Le Pen (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑ̃ ma.ʁi lə.pɛn]; born 20 June 1928) is a French politician who served as President of the National Front from 1972 to 2011. A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) since 2004, he had previously been elected to the same position between 1984 and 2003. He also served as Honorary President of the National Front from 2011 to 2018.

Born and raised as a Roman Catholic in La Trinité-sur-Mer, Le Pen first attended the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes then Dupuy-de-Lôme in Lorient. After being dismissed from it in April for indiscipline, he briefly attended the high school Jules-Simon in Vannes before being dismissed again for indiscipline. Le Pen finally graduated from Claude-Debussy high school in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1947. He then entered the faculty of law in Paris and graduated from it in 1949. After his time in the military, he studied political science and law at Panthéon-Assas University.

Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values, law and order and France's high rate of unemployment. His progression in the 1980s is known as the "lepénisation of spirits" due to its noticeable effect on mainstream political opinion. His controversial speeches and his integration into public life have made him a figure who polarizes opinion, considered as the "Devil of the Republic" among his opponents or as the "last samurai in politics" among his supporters.

His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become President of France have made him a major figure in French political life. His progress to the second round in the 2002 presidential election left its mark on French public life and the "21st of April" is now a frequently used expression in France. He is currently a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) and served as the Honorary President of the National Front from January 2011 to March 2018. He was expelled from the party by his daughter Marine Le Pen in 2015, after new controversial statements.

LGBT rights in Estonia

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Estonia face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity are legal in Estonia. Since 1 January 2016, same-sex couples may register their relationship as a cohabitation agreement, which gives them almost all the same legal protections available to opposite-sex couples. Nevertheless, same-sex couples are unable to marry or jointly adopt.

Estonia is considered, by most, to be the most liberal former-Soviet country when it comes to LGBT rights. Acceptance of LGBT people has grown significantly since the early 21st century, though there is a notable age gap, as younger people tend to be more tolerant and liberal, while older people tend to be more socially conservative.

Lionel Jospin

Lionel Jospin (French: [ljɔnɛl ʒɔspɛ̃]; born 12 July 1937) is a French politician. He served as prime minister of France from 1997 to 2002.

Jospin was the Socialist Party candidate for president of France in the elections of 1995 and 2002. In 1995 he was narrowly defeated in the final runoff election by Jacques Chirac. In 2002 he was eliminated in the first round after finishing behind both Chirac and the far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen. He then announced his retirement from politics.

Socialist Party (France)

The Socialist Party (French: Parti socialiste [paʁti sɔsjalist], PS) is a social-democratic political party in France and was, for decades, the largest party of the French centre-left. The PS used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic, along with the Republicans. The Socialist Party replaced the earlier French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) in 1969, and is currently led by First Secretary Olivier Faure. The PS is a member of the Party of European Socialists (PES), the Socialist International (SI) and the Progressive Alliance.

The PS first won power in 1981, when its candidate François Mitterrand was elected President of France in the 1981 presidential election. Under Mitterrand, the party achieved a governing majority in the National Assembly from 1981 to 1986 and again from 1988 to 1993. PS leader Lionel Jospin lost his bid to succeed Mitterrand as president in the 1995 presidential election against Rally for the Republic leader Jacques Chirac, but became prime minister in a cohabitation government after the 1997 parliamentary elections, a position Jospin held until 2002, when he was again defeated in the presidential election.

In 2007, the party's candidate for the presidential election, Ségolène Royal, was defeated by conservative UMP candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. Then, the Socialist party won most of regional and local elections and it won control of the Senate in 2011 for the first time in more than fifty years. On 6 May 2012, François Hollande, the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, was elected President of France, and the next month, the party won the majority in the National Assembly.

The PS also formed several figures who acted at the international level: Jacques Delors, who was the eighth President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1994 and the first person to serve three terms in that office, was from the Socialist Party, as well as Dominique Strauss-Kahn, who was the Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from 2007 to 2011, and Pascal Lamy, who was Director-General of the World Trade Organization from 2005 to 2013.The party had 42,300 members in 2016, down from 60,000 in 2014 and 173,486 members in 2012.

Wijetunga cabinet

The Wijetunga cabinet was the central government of Sri Lanka led by President D. B. Wijetunga between 1993 and 1994. It was formed in May 1993 after the assassination of Wijetunga's predecessor Ranasinghe Premadasa and it ended in November 1994 when Wijetunga chose not to contest in the 1994 presidential election. The Wijetunga cabinet saw Sri Lanka's first cohabitation government following the opposition People's Alliance's victory in the 1994 general election.

Édouard Balladur

Édouard Balladur (French: [edwaʁ baladyʁ]; born 2 May 1929) is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France under François Mitterrand from 29 March 1993 to 10 May 1995. He unsuccessfully ran for president in the 1995 French presidential election, coming in third place. At age 89, Balladur is currently the oldest living former French Prime Minister.

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